Cyanobacterial Toxins of Drinking Water Supplies

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Overview

The contamination of both drinking and recreational water supplies by cyanobacteria is increasingly a cause for concern worldwide. While contamination causes livestock deaths with relative frequency, acute poisoning is rare in humans. However, there is growing apprehension over the possible role of cylindrospermopsins and microcystins in gastrointestinal and liver cancer.

Cyanobacterial Toxins of Drinking Water Supplies provides an articulate account of the biology, chemistry, toxicology, and human health implications of cylindrospermopsins and microcystins, and their occurrence in water supplies. It discusses effective methods of prevention, mitigation, and remediation of cyanobacterial blooms in reservoirs. The book presents novel and traditional approaches to water treatment for the elimination of these toxins. Written by a renowned expert who plays an instrumental role in revising the World Health Organization’s drinking water guidelines for cyanotoxins, the book uses the field’s most relevant findings and current examples to support a practical approach for assessing the potential risks and costs from toxic cyanobacterial blooms in water supplies.

Cyanobacterial Toxins of Drinking Water Supplies provides a lucid analysis of present and emerging issues in the ecology, safety, and treatment of drinking water for in environmental agencies, researchers, and policymakers. It is an authoritative resource for professionals in drinking and recreational water management, water supply utilities, analytical laboratories, and public health offices.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780415318792
  • Publisher: Taylor & Francis
  • Publication date: 12/28/2004
  • Pages: 296
  • Product dimensions: 6.10 (w) x 9.30 (h) x 0.90 (d)

