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"The best Darwin anthology on the market" (Stephen Jay Gould, Harvard) has just become better, in this newly revised version of the now classic Norton Critical Edition, first published in 1970.
The impact of Charles Darwin’s work on Western civilization has been broad and deep. As much as anyone in the modern era, he changed human thought, and his influence is still felt in virtually all aspects of our lives. This new edition, larger and more varied than the previous ones, includes more of Darwin's own work and also presents the most recent research and scholarship on all aspects of Darwin’s legacy. The biological sciences, as well as social thought, philosophy, ethics, religion, and literature, have all been shaped and reshaped by evolutionary concepts.
Excerpts from the most important books and articles of recent years confirm this Darwinian heritage. New work by Richard Dawkins, Edward O. Wilson, Kevin Padian, Eugene C. Scott, Steven Pinker, Daniel Dennett, Michael Ruse, Frans de Waal, Noretta Koertge, George C. Williams, George Levine, Stephen Jay Gould, Gillian Beer, Ernst Mayr, and many others illuminates this exciting intellectual history. A wide-ranging new introduction by the editor provides context and coherence to this rich body of engaging material, much of which will be shaping human thought well into the new century.
This edition will be useful to scientists and historians alike: "The Norton Darwin explains Darwinian evolution and illustrates the social and intellectual conflicts of the past two centuries better than any other book that I am aware of." (Charles Taylor, Professor of Biology, Ecology, and Evolution, University of California, Los Angeles)
And it will be of great value to the humanities and social sciences as well: "The edition provides the sharpest and most exciting access to Darwin we have ever had. It shows all of us interested in the heart of our intellectual heritage how that heritage is sustained, manipulated, and honored." (James R. Kincaid, Aerol Arnold Professor of English, University of Southern California)
A Selected Bibliography and an Index are included.

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Editorial Reviews

New edition of a volume that concerns the importance, and enduring relevance, of Darwin and evolution. New material indicates the voluminous scientific research that is currently being done in every field of evolutionary study. Topics include Darwin on changing the mind, Darwin's life, scientific thought just before Darwin, selections from Darwin's work, his influence on science, evolutionary and religious theory, Darwin and the literary mind, and Darwinian patterns in social thought, philosophy and ethics. Edited by Appleman (emeritus, Indiana U.). Annotation c. Book News, Inc., Portland, OR (
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780393958492
  • Publisher: Norton, W. W. & Company, Inc.
  • Publication date: 12/28/2000
  • Series: Norton Critical Editions Series
  • Edition description: Third Edition
  • Edition number: 3
  • Pages: 720
  • Sales rank: 241,584
  • Product dimensions: 5.60 (w) x 9.30 (h) x 1.00 (d)

Meet the Author

Charles Darwin

Naturalist Charles Darwin (1809-1882) is the father of evolution. His groundbreaking The Origin of Species argued that all species of life have descended over time from common ancestors, and proposed the scientific theory that this branching pattern of evolution resulted from a process that he called natural selection. As much as anyone in the modern era, Darwin has changed the course of human thought.

Philip Appleman is Distinguished Professor Emeritus at Indiana University, where he was a founding editor of Victorian Studies. He is the author of a book on overpopulation, The Silent Explosion and coeditor of 1859: Entering an Age of Crisis. He has also published three novels and several volumes of poetry.


Robert Charles Darwin was born in Shrewsbury, England, on February 12, 1809, into a wealthy and highly respected family. His grandfather, Erasmus Darwin, was a doctor and the author of many works, including his well-known Zoonomia, or the Laws of Organic Life, which suggested a theory of evolution. Charles's father, Robert Waring Darwin, was also a prosperous doctor; his mother, Susannah, was the daughter of Josiah Wedgwood, founder of the renowned Wedgwood potteries. The Darwins and the Wedgwoods had close and long-standing relations, and Charles was to marry his cousin, Emma Wedgwood.

