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Overview

The trial of the "German doctors" exposed atrocities of Nazi medical science and led to the Nuremberg Code governing human experimentation. In Japan, Unit 731 carried out hideous experiments on captured Chinese and downed American pilots. In the United States, stories linger of biological experimentation during the Korean War. Dark Medicine looks at the sinister medical research conducted during and after World War II. The book describes this research, how it was brought to light, and the rationalizations of ...
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Dark Medicine: Rationalizing Unethical Medical Research

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Overview

The trial of the "German doctors" exposed atrocities of Nazi medical science and led to the Nuremberg Code governing human experimentation. In Japan, Unit 731 carried out hideous experiments on captured Chinese and downed American pilots. In the United States, stories linger of biological experimentation during the Korean War. Dark Medicine looks at the sinister medical research conducted during and after World War II. The book describes this research, how it was brought to light, and the rationalizations of those who perpetrated and benefited from it. It looks at the response to the revelations of this horrific research and its implications for present-day medicine and ethics. Finally, it offers lessons about human experimentation in an age of human embryo research and genetic engineering.
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Editorial Reviews

Choice Reviews
. . . a very useful group of essays looking at the abuse of medical research in wartime Japan and Germany, as well as in postwar America . . . Summing Up: Recommended. Lower-level undergraduates and above.
—J. H. Barker, Professor of Philosophy, Dean of the College of Arts and Sciences, Converse College
New Scientist
. . . a fascinating and timely new book . . . The take-home message of the 16 contributors to Dark Medicine is that a nation's books on past episodes of unethical practice should never be fully closed, and that ethical committees in science and medicine should never neglect the historical perspective of their own and other countries.
JAMA
The wisdom shared in Dark Medicine offers thoughtful guidance on how researchers should go about this harvest.
Choice

"Lafleur and his coeditors have assembled a very useful group of essays looking at the abuse of medical research in wartime Japan and Germany, as well as in postwar America.... Recommended." —Choice

New Scientist

"A fascinating and timely new book... The take-home message of the 16 contributors to Dark Medicine is that a nation's books on past episodes of unethical practice should never be fully closed, and that ethical committees in science and medicine should never neglect the historical perspective of their own and other countries." —New Scientist

Psychiatric Services APA
"... important issues are raised that should be considered by everyone who is interested in the history and ethics of medicine and medical research." —Charles W. Lidz, Ph.D., August 2009

— Charles W. Lidz, Ph.D.

Psychiatric Services
"[T]his volume raises some of the most profound issues in the history of medical research. ... important issues are raised that should be considered by everyone who is interested in the history and ethics of medicine and medical research." —Charles W. Lidz, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Psychiatric Services, August 1, 2009

— Charles W. Lidz, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester

National Catholics Bioethics Qtly
Most of the articles were noteworthy insofar as they provoked the reader to ruminate on the underlying similarities between rationalizations. Since this is the first book of its kind, it provides a handy starting point for scholars working in bioethics and, in particular, research ethics. Each article is well documented with references, and the collection includes helpful introductory and concluding essays.—Stephen Napier, National Catholic Bioethics Center, National Catholics Bioethics Qtly, Winter 2008

— Stephen Napier, National Catholic Bioethics Center

National Catholics Bioethics Quarterly
"Most of the articles were noteworthy insofar as they provoked the reader to ruminate on the underlying similarities between rationalizations. Since this is the first book of its kind, it provides a handy starting point for scholars working in bioethics and, in particular, research ethics. Each article is well documented with references, and the collection includes helpful introductory and concluding essays." —Stephen Napier, National Catholic Bioethics Center, National Catholics Bioethics Quarterly, Winter 2008

— Stephen Napier, National Catholic Bioethics Center

Psychiatric Services - Charles W. Lidz

"... important issues are raised that should be considered by everyone who is interested in the history and ethics of medicine and medical research." —Charles W. Lidz, Ph.D., August 2009

Daniel Callahan

"A great deal has been written in recent years about human subject research. This book is different and invaluable. Its focus is at once historical and international, bringing together commentators and scholars from a number of countries and a variety of disciplines. Human subject research raises one of the basic moral problems of modern medicine: in trying to do research to save the lives of the sick, how do we protect those whom we must use to carry out the research? This book deals richly and directly with a history of human subject research that has had many dark moments. This book will help us remember what many would prefer to forget." —Daniel Callahan, Director, International Program, The Hastings Center

