Data Networks, IP and the Internet: Protocols, Design and Operation / Edition 1

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Overview

Data Networking is a capability that allows users to combine separate data bases, telecommunication systems, and specialised computer operations into a single integrated system, so that data communication can be handled as easily as voice messages. Data communications is the problem of getting information from one place to another reliably (secure both from channel disruptions and deliberate interference) while conforming to user requirements. IP (Internet protocol) is the central pillar of the Internet and was designed primarily for internetworking as being a simple protocol almost any network could carry.

The business world appears to increasingly revolve around data communications and the Internet and all modern data networks are based around either the Internet or at least around IP (Internet Protocol)-based networks. However, many people still remain baffled by multiprotocol networks - how do all the protocols fit together? How do I build a network? What sort of problems should I expect? This volume is intended not only for network designers and practitioners, who for too long have been baffled by the complex jargon of data networks, but also for the newcomer - eager to put the plethora of "protocols" into context.
After the initial boom the rate of IP development is now beginning to stabilise, making a standard textbook and reference book worthwhile with a longer shelf life. Highly illustrated and written in an accessible style this book is intended to provide a complete foundation textbook and reference of modern IP-based data networking - avoiding explanation of defunct principles that litter other books.

Network/IP engineers, Network operators, engineering managers and senior undergraduate students will all find this invaluable.

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Editorial Reviews

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This book is both a reference for the professional in the field and an outstanding tutorial for the novice. Author Martin P. Clark takes an incredibly vast and complex set of information about networks and Internet protocols and organizes it into definitive yet finite blocks of digestible data, complete with terminology.

In the first part of the book (Chapters 1 to 3), the author does an excellent job of covering the general principles of data communications. This part is intended to introduce the concepts to data communications newcomers. Chapters 4 to 15 build on this foundation to describe in detail the Internet protocol (IP) suite of data communications protocols and networking procedures. The extensive index, glossary, and other appendices allow the reader to find the meaning of individual terms, protocols, and other codes quickly. Overall, the book is structured in a way that is intended to ease the reader in working from "cover to cover."

You will absolutely want this book at your desk so you can grab it for any networking question that might arise. Furthermore, while the range and capabilities of network management tools for complete service and network management continue to increase, there is bound to be a role for the human network specialist. This book will help you achieve that role! John Vacca

John Vacca, the former computer security official (CSO) for NASA's space station program (Freedom), has written 38 books about advanced storage, computer security, and aerospace technology.

From the Publisher
"You will absolutely want this book at your desk..." (Barnes & Noble.com(From the Editors))
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780470848562
  • Publisher: Wiley
  • Publication date: 5/9/2003
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 866
  • Product dimensions: 6.87 (w) x 9.76 (h) x 2.07 (d)

Meet the Author

Martin P. Clark is a freelance consultant in telecommunications, IT, business management and strategy. A veteran of the public telecommunications services industry, Martin planned international telephone networks for British Telecom International in the early 1980s – when it was still part of the UK Post Office. Having experienced the privatisation of British Telecom and market deregulation in the UK, Martin moved to Germany in the early 1990s, where he wrote the business plan and project managed the first fixed network competitor to Deutsche Telekom. The company became Vodafone Germany. Since the late 1990s, Martin has been involved in a number of successful technology start-ups, as well as a NASDAQ IPO, and amassed a huge breadth of technological experience, covering data networking, broadband, radio and mobile networks. Martin works as an independent consultant in telecommunications, IT and business strategy.

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Read an Excerpt

Data Networks, IP and the Internet

Protocols, Design and Operation
By Martin P. Clark

John Wiley & Sons

Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd
All right reserved.

ISBN: 0-470-84856-1


Chapter One

The Internet, Email, Ebusiness and the Worldwide Web (www)

Nowadays every self-respecting person (particularly if a grandparent!) has a personal email address. And many modern companies have encompassed ebusiness. They have prestigious Internet 'domain names' (advertised with modern lower case company names) and run Worldwide Web (www) sites for advertising and order-taking. What has stirred this revolution? The Internet. But when, why and how did data networking and interworking start? And how did the Internet evolve? Where will it lead? And what does all that frightful jargon mean? (What are the acronyms and the protocols?). In this chapter we shall find out. We shall talk about the emergence of computer networking, the Worldwide Web (www), about ISPs (Internet service providers) and about where the Internet started-in the US Defense Department during the 1970s. We discuss the significance of the Internet Protocol (IP) today, and where it will lead. And most important of all-we start 'unravelling' the jargon.