In 1825 at age sixteen, Darwin matriculated at Edinburgh University to study medicine. There, his early interest in natural history developed, and he studied particularly crustaceans, sea creatures, and beetles. Nauseated by the sight of blood, however, he decided that medicine was not his vocation, left Edinburgh in 1827 and entered Christ's College, Cambridge University, with no clear sense of possible vocation, theology itself being an option. At Cambridge he became friends with J. S. Henslow, a clergyman who was also professor of botany. Although Darwin was to graduate from Cambridge with a B.A. in theology, he spent much time with Henslow, developing his interest in natural science. It was Henslow who secured a position for Darwin on an exploratory expedition aboard the HMS Beagle.

In December 1831, the year he graduated from Cambridge, Darwin embarked upon a five-year voyage to Africa and South America, acting as a companion to the captain, Robert Fitzroy. Darwin spent more time in land expeditions than at sea, where he was always seasick, but during the long voyages he continued his collecting and, cramped in his tiny cabin, meticulously wrote up his ideas. Several years after his return, at the time of the birth of his first son, William, Darwin fell ill. It is conjectured that while in South America he had contracted Chagas's disease, but whatever the cause, the effects were debilitating for the rest of Darwin's life.

By the time he returned to London in 1835, many of his letters, some to scientists like Charles Lyell and Adam Sedgwick, had been read before scientific societies, and he was already a well known and respected naturalist. His first published book, an account of his voyage aboard the Beagle, entitled Journal of Researches, appeared in 1839 and was widely popular. He married the same year; soon after, the family moved from London to a secluded house at Down, in Kent, where Darwin wrote initial sketches of his theory and then preparing himself for the full exposition, spent eight years writing a detailed set of definitive monographs on barnacles.

In 1858, when Darwin was halfway through writing his book, "Natural Selection," A. R. Wallace sent him a paper called, "On the Tendency of Varieties to Depart Indefinitely from the Original Type." In language similar to Darwin's own, Wallace laid out the argument for natural selection. Wallace asked Darwin to help get the paper published -- obviously an alarming development for a man who had given twenty years of his life to getting the argument for natural selection right. Darwin's scientific friends advised him to gather materials giving evidence of his priority but to have the Wallace paper read before the Linnaean Society, along with a brief account of his own ideas. Immediately after the reading, Darwin began work on his "abstract" of "Natural Selection." The result was On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, published in 1859. Despite the controversy it generated, it was an immense success and went through five more editions in Darwin's lifetime.

Darwin devoted the rest of his life to researching and writing scientific treatises, drawing on his notebooks and corresponding with scientists all over the world, and thus developing and modifying parts of his larger argument.

Darwin never traveled again and much of his scientific work was done in his own garden and study at home. Others, particularly his "bulldog," T. H. Huxley, fought the battle for evolution publicly, and as Darwin remained quietly ailing at home, his family grew -- he had ten children -- and so did his reputation. Although he was always ill with symptoms that made it impossible for him to work full days, he produced an enormous volume of work. His death, on April 19, 1882, was a national event. Despite the piety of his wife, Emma, Darwin had fallen away from religion as he reflected both on the way nature worked and on the way his favorite daughter, Annie, died painfully from an unknown feverish illness, when she was ten. Nevertheless, ironically, he was buried in Westminster Abbey.

Author biography from the Barnes & Noble Classics edition of The Origin of Species.

Good To Know

Darwin was born on the same day as U.S. president Abraham Lincoln.

He broke his longtime snuff habit by keeping his snuff box in the basement and the key to it in the attic.

