Curriculum: Foundations, Principles, and Issues / Edition 5

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New teachers and school administrators are often faced with the challenge of conceptualizing, developing, and evaluating curriculum. They need solid coverage of the philosophical, historical, psychological, and social foundations of curriculum. This book provides just that and more. Throughout this book, readers are engaged in considering the tension between postmodern thinking and modern thinking and how they are impacting curriculum deliberation, development, and implementation. Topics include: the field of curriculum, social and psychological foundations, development, design, evaluation, and much more. New and practicing teachers and school administrators.
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Editorial Reviews

A basic text for those studying curriculum development and planning, as well as a reference for teachers, supervisors, and administrators. Overviews foundations, principles, and issues in the field, combining coverage of both theory and practice, and presents various theories and paradigms, some competing. This third edition maintains curriculum tips, chapter-opening focus questions, and overview tables. Annotation c. by Book News, Inc., Portland, Or.
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780205592579
  • Publisher: Pearson
  • Publication date: 8/22/2008
  • Series: Alternative eText Formats Series
  • Edition description: Older Edition
  • Edition number: 5
  • Pages: 360
  • Sales rank: 904,947
  • Product dimensions: 8.10 (w) x 10.00 (h) x 0.80 (d)

Meet the Author

Allan C. Ornstein is a professor of education at St. John's University. He is a former Fulbright Hayes Scholar and has been a consultant for more than 60 different government and education agencies, including the American Federation of Teachers,the National Association of Secondary School Principals, and the Educational Testing Service. Dr. Ornstein has published more than 400 articles and 55 books, recently including Contemporary Issues in Curriculum, Fifth Edition; Class Counts:Education, Inequality, and the Shrinking Middle Class; Educational Administration: Concepts and Practices, Fifth Edition; and F oundations of Education, Tenth Edition. Dr. Ornstein's philosophical, social, and economic views are best represented by his recent books, Class Counts and Wealth vs Work: How 1% Victimize 99%, both written as trade books.

Francis P. Hunkins was a professor of education specializing in general curriculum, curriculum development, curriculum issues, and curriculum theory in the College of Education at the University of Washington for 35 years. Since retiring, Dr. Hunkins has remained active in writing educational textbooks. As a past president, he also remains active in the Association for Teaching and Curriculum.

During his tenure at the University of Washington, Dr. Hunkins served as chairperson of the area of curriculum and instruction (1995—2000). He also consulted widely with school systems around the country. He was a visiting scholar at Monash University in Australia twice and was also a visiting scholar at the Hong Kong Institute of Education in 1999.

Over his career, he has written 21 educational textbooks and numerous articles for educational journals. He makes his home with his wife, Dr. Patricia A. Hammill, in the Seattle area.