1.1 In the beginning-ARPANET

The beginnings of the Internet are to be found in the ARPANET, the advanced research project agency network. This wasa US government-backed research project, which initially sought to create a network for resource-sharing between American universities. The initial tender for a 4-node network connecting UCLA (University of California, Los Angeles), UCSB (University of California, Santa Barbara), SRI (Stanford Research Institute) and the University of Utah took place in 1968, and was won by BBN (Bolt, Beranek and Newman). The network nodes were called Internet message processors (IMPs), and end-user computing devices were connected to these nodes by a protocol called 1822 (1822 because the Internet engineering note (IEN) number 1822 defined the protocol). Subsequently, the agency was increasingly funded by the US military, and consequently, from 1972, was renamed DARPA (Defense Advanced Research Project Agency).

These beginnings have had a huge influence on the subsequent development of computer data networking and the emergence of the Internet as we know it today. BBN became a leading manufacturer of packet switching equipment. A series of protocols developed which are sometimes loosely referred to either as TCP/IP (transmission control protocol/Internet protocol) or as IP (Internet protocol). Correctly they are called the 'IP-protocol suite'. They are defined in documents called RFCs (request for comment) generated under the auspices of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). The current most-widely used version of the Internet protocol (IP)-version 4 or IPv4-is defined in RFC 791. The current version of TCP (transmission control protocol) is defined in RFC 793.

1.2 The emergence of layered protocols for data communication

In parallel with the development of the ARPANET, a number of standardised layered protocol 'stacks' and protocol suites for simplifying and standardising the communication between computer equipment were being developed independently by various different computer and telecommunications equipment manufacturers. Most of these protocols were 'proprietary'. In other words, the protocols were based on the manufacturers' own specifications and documentation, which were kept out of the public domain. Many manufacturers believed at the time that 'proprietary' protocols gave both a 'competitive advantage' and 'locked' customers into using their own particular brand of computer hardware. But the principles of the various schemes were all similar, and the ideas generated by the various groups of developers helped in the development of the standardised protocols which came later.

All data communications protocols are based upon packet switching, a form of electronic inter-computer communication advanced by Leonard Kleinrock of MIT (Massachusetts Institute of Technology-and later of UCLA-University of California in Los Angeles) in his paper 'Information flow in large communication networks' (July 1961). The term packet switching itself was coined by Donald Davies of the UK's National Physical Laboratory (NPL) in 1966.

Packet switching is analogous to sending letters through the post-the data content, analogous to a page of a letter is the user content (or payload) of a standard packet. The user content is packed in the packet or frame (analogous to an 'envelope') and labelled with the destination address. When the size of a single packet is too small for the message as a whole, then the message can be split up and sent as a sequence of numbered packets, sent one after another (see Figure 1.1). The networking nodes (which in different types of data networks have different names: routers, switches, bridges, terminal controllers, cluster controllers, front-end processors, etc.) all essentially work like a postal sorting office. They read the 'address' on each packet (without looking at the contents) and then forward the packet to the appropriate next node nearer the destination.

The best-known, most successful and widely used of the 1970s generation of packet-switching protocols were:

SNA (systems network architecture)-the networking protocols used for interconnecting IBM (International Business Machines) computers;

DECnet-the networking protocols used for interconnecting computers of the Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC);

X.25 (ITU-T recommendation X.25) and its partner protocol, X.75. This was the first attempt, coordinated by the International Telecommunications Union standardisation sector (ITU-T), to create a 'standard' protocol-intended to enable computers made by different manufacturers to communicate with one another-so-called open systems interconnection (OSI).

