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Aromatics are among the earliest commodities of prehistoric trade, and evidence of spices and perfumed oils has been found at numerous archaeological sites. Interest in their application to diet and pharmaceutics, expressed by classical writers and developed by medieval Islam, has continued in many traditional societies, and modern medicine has begun to agree.
It was in search of Eastern spices and drugs that the Portuguese opened up the sea route to India and the East Indies. Columbus sailed westward in search of another route to the Indies and discovered a New World with aromatics of its own. Colonial powers fought, enslaved, and killed to control this rich trade.
Dangerous Tastes offers a fresh perspective on these exotic substances and the roles they have played over the centuries. The author shows how each region became part of a worldwide network of trade -- with local consequences ranging from disaster to triumph.
The excavators of Frankhthi cave, near Portokheli in southern Greece, a site that was inhabited for many thousands of years in prehistoric times, found a tiny coriander fruit in a layer dated to the seventh millennium BC. If this was really something that the ancient cave-dwellers might have used—and not a red herring, dropped by one of the excavators—it makes coriander one of the very oldest spices in human use, quite as old as the ginger and sugar cane whose prehistory is traced above.
Coriandrum sativum is certainly native to Greece and the eastern Mediterranean. It was familiar in Egypt in 1352 BC, for it is one of the foodstuffs found in Tutankhamen's tomb. As korianna its small dry fruits were listed in the Linear B tablets, in Greece around 1300 BC. Coriander played a major role in ancient Greek and in Roman cuisine, and has never ceased to be popular around the Mediterranean.
Its popularity has spread far eastwards and westwards. We have already seen that it was introduced to India, probably at the time when the old Persian Empire stretched to the Indus valley. It advanced from there to south-east Asia, to the extent that coriander now seems a typical Indian spice and a typical south-east Asian herb. By way of Persia, coriander was also introduced to China. Later Chinese tradition suggested that this happened at the moment when Zhang Qian opened up the silk road, in fact that he personally brought coriander back with him in 125 BC. This is unlikely, not only historically—he had other things on his mind than coriander during his year-long imprisonment among the Huns and his lucky escape—but also because the earliest mention of coriander in Chinese texts is dated to the sixth century AD. In due course the Spaniards planted coriander in their American colonies: cilantro, as it is better known in America, is now one of the typical flavours of Mexican cuisine.
It is an extremely versatile aromatic. Its leaves, garnishing meat dishes and stews, give an unmistakable pungent aroma—'soapy', perhaps, to those who cannot get the taste for it. Its spicy roots are specially useful in Thai cooking. Its tiny black fruits (often called 'seeds') are the most powerful part, described as 'cooling' by traditional pharmacologists in spite of their spicy heat.
|The phoenix's nest||10|
|Exports from Paradise||20|
|Balsam of Mecca||33|
|The Spice Islands||49|
|Nutmeg and mace||53|
|The aromatic shore||64|
|The cinnamon mountains||73|
|Rhubarb and licorice||79|
|Ginseng and star anise||80|
|The land of pepper||83|
|Putchuk or costus||85|
|Zedoary and zerumbet||100|
|Amomum and cardamom||102|
|The rarest of spices||107|
|Asafoetida or hing||110|
|Cargoes of complacence||123|
|Coriander or cilantro||126|
|Cumin, caraway, anise, ajowan and nigella||127|
|'I have found cinnamon!'||140|
|Uchu, rocoto and ulupica||141|
|Tabasco pepper and Scotch bonnet||151|
|Balsam of Peru||153|
|In quest of spicery||155|
|Glossary of spice names||165|