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Table of Contents

Curriculum Tips


1. The Field of Curriculum

Curriculum Approaches

- Behavioral Approach

- Managerial Approach

- The Systems Approach

- Academic Approach

- Humanistic Approach

- Reconceptualists

Definition of Curriculum

- The Challenges of Definition

- Background Issues for Defining the Field

- Fundamental Questions

Foundations of Curriculum

- Major Foundations: Philosophy, History, Psychology, and Sociology

Domains of Curriculum

- Curriculum Development

- Curriculum Design

- Other Domains of Curriculum

- The Planned and Unplanned Curriculum

Theory and Practice

- From Theory to Practice

- Curriculum Certification

The Roles of the Curriculum Worker

- Responsibilities of the Curriculum Worker

- The Role of the Student

- The Teacher and the Curriculum

- The Principal and the Curriculum



2. Philosophical Foundations of Curriculum

Philosophy and Curriculum

- Philosophy and the Curriculum Worker

- Philosophy as a Curriculum Source

Major Philosophies

- Idealism

- Realism

- Pragmatism

- Existentialism

Educational Philosophies

- Perennialism

- Essentialism

- Progressivism

- Reconstructionism


3. Historical Foundations of Curriculum

The Colonial Period: 1642-1776

- Three Colonial Regions

- Colonial Schools

- Old Textbooks, Old Readers

The National Period: 1776-1850

- Rush: Science, Progress, and Free Education

- Jefferson: Education for Citizenship

- Webster: Schoolmaster and Cultural Nationalism

- McGuffey: The Readers and American Virtues

Nineteenth-Century European Educators

- Pestalozzi: General and Special Methods

- Froebel: The Kindergarten Movement

- Herbart: Moral and Intellectual Development

- Spencer: Utilitarian and Scientific Education

The Rise of Universal Education: 1820-1920

- Monitorial Schools

- Common Schools

- Secondary Schools

- The Academy

- The High School

The Transitional Period: 1893-1918

- Reaffirming the Traditional Curriculum

- Three Committees

- Marris and Eliot: Two Conservative Reformers

Curriculum as a Field Is Born: 1918-1949

- Bobbitt and Charters: Behaviorism and Scientific Principles

- Kilpatrick: The Progressive Influence

- The Twenty-Sixth Yearbook

- Rugg and Caswell: The Development Period

- Tyler: Basic Principles

- Goodlad: School Reform

- Current Focus


4. Psychological Foundations of Curriculum


- Connectionism

- Thornedike’s Influence: Tyler, Taba, and Bruner

- Classical Conditioning

- Operant Conditioning

- Acquiring New Operants

Cognitive Psychology

- Cognitive Perspective

- The Montessouri Method

- The Theories of Jean Piaget

- Piaget’s Influence: Tyler, Taba, Bruner, and Kohlberg

- The Theories of Lev Vygotsky

- Focus on Thinking and Learning

Emotional Intelligence

- Constructivism

- Brain Research and Learning

- Problem Solving and Creative Learning

- Cognition and Curriculum

Phenomenology and Humanistic Psychology

- Gestalt Theory

- Maslow: Self-Actualizing Persons

- Rogers: Nondirective and Therapeutic Learning

- Phenomenology and Curriculum


5. Social Foundations of Curriculum

Society, Education, and Schooling

- Society and American Modal Personality

- Social and Developmental Theories

Post Modern Family

- New Family Types

- New Mores, New Customs

Sex Roles and Sex Differences

- The Feminization of Schools

- From Dick and Jane to Harry Potter

Moral Education

- Moral Conduct and Controversy

- Moral Knowledge

- Moral Character

Do Schools Make a Difference?

- The Coleman Report

- The Jencks Study

- Unaccounted Factors: Luck

- International Educational Achievement (IEA) Studies

Learning and earning: 1980s and 1990s

- Attitude, Achievement, and Family Capital

- NAEP/State Standards

- Another Option



6. Curriculum Design

Connecting Conceptions

Components of Design

- Sources of Curriculum Design

- Conceptual Framework: Horizontal and Vertical organization

Design Dimension Considerations

- Scope

- Sequence

- Continuity


- Articulation

- Balance

Representative Curriculum Deigns

- Subject-Centered Designs

- Learner-Centered Designs

- Problem-Centered Designs


7. Curriculum Development

Technical-Scientific Approach

- History of Technical-Scientific Approach

Nontechnical-Nonscientific Approach

- The Deliberation Model

Enacting Curriculum Development

- Establishing Curriculum Teams

- Enacting the Process

-- Generating Aims

-- Creating Goals

-- Creating Objectives

-- Means of Generating Aims, Goals, and Objectives

-- Guidelines for Formulating Educatinal Objectives

Taxonomic Levels

- A Totalizing Taxonomy

- Selecting Curriculum Content

- Selecting Curriculum Experiences

- Selecting Educational Environments

- The Final Synthesis

Participants in Developing Curriculum

- Political Arena Participants

- School Arena Participants

- Participants Outside the School District

- Other Participants


8. Curriculum Implementation

The Nature of Implementation

-Relationship of Implementation to Planning

- Incrementalism

- Communication

- Support

Implementation as a Change Process

- A Theory of Change

- Change Typologies

- Resistance to Change

- Improving Receptivity to Change

Curriculum Implementation Models

- Overcoming Resistance to Change Model

- Organizational Development Model

- Concerns-Based Adoption Model

- Organizational Parts, Units, and Loops

- Educational Change Model

Roles of the Key Players

- Students

- Teachers and Initiators

- Supervisors

- Principals as Initiators

- Curriculum Directors

- Curriculum Consultants

- Parents and Community Members


9. Curriculum Evaluation

The Nature and Purpose of Evaluation

- Curriculum

- Cognition

- Observation

- Interpretation

- Evaluation Questions

- Definitions of Evaluation

- Measurement versus Evaluation

Approaches to Evaluation

- Scientific and Humanistic Approaches to Evaluation

- Intrinsic and Pay-Off Evaluation

- Formative and Summative Evaluation

Scientific-Positivistic Evaluation Models

- Stake’s Congruence-Contingency Model

- Stufflebeam’s Context, Input, Process, Product Model

Humanistic and Naturalistic Evaluation Models

- Action Research

- Eisner’s Connoisseurship Evaluation Model

- Illuminative Evaluation Model

Practices and Issues of Evaluation

- Phases of Evaluation

- Alternative Assessment

- High-Stakes Assessment

- Norm-Referenced and Criterion-Referenced Measurement

- Human Issues of Evaluation

Roles Played in Evaluation

- Students

- Teachers

- Evaluators

- Consultants

- Parents and Community Members


III. Issues of Curriculum

10. Curriculum Issues and Trends

Reinventing Education

- Thinking Outside the Box

- Reinventing School Culture

- Charter Schools, Contract Schools

- The Push for an Enlightened World Cultures Curriculum

The Politics of Sociology of Education

- The Push for the Narrow, Bland Curriculum

- Multicultural Education

- Pedagogy as Political Process

Moral and Spiritual Education

Standards and Testing

- The Politicization of Standards and Assessment

Technology, Media, and Curriculum

- Media Control of Information

Looking Forward

- Determining. Anticipating, Generating Evolving Futures

- Swimming Against the Current

- Swimming With the Current

- Nurturing, Managing, Evolving Futures

- Citizen, Educator Participation in Dynamic Evolving Futures

- Generating Breakthroughs




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