Table of Contents

Preface
Acknowledgements
Introduction
References

TOXIC CYANOBACTERIA AND THEIR IDENTIFICATION
The Origins of Cyanobacteria
Cyanobacterial Organisms
Classification and Nomenclature
Molecular Taxonomy
References
TOXIN CHEMISTRY AND BIOSYNTHESIS
Chemistry of Cylindrospermopsins
Synthesis of Cylindrospermopsin
Biosynthesis of Cylindrospermopsin
Chemistry of Microcystins
Synthesis of Microcystins
Biosynthesis of Microcystins: Biochemical Approaches
Molecular Genetic Approaches
References
CYANOBACTERIAL ECOLOGY
Cyanobacteria in Freshwater
Light
Buoyancy
Nutrients: Phosphorus
Nitrogen
Distribution of Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii(Nostocales)
Ecology of Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii
Cylindrospermopsin Production by Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii
Cylindrospermopsin Production by Other Cyanobacterial Species
Production of Other Toxins by Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii
Distribution of Microcystis aeruginosa
Distribution of Other Microcystin-Producing Species of Cyanobacteria
Ecology of Microcystis aeruginosa
Ecology of Planktothrix Species and Anabaena flos-aquae
Ecology of Microcystin Production
Nodularia spumigena and Nodularin Production
References
CYANOBACTERIAL POISONING OF LIVESTOCK AND PEOPLE
Livestock and Wildlife Poisoning by Cyanobacterial Toxins
Human Poisoning by Cyanobacterial Toxins
Waterborne Poisoning in Brazil
Gastrointestinal Illness Associated with Cyanobacteria in the US
Gastroenteritis Associated with Cyanobacteria in Africa
Liver Damage Associated with Microcystis aeruginosa in Australia
Recreational Poisoning in the UK and US
The Dialysis Tragedy in Brazil
Palm Island Poisoning by Cylindrospermopsin in Australia
Conclusions
References
CYLINDROSPERMOPSIN TOXICITY
Toxicity of Cylindrospermopsin: Whole-Animal Studies
Oral Toxicity of Cylindrospermopsin: Studies of the No Observed Adverse Effect Level
Cylindrospermopsin Uptake and Excretion
Mechanism of Cylindrospermopsin Toxicity
Inhibition of Protein Synthesis
Cytochrome P450 in Cylindrospermopsin Toxicity
DNA Damage, Chromosome Damage, and Carcinogenicity
Micronucleus Formation in the Presence of Cylindrospermopsin
Whole-Animal Carcinogenicity
Assessment of Carcinogenicity
Teratogenicity, Immunotoxicity, and Reproductive Injury
References
MICROCYSTIN TOXICITY
Acute Toxicity of Microcystin to Rodents
Subchronic and Chronic Toxicity
Determination of the No Observed Adverse Effect Level for Microcystin in Mice
Large-Animal Toxicity
Determination of the No Observed Adverse Effect Level of Microcystin in Pigs
Toxicokinetics of Microcystin
Conjugation and Excretion of Microcystin
Studies with Isolated Hepatocytes
Mechanisms of Microcystin Toxicity
Microcystin and Phosphatase Inhibition
Cytoskeletal Effects
Nuclear Actions of Microcystin
Microcystin and Apoptosis
Cell-Cycle Effects of Microcystin
Tumor Promotion by Microcystin
Carcinogenesis, Liver Damage, and Cancer in China
Microcystin: Teratogenesis and Reproductive Toxicity
Conclusion
References
RISK AND SAFETY OF DRINKING WATER: ARE CYANOBACTERIAL TOXINS IN DRINKING WATER A HEALTH RISK?
Risk Assessment and Legislation
What Is a Risk, and How Can It Be Assessed?
Risk Management
Risk and Chemical Safety in Drinking Water — Cyanobacterial Toxins as Toxic Chemicals
The Tolerable Daily Intake
Determination of a Guideline Value for Cylindrospermopsin
The Tolerable Daily Intake and Drinking Water Guideline Value for Microcystin
Cylindrospermopsins and Microcystins as Carcinogens?
Cylindrospermopsin — Is It a Carcinogen?
Microcystins and Nodularins — Are They Carcinogens?
Chronic Lifetime Dose, Intermittent Acute Doses, and Recreational Exposures
References
MONITORING OF RESERVOIRS FOR TOXIC CYANOBACTERIA AND ANALYSIS OF NUTRIENTS IN WATER
Monitoring Sites
Monitoring Frequency
Parameters for Monitoring — Predictive Parameters
Parameters for Monitoring — Identity and Number of Cyanobacterial Cells
Sampling
Cell Counting, Measurement, and Chlorophyll-a Analysis
Chlorophyll-a Analysis
Fluorescence Measurement of Cyanobacterial Concentration in Reservoirs
Monitoring by Genetic Methods
References
DETECTION AND ANALYSIS OF CYLINDROSPERMOPSINS AND MICROCYSTINS
Toxin Concentration
In Vivo Rodent Toxicity Assays
Cylindrospermopsin Bioassay and Analysis
Cell-Based and Cell-Free Toxicity Measurement of Cylindrospermopsin
ELISA of Cylindrospermopsin
Instrument-Based Techniques for Cylindrospermopsin
High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC)
Microcystins and Nodularins: Bioassay and Analysis
Sample Collection and Handling for Microcystins
Bioassays for Microcystins and Nodularins
ELISA for Microcystins and Nodularins
Protein Phosphatase Inhibition Assay for Microcystins and Nodularins
HPLC for Microcystins and Nodularins
Microcystins and Nodularins in Tissue Samples
Analytical Problems and Challenges
References
PREVENTION, MITIGATION, AND REMEDIATION OF CYANOBACTERIAL BLOOMS IN RESERVOIRS
Nutrient Reduction
Phosphorus Reduction
Catchment Management
Nitrogen Reduction
Reservoir Remediation
Destratification
Flow
Phosphorus Precipitation, Sediment Capping, and Dredging
Algicides
Biological Remediation
References
WATER TREATMENT
Processes for Removing Cyanobacterial Toxins from Drinking Water Supplies
Water Filtration, Coagulation, and Clarification
Activated Carbon
Ozonation and Chlorination
Titanium Dioxide Photocatalysis
Slow Sand Filtration
Membrane Filtration
Conclusions
References
EMERGING ISSUES
Ecological Issues
Health Issues
Water Treatment
References
INDEX

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