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    1. Date of Birth:
      February 12, 1809
    2. Place of Birth:
      Shrewsbury, England
    1. Date of Death:
      April 19, 1882
    2. Place of Death:
      London, England
    1. Education:
      B.A. in Theology, Christ’s College, Cambridge University, 1831

Table of Contents

Preface xv
Part I Introduction 1
Darwin: On Changing the Mind (2000) 3
Part II Darwin's Life 21
Who Is Darwin? (1991) 23
Part III Scientific Thought: Just before Darwin 31
Biology before the Beagle (1964) 33
An Essay on the Principle of Population (1798) 39
Natural Theology (1802) 41
Zoological Philosophy (1809) 44
Principles of Geology (1830-33) 49
The Study of Natural Philosophy (1830) 52
Astronomy and General Physics Considered with Reference to Natural Theology (1833) 57
On the Tendency of Varieties to Depart Indefinitely from the Original Type (1858) 61
Part IV Selections from Darwin's Work 65
The Voyage of the Beagle (1845) 67
Chapter I. St. Jago--Cape de Verd Islands 67
Chapter XVII. Galapagos Archipelago 67
On the Tendency of Species to Form Varieties; and On the Perpetuation of Varieties and Species by Natural Means of Selection (1858) 82
I. Extract from an unpublished Work on Species, by C. Darwin, Esq. 82
II. Abstract of a Letter from C. Darwin, Esq., to Prof. Asa Gray, Boston, U.S., dated Down, September 5th, 1857 85
An Historical Sketch of the Progress of Opinion on the Origin of Species, previously to the Publication of This Work (1861) 87
The Origin of Species (1859) 95
Introduction 95
Chapter I. Variation under Domestication 98
Chapter II. Variation under Nature 106
Chapter III. Struggle for Existence 107
Chapter IV. Natural Selection 111
Chapter VI. Difficulties on Theory 135
Chapter IX. On the Imperfections of the Geological Record 147
Chapter XIII. Mutual Affinities of Organic Beings: Morphology: Embryology: Rudimentary Organs 151
Chapter XIV. Recapitulation and Conclusion 158
The Descent of Man (1871) 175
Introduction 175
Chapter I. The Evidence of the Descent of Man from Some Lower Form 177
Chapter II. On the Manner of Development of Man from Some Lower Form 194
Chapter III. Comparison of the Mental Powers of Man and the Lower Animals 213
Chapter VI. On the Affinities and Genealogy of Man 222
Chapter VIII. Principles of Sexual Selection 230
Chapter XIX. Secondary Sexual Characters of Man 232
Chapter XX. Secondary Sexual Characters of Man--continued 239
Chapter XXI. General Summary and Conclusion 243
Part V Darwin's Influence on Science 255
The Victorian Opposition to Darwin 257
Darwin and His Critics (1983) 257
Objections to Mr. Darwin's Theory of the Origin of Species (1860) 265
Darwin on the Origin of Species (1860) 267
Review of the Origin of Species (1867) 271
Victorian Supporters of Darwin 276
Flora Tasmaniae (1859) 276
On the Relations of Man to the Lower Animals (1863) 280
Principles of Geology (1867) 285
The Debt of Science to Darwin (1883) 287
Darwin and the Shaping of Modern Science 289
Scientific Method in Evolution 289
Evolution and the Nature of Science (1999) 289
Explaining the Very Improbable (1987) 301
On the Uncertainty of Science (1980) 304
Postmodernisms and the Problem of Scientific Literacy (1998) 308
Science and Sensibility (1999) 314
The Neo-Darwinian Synthesis 319
The Evolutionary Synthesis (1984) 319
The Human Genealogy 326
The Chosen Primate (1994) 326
Out of Africa Again ... and Again? (1997) 335
The Human Difference (1999) 342
Punctuated Equilibrium 344
[On Punctuated Equilibrium] (1991) 344
The Great Stasis Debate (1995) 349
Rethinking Taxonomy 356
Darwin's Views of Classification (1999) 356
