Data Converters / Edition 1
  • Data Converters / Edition 1
  • Data Converters / Edition 1

Data Converters / Edition 1

by Franco Maloberti

This book is the first graduate-level textbook presenting a comprehensive treatment of Data Converters. The advancement of digital electronics urged the availability of a still missing support for teaching and self-learning analog-digital interfaces at many levels: the specification, the conversion methods and architectures, the circuit design and the testing. This… See more details below


This book is the first graduate-level textbook presenting a comprehensive treatment of Data Converters. The advancement of digital electronics urged the availability of a still missing support for teaching and self-learning analog-digital interfaces at many levels: the specification, the conversion methods and architectures, the circuit design and the testing. This book after, the necessary study of the background theoretical elements, covers aspects and provide elements for a deep and comprehensive knowledge. The breath and the level of details of topics is enhanced by introductory material in each chapter and the use of many examples, most of them in the form of computer behavioral simulations. The examples and the end-of-chapter problems help in understanding and favor self-practice using tools that are effective for training and for design activity.

Data Converter is a textbook that is also essential for engineering professionals as it was written for responding to a shortage of organically organized material on the topic. The book assumes a solid background in analog and digital circuits as well as a working knowledge of simulation tools for circuit and behavioral analysis. A background on statistical analysis is also helpful, though not strictly necessary. Outstanding features of the book include: Coverage of all the basic elements essential for a clear understanding of sampling, quantization, noise in sampled-data systems and mathematical tools for sampled-data linear systems. Comprehensive definition of the parameters used to specify data converters and necessary for understanding product data sheets. Coverage of all the architectures used in Nyquist-rate data convertersand detailed study of features, limits and design techniques. Detailed study of oversampled and Sigma-Delta converters with simulation examples and use of spectra and histograms for a clear understanding of features and limit if the noise shaping. Coverage of digital correction and calibration techniques for enhancing performances. Use of theory and intuitive views to explain circuits and systems operation and limits. Coverage of testing methods and description of the data processing used for testing and characterization. Extensive use of Simulink and Matlab in examples and problem sets to assist reader comprehension and favor deeper study.

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Product Details

Springer US
Publication date:
Edition description:
Product dimensions:
6.53(w) x 9.51(h) x 0.95(d)