1.3 SNA (systems network architecture)

The systems network architecture (SNA) was announced by IBM in 1974 as a standardised communications architecture for interconnecting all the different types of IBM computer hardware. Before 1974, transferring data or computer programs from one computer to another could be a time-consuming job, sometimes requiring significant manual re-formatting, and often requiring the transport of large volumes of punched cards or tapes. Initially, relatively few IBM computers were capable of supporting SNA, but by 1977 the capabilities of the third generation of SNA (SNA-3) included:

communication controllers (otherwise called FEPs or front end processors)-hardware which could be added to mainframe computers for taking over communication with remote devices;

terminal controllers (otherwise called cluster controllers)-by means of which, end-user terminals (teletypes or computer VDUs, video display units) could be connected to a remote host computer;

the possibility to connect remote terminal controllers to the mainframe/communication controller site using either leaselines or dial-in lines;

* the possibility of multi-host networks (terminals connected to multiple mainframe computers-e.g., for bookkeeping, order-taking, personnel, etc.-by means of a single communications network).

Figure 1.2 illustrates the main elements of a typical SNA network, showing the typical star topology. Point-to-point lines across the wide area network (WAN) connect the front end processor (FEP or communications controller) at the enterprise computer centre to the terminals in headquarters and remote operations offices. The lines used could be either leaselines, point-to-point X.25 (i.e., packet-switched) connections, frame relay connections or dial-up lines.

During the 1980s and 1990s, SNA-based networks were widely deployed by companies which used IBM mainframe computers. At the time, IBM mainframes were the workhorse of the computing industry. The mainframes of the IBM S/360, S/370 and S/390 architectures became well known, as did the components of the SNA networks used to support them:

Front end processor (FEP or communication controller) hardware: IBM 3705, IBM 3725, IBM 3720, IBM 3745;

Cluster controller hardware: IBM 3174, IBM 3274, IBM 4702, IBM 8100;

VTAM (virtual telecommunication access method) software used as the mainframe communications software;

CICS (communication information control system) mainframe management software;

NCP (network control program) front end processor communications control software;

NPSI (NCP-packet switching interface) mainframe/FEP software for use in conjunction with X.25-based packet-switched WAN data networks;

TSO (time sharing option) software allowing mainframe resources to be shared by many users;

NetView mainframe software for network monitoring and management;

APPN (advanced peer-to-peer networking) used in IBM AS-400 networks;

ESCON (enterprise system connection): a high-speed 'channel' connection interface between mainframe and front-end processor;

Token ring local area network (LAN).

Due to the huge popularity of IBM mainframe computers, the success of SNA was assured. But the fact that SNA was not a public standard made it difficult to integrate other manufacturers' network and computer hardware into an IBM computer network. IBM introduced products intended to allow the integration of public standard data networking protocols such as X.25 and Frame Relay, but it was not until the explosion in numbers of PCs (personal computers) and LANs (local area networks) in the late 1980s and 1990s that IBM lost its leading role in the data networking market, despite its initial dominance of the personal computer market. LANs and PC-networking heralded the Internet protocol (IP), routers and a new 'master' of data networking-Cisco Systems.

1.4 DECnet

The Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) was another leading manufacturer of mainframes and computer equipment in the 1980s and 1990s. It was the leading force in the development of mini-computers, workstations and servers and an internationally recognised brand until it was subsumed within COMPAQ (which in turn was swallowed by Hewlett Packard). DEC brought the first successful minicomputer (the PDP-8) to the market in 1965.

Like IBM, DEC built up an impressive laboratory and development staff. The main philosophy was that software should be 'portable' between the various different sizes of DEC hardware platforms and DEC became a prime mover in the development of 'open' and public communications standards.

DECnet was the architecture, hardware and software needed for networking DEC computers. Although some of the architecture remained proprietary, DEC tended to incorporate public standards into DECnet as soon as they became available, thereby promoting 'open' interconnectivity with other manufacturers' devices. The technical legacy of DEC lives on-their very high performance alpha servers became the basis of the server range of COMPAQ. In addition, perhaps the oldest and best-known Internet search engine, Alta Vista, was originally established by DEC. Unfortunately, however, the commercial management of DEC did not match its technical prowess. The company overstretched its financial resources, largely through over-aggressive sales, and was taken over by COMPAQ in 1998 (and subsequently subsumed by Hewlett Packard in 2002).