Cladistic Analysis (1988) 361
[Cladistics in Action: The Origin of Birds and Their Flight] (1998) 363
Evolution as Observable Fact 373
How Natural Selection Operates (1996) 373
Natural Selection and Darwin's Finches (1991) 377
Natural Selection in the Wild (1986) 384
Part VI Darwinian Patterns in Social Thought 387
Competition and Cooperation 389
The Vogue of Spencer (1955) 389
The Gospel of Wealth (1900) 396
Mutual Aid (1902) 398
The Arithmetics of Mutual Help (1995) 403
Nature and Nurture 409
Sociobiology: The New Synthesis (1975) 409
Biological Potentiality vs. Biological Determinism (1977) 415
The New Creationism: Biology under Attack (1997) 420
Evolution and Gender 426
The Woman's Bible (1898) 426
On Becoming Human (1981) 427
Darwin and the Descent of Woman (1983) 436
Woman Red in Tooth and Claw (1989) 444
Evolution and Other Disciplines 450
[On Consilience] (1998) 450
Evolution and the Origins of Disease (1998) 459
How the Mind Works (1997) 465
The Set within the Skull (1997) 477
Part VII Darwinian Influences in Philosophy and Ethics 481
The Influence of Darwin on Philosophy (1909) 483
Darwin's Dangerous Idea: Natural Selection as an Algorithmic Process (1995) 489
Darwinian Epistemology (1998) 493
Evolution and Ethics (1893) 501
Evolutionary Ethics (1943) 503
The Evolution of Ethics (1985) 507
Good Natured: The Origin of Right and Wrong in Humans and Other Animals (1996) 511
The Origins of Virtue (1997) 517
Part VIII Evolutionary Theory and Religious Theory 525
Mainstream Religious Support for Evolution 527
Message to the Pontifical Academy of Sciences (1996) 527
On Creationism in School Textbooks (1984) 529
Evolution and Creationism (1982) 529
[Statement on Evolution] (1965) 531
Resolution on Evolutionism and Creationism (1982) 532
Resolution Opposing "Scientific Creationism" (1982) 533
Fundamentalist Creationism 534
Antievolution and Creationism in the United States (1997) 534
The Scopes Trial (1925) 542
Orthodox Jewish Creationists (2000) 549
[Islamic Creationism] (1997) 551
[A Hare Krishna on Darwinian Evolution] (1977) 553
Tenets of Creationism (1998) 555
Scientific Creationism (1985) 557
Review of Morris (1992) 564
Evolution at the Grass Roots (1998) 569
[Creationism versus Biotechnology] (1998) 569
[The Politics of Creationism] (1998) 570
What Do Christians Really Believe about Evolution? (1998) 572
Seven Significant Court Decisions Regarding Evolution/Creation Issues (1998) 574
Personal Incredulity and Antievolutionism 577
[The Argument from Personal Incredulity] (1987) 577
Darwin on Trial (1991) 581
Review of Johnson (1992) 586
Darwin's Black Box (1996) 592
Review of Behe (1997) 601
Darwin's New Critics on Trial (1998) 605
Scientists' Opposition to Creationism 613
Forced Teaching of Creationist Beliefs in Public School Science Education (1982) 613
Resolution Opposing Creationism in Science Courses (1999) 614
Statement on Teaching Evolution (1998) 615
Frequently Asked Questions about Evolution and the Nature of Science (1998) 617
Fundamentalist Creationism and the Value of Satire 624
Genesis Revisited: A Scientific Creation Story (1998) 625
Darwin's Ark (1984) 627
Part IX Darwin and the Literary Mind 631
Darwin's Literary Sensibility 633
Autobiography (1876) 633
Darwin's Humane Reading (1982) 634
Darwin and Pain: Why Science Made Shakespeare Nauseating (1995) 639
Darwin's Plots (1983) 645
Darwin's Influence on Literature 653
Darwin among the Poets (1932) 653
Darwin among the Novelists (1988) 658
The Tragic Fallacy (1929) 664
Modern Tragedy (1956) 667
Darwin-Sightings in Recent Literature (2000) 670
Selected Readings 683
Index 689
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