Table of Contents

Dedication     v
Preface     xiii
Background Elements     1
The Ideal Data Converter     1
Sampling     2
Undersampling     10
Sampling-time Jitter     12
Amplitude Quantization     15
Quantization Noise     17
Properties of the Quantization Noise     18
kT/C Noise     22
Discrete and Fast Fourier Transforms     25
Windowing     26
Coding Schemes     32
The D/A Converter     33
Ideal Reconstruction     34
Real Reconstruction     34
The Z-Transform     38
References     46
Data Converters Specifications     47
Type of Converter     47
Conditions of Operation     48
Converter Specifications     50
General Features     50
Static Specifications     51
Dynamic Specifications     60
Digital and Switching Specifications     72
References     76
Nyquist-Rate D/A Converters     77
Introduction     77
DAC Applications     79
Voltage and CurrentReferences     80
Types of Converters     81
Resistor based Architectures     82
Resistive Divider     83
X-Y Selection     85
Settling of the Output Voltage     86
Segmented Architectures     89
Effect of the Mismatch     91
Trimming and Calibration     94
Digital Potentiometer     97
R-2R Resistor Ladder DAC     97
Deglitching     106
Capacitor Based Architectures     107
Capacitive Divider DAC     107
Capacitive MDAC     110
"Flip Around" MDAC     112
Hybrid Capacitive-Resistive DACs     113
Current Source based Architectures     114
Basic Operation     114
Unity Current Generator     118
Random Mismatch with Unary Selection     121
Current Sources Selection     122
Current Switching and Segmentation     124
Switching of Current Sources     129
Other Architectures     131
References     139
Nyquist Rate A/D Converters     141
Introduction     141
Timing Accuracy     143
Metastability error      146
Full-Flash Converters     147
Reference Voltages     148
Offset of Comparators     150
Offset Auto-zeroing     152
Practical Limits     155
Sub-Ranging and Two-Step Converters     157
Accuracy Requirements     159
Two-step Converter as a Non-linear Process     164
Folding and Interpolation     165
Double Folding     166
Interpolation     167
Use of Interpolation in Flash Converters     169
Use of Interpolation in Folding Architectures     170
Interpolation for Improving Linearity     171
Time-Interleaved Converters     174
Accuracy requirements     175
Successive Approximation Converter     178
Errors and Error Correction     180
Charge Redistribution     182
Pipeline Converters     184
Accuracy Requirements     187
Digital Correction     188
Dynamic Performances     194
Sampled-data Residue Generator     198
Other Architectures     199
Cyclic (or Algorithmic) Converter     199
Integrating Converter      200
Voltage-to-Frequency Converter     202
References     207
Circuits for Data Converters     209
Sample-and-Hold     209
Diode Bridge S&H     210
Diode Bridge Imperfections     211
Improved Diode Bridge     212
Switched Emitter Follower     213
Circuit Implementation     215
Complementary Bipolar S&H     216
Features of S&Hs with BJT     217
CMOS Sample-and-Hold     222
Clock Feed-through     224
Clock Feed-through Compensation     226
Two-stages OTA as T&H     227
Use of the Virtual Ground in CMOS S&H     229
Noise Analysis     230
CMOS Switch with Low Voltage Supply     235
Switch Bootstrapping     238
Folding Amplifiers     240
Current-Folding     240
Voltage Folding     242
Voltage-to-Current Converter     243
Clock Generation     247
References     251
Oversampling and Low Order [Sigma Delta] Modulators     253
Introduction     253
Delta and Sigma-Delta Modulation     255
Noise Shaping      256
First Order Modulator     258
Intuitive Views     262
Use of 1-bit Quantization     264
Second Order Modulator     265
Circuit Design Issues     267
Offset     268
Finite Op-Amp Gain     268
Finite Op-Amp Bandwidth     272
Finite Op-Amp Slew-Rate     273
ADC Non-ideal Operation     275
DAC Non-ideal Operation     275
Architectural Design Issues     276
Integrator Dynamic Range     276
Dynamic Ranges Optimization     281
Sampled-data Circuit Implementation     288
Noise Analysis     289
Quantization Error and Dithering     294
Single-bit and Multi-bit     296
References     301
High-Order, CT [Sigma Delta] Converters and [Sigma Delta] DAC     303
SNR Enhancement     303
High Order Noise Shaping     306
Single Stage Architectures     308
Stability Analysis     309
Weighted Feedback Summation     311
Modulator with Local Feedback     314
Chain of Integrators with Distributed Feedback     316
Cascaded [Sigma Delta] Modulator      317
Dynamic range for MASH     322
Continuous-time [Sigma Delta] Modulators     325
S&H Limitations     326
CT Implementations     328
Design of CT from Sampled-Data Equivalent     333
Band-Pass [Sigma Delta] Modulator     335
Interleaved N-Path Architecture     339
Synthesis of the NTF     344
Oversampling DAC     346
1-bit DAC     347
Double Return-to-zero DAC     350
References     356
Digital Enhancement Techniques     359
Introduction     359
Error Measurement     360
Trimming of Elements     362
Foreground Calibration     364
Background Calibration     367
Gain and Offset in Interleaved Converters     370
Offset Calibration without Redundancy     371
Dynamic Matching     374
Butterfly Randomization     377
Individual Level Averaging     381
Data Weighted Averaging     385
Decimation and Interpolation     391
Decimation     391
Interpolation     395
References     399
Testing of D/A and A/D Converters      401
Introduction     401
Test Board     403
Quality and Reliability Test     405
Data Processing     407
Best-fit-line     407
Sine Wave Fitting     408
Histogram Method     409
Static DAC Testing     413
Transfer Curve Test     414
Superposition of Errors     414
Non-linearity Errors     416
Dynamic DAC Testing     415
Spectral Features     417
Conversion Time     419
Glitch Energy     420
Static ADC Testing     421
Code Edge Measurement     423
Dynamic ADC Testing     424
Time Domain Parameters     425
Improving the Spectral Purity of Sine Waves     426
Aperture Uncertainty Measure     428
Settling-time Measure     430
Use of FFT for Testing     431
References     434
Index     435

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