1.5 Other mainframe computer manufacturers

In the 1970s and 1980s, there were a number of large computer mainframe manufacturers-Amdahl, Bull, Burroughs, DEC, Honeywell, IBM, Rockwell, Sperry, Sun Microsystems, UNIVAC, Wang, etc. Each had a proprietary networking and operating system architecture, or in the case of Amdahl and Wang, positioned their products as low cost alternatives to IBM hardware. Where these companies have survived, they have been largely 'reincarnated' as service, maintenance, support and application development companies. Typically they sell other people's computer and networking hardware and specialise in system integration, software development and support. Burroughs, Sperry and UNIVAC, for example, all became part of the computer services company known today as UNISYS.

1.6 X.25 (ITU-T recommendation X.25)

ITU-T's recommendation X.25 defines a standard interface for connecting computer equipment to a packet switched data network (see Figure 1.3). The development of the X.25-interface and the related packet-switched protocols heralded the appearance of public data networks (PDN). Public data networks were meant to provide a cost-effective alternative for networking enterprise computer centres and their remote terminals.

By using a public data network, the line lengths needed for dedicated enterprise-network connections could be much shorter. No longer need a dedicated line stretch from the remote site all the way to the enterprise computer centre as in Figure 1.2. Instead a short connection to the nearest PSE (packet switch exchange) was adequate. In this way, the long distance lines between PSEs in the wide area network and the costs associated with them were shared between different networks and users (see Figure 1.3). Overall network costs can thus be reduced by using public data networks (assuming that the tariffs are reasonable!). In addition, it may be possible to get away with fewer ports and connection lines. In the example of Figure 1.3, a single line connects the front end processor (FEP) to the network where in Figure 1.2. three ports at the central site had been necessary.

The X.25-version of packet switching, like SNA, DECnet and other proprietary data networking architectures, was initially focused on the needs of connecting remote terminals to a central computer centre in enterprise computing networks. In commercial terms, however, it lacked the success which it deserved. Though popular in some countries in Europe, X.25 was largely ignored in the USA. The X.25 standard (issued in 1976) had arrived late in comparison with SNA (1974) and did not warrant a change-over. On an economic comparison, it was often as cheap to take a leaseline and use SNA than it was to use a public X.25 network to connect the same remote site. As a result, enterprise computing agencies did not rush to X.25 and the computer manufacturers did not make much effort to support it. The IBM solution for X.25 using NPSI (NCP-packet switching interface), for example, always lacked the performance of the equivalent SNA connection. Only in those countries where leaselines were expensively priced (e.g., Germany) did X.25 have real success. In Germany, the Datex-P packet-switched public data network of the Deutsche Bundespost was one of the most successful X.2

Continues...


Excerpted from Data Networks, IP and the Internet by Martin P. Clark Copyright © 2003 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd . Excerpted by permission.
All rights reserved. No part of this excerpt may be reproduced or reprinted without permission in writing from the publisher.
Excerpts are provided by Dial-A-Book Inc. solely for the personal use of visitors to this web site.

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Table of Contents

Preface.

Acknowledgements.

Foreword.

The Internet, Email, Ebusiness  and the Worldwide Web (www).

Fundamentals of Data Communication and Packet Switching.

Basic Data Networks and Protocols.

Local Area Networks (LANs).

WANs, Routers and the Internet Protocol (IP).

Routing Tables and Protocols.

Transport Services and Protocols.

IP Networks in Practice: Components, Backbone and Access.

Managing the Network.

Data Networking and Internet Applications.

The Worldwide Web (www).

Electronic Mail (email).

Data Network Security.

Quality of Service (QOS), Network Performance and Optimisation.

Challenges Ahead for IP.

Appendix 1. Protocol Addresses, Port Numbers, Service Access Point Identifiers (SAPIs) and Common Presentation Format.

Appendix 2. Internet Top-Level Domains (TLDs) and Generic Domains.

Appendix 3. Internet Country Code Top-Level Domains (ccTLDs—ISO 3166-1).

Appendix 4. Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) Request for Comment (RFC) Listing.

Appendix 5. IEEE 802 Standards for LANs and MANs.

Appendix 6. IEEE 802.11: Wireless Local Area Networks (WLANs).

Appendix 7. Interfaces, Cables, Connectors and Pin-outs.

Appendix 8. X.25 Packet Switching (ITU-T Recommendation X.25).

Appendix 9. Frame Relay.

Appendix 10. Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM).

Glossary of Selected Terms.

Abbreviations and Standards Quick-Reference.

Bibliography.

Index.

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