National Catholics Bioethics Qtly - Stephen Napier

"Most of the articles were noteworthy insofar as they provoked the reader to ruminate
on the underlying similarities between rationalizations. Since this is the first book of its kind, it provides a handy starting point for scholars working in bioethics and, in particular, research ethics. Each article is well documented with references, and the collection includes helpful introductory and concluding essays." —Stephen Napier, National Catholic Bioethics Center, National Catholics Bioethics Qtly, Winter 2008

From the Publisher
"A great deal has been written in recent years about human subject research. This book is different and invaluable. Its focus is at once historical and international, bringing together commentators and scholars from a number of countries and a variety of disciplines. Human subject research raises one of the basic moral problems of modern medicine: in trying to do research to save the lives of the sick, how do we protect those whom we must use to carry out the research? This book deals richly and directly with a history of human subject research that has had many dark moments. This book will help us remember what many would prefer to forget." —Daniel Callahan, Director, International Program, The Hastings Center
Choice

"Lafleur and his coeditors have assembled a very useful group of essays looking at the abuse of medical research in wartime Japan and Germany, as well as in postwar America.... Recommended." —Choice

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780253116802
  • Publisher: Indiana University Press
  • Publication date: 7/4/2007
  • Series: Bioethics and the Humanities
  • Sold by: Barnes & Noble
  • Format: eBook
  • Pages: 280
  • File size: 506 KB

Meet the Author

William R. LaFleur is the E. Dale Saunders Professor of Japanese Studies at the University of Pennsylvania and author of Liquid Life: Abortion and Buddhism in Japan.

Gernot Böhme recently retired as Professor of Philosophy at the Technical University of Darmstadt in Germany. His books in English include Coping with Science and Ethics in Context: The Art of Dealing with Serious Questions.

Susumu Shimazono is Professor in the Department of Religious Studies at the University of Tokyo and serves on the Japanese prime minister's advisory panel on bioethics.
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Table of Contents


Preface     ix
Acknowledgments     xi
Introduction: The Knowledge Tree and Its Double Fruit   William R. LaFleur     1
The Gruesome Past and Lessons Not Yet Learned
Rationalizing Unethical Medical Research: Taking Seriously the Case of Viktor von Weizsacker   Gernot Bohme     15
Medical Research, Morality, and History: The German Journal Ethik and the Limits of Human Experimentation   Andreas Frewer     30
Experimentation on Humans and Informed Consent: How We Arrived Where We Are   Rolf Winau     46
The Silence of the Scholars   Benno Muller-Hill     57
The Ethics of Evil: The Challenge and the Lessons of Nazi Medical Experiments   Arthur L. Caplan     63
Unit 731 and the Human Skulls Discovered in 1989: Physicians Carrying Out Organized Crimes   Kei-ichi Tsuneishi     73
Biohazard: Unit 731 in Postwar Japanese Politics of National "Forgetfulness"   Frederick R. Dickinson     85
Biological Weapons: The United States and the Korean War   G. Cameron Hurst III     105
Experimental Injury: Wound Ballistics and Aviation Medicine in Mid-century America   Susan Lindee     121
Stumbling Toward Bioethics: Human Experiments Policy and the Early Cold War   Jonathan D. Moreno     138
The Conflicted Present and the Worrisome Future
Toward an Ethics of Iatrogenesis   Renee C. Fox     149
Strategies for Survival versus Accepting Impermanence: Rationalizing Brain Death and Organ Transplantation Today   Tetsuo Yamaori     165
The Age of a "Revolutionized Human Body" and the Right to Die   Yoshihiko Komatsu     180
Why We Must Be Prudent in Research Using Human Embryos: Differing Views of Human Dignity   Susumu Shimazono     201
Eugenics, Reproductive Technologies, and the Feminist Dilemma in Japan   Miho Ogino     223
Refusing Utopia's Bait: Research, Rationalizations, and Hans Jonas   William R. LaFleur     233
List of Contributors     247
Index     253
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