Cyberpower and National Securityby Franklin D Kramer, Stuart H Starr, Larry Wentz
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The cyber domain is undergoing extraordinary changes that present both exceptional opportunities to and major challenges for users of cyberspace. The challenges arise from the malevolent actors who use cyberspace and the many security vulnerabilities that plague this sphere. Exploiting opportunities and overcoming challenges will require a balanced body of knowledge on the cyber domain. Cyberpower and National Security assembles a group of experts and discusses pertinent issues in five areas.
The first section provides a broad foundation and overview of the subject by identifying key policy issues, establishing a common vocabulary, and proposing an initial version of a theory of cyberpower. The second section identifies and explores possible changes in cyberspace over the next fifteen years by assessing cyber infrastructure and security challenges. The third section analyzes the potential impact of changes in cyberspace on the military and informational levers of power. The fourth section addresses the extent to which changes in cyberspace serve to empower key entities such as transnational criminals, terrorists, and nation-states. The final section examines key institutional factors, which include issues concerning governance, legal dimensions, critical infrastructure protection, and organization.
Cyberpower and National Security frames the key issues concerned and identifies the important questions involved in building the human capacity to address cyber issues, balancing civil liberties with national security considerations, and developing the international partnerships needed to address cyber challenges. With more than two dozen contributors, Cyberpower and National Security covers it all.
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Numerous authors in the field of computer technology, protocols, and cybersecurity have contributed to this book. Cyberpower and national security are presented as interlinked. The book begins by discussing cybersecurity policy recommendations, defines the problem of cyberspace to cyberpower, and offers a theory of what constitutes cyberpower. Part II discusses the elements that comprise "cyberspace" - the hardware, architecture, trends of Internet users, arising security issues, the trending issues & the future, and the biotec revolution. Part III discusses why "cyberspace" is an environment, how the military uses cyberpower, and what is the best deterrent against cyber attacks. Part IV discusses information as an asset, the information revolution, how its protection is important and cyber power can enforce security of it. Part V discusses cyber crime cases, how terrorism plays a role in cyber crime, and how "nation-states" like China systematically and intentionally have organized ranks of hackers to steal technology secrets and use them for profit. Part VI discusses the difficulty governing the Internet, International laws, U.S. government efforts to protect our critical infrastructure, and the Presidential Perspective on cyberpower. This is another textbook that is following the trend in the militarization of the Internet. I dislike the term, "cyberspace" as a "place" that has been characterized as a battle zone. The military's stance on cybersecurity is naturally oriented to more than just defense since it has been proven (in the pudding) insufficient time and time again. The notion that a strong defense is the best offense is being abandoned and an offensive stance is now considered to be the only option to prevent future intrusions. This book lays out the playing field and calls for governance and rules. Still, the fact that the entire U.S. government switched over to Microsoft's proprietary (and therefore unknown and hidden) operating system (for better interoperability) versus open source and customizable Unix or Linux is one of the constants that arises when examining the huge increase in cyber intrusion by foreign entities & governments. If you live in Moldova you can participate in software piracy without consequence. You can also reverse engineer a Microsoft operating system and exploit (zero-day) any vulnerabilities you may find. Your network of other hackers will know almost immediately yet it will take Microsoft weeks to months to years to write code for "patches" to fix the vulnerability. With open source, anyone can test for vulnerabilities and the "fix" turnaround time is so fast. The custom in-house operating system also protects government agencies from intrusion since hackers cannot reverse engineer it since they don't have a copy. I think there is an absolute solution. Return to the time when a computer was an essential part of doing business. I will venture that a big part of the reason why companies are outsourcing jobs & the recession is due to the extra costs of computerization, privacy protection, digital forensic experts, cybersecurity advisors etc. Added to that is the cost of actual war. There is no such thing as Internet security - there is only the illusion of it. Anyone with an Internet interfact or even a USB drive is vulnerable to malware, exposure of trade secrets, and sabotage including our electrical grid, our nuclear power plants, our water filtration plants etc. This book just add to the fear mongering so that the Internet will be viewed as the new target for the military in a never ending war not on land, sea, or air, but in the nether regions of cables, personal PCs, servers, and networks. I think in recent months the public has become more aware of the extent to which the U.S. government has gone to "protect" our infrastructure from government spying on & collecting data for mining purposes on all U.S. citizens to the Stuxnet Iranian debacle. Clearly, the government is on the offense and is using the Internet as a weapon.