Database Administration: The Complete Guide to Practices and Procedures

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Overview

"One of Craig's hallmarks is his ability to write in a clear, easy-to-read fashion. The main purpose of any technical book is to transfer information from writer to reader, and Craig has done an excellent job. He wants the reader to learn—and it shows." —Chris Foot, Senior Oracle Certified Instructor, Contemporary Technologies

"I think every business manager and every IT manager should have a copy of this book." —Dan Hotka, Senior Technical Advisor, Quest Software Inc.

With Database Administration , database professionals now have a comprehensive sourcebook of strategies for delivering quality administration across today's challenging multi-DBMS environments. Filled with practical guidelines and strategies, this book provides the most comprehensive survey available of the administrator's world for the existing or aspiring database professional.

Part tutorial and part reference, Database Administration explains and examines each of the components that comprise the discipline of database administration. The book opens by providing an overview of the responsibilities of database administrators (DBAs) along with the various "flavors" of DBAs and their tasks. From there, the book proceeds chronologically through every task a DBA is likely to encounter. Although designed as a comprehensive survey of the entire DBA environment, the book's individual chapters are also well suited for quick look-up of specific information.

Highlights include:

  • The world of the DBA: types, tasks, daily issues, and much more
  • The DBA environment—installation and upgrading issues, standards, and procedures
  • Data modeling and normalization
  • Database design and application design
  • Performance management, including system, database, and application performance
  • Ensuring data integrity and database security
  • Database back-up and recovery strategies and disaster planning
  • Storage management and data warehouse administration
  • Connectivity, metadata management, Internet-enabled database access, and additional DBA tools
  • Platform-independent coverage applicable for all the major DBMS products including DB2, Oracle, and SQL Server

Whether you're a database analyst, architect, or application engineer, this book will provide the strategies and solutions you need to navigate the rocky terrain of today's complex data environments.

0201741296B05142002

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Editorial Reviews

From The Critics
Combining tutorial and reference elements, this guide provides a non- product-based description of database administration techniques and practices. It defines the job of the database administrator (DBA), underscoring the necessity of a DBA for a database management system (DBMS) implementation to succeed, then proceeds chronologically through every task the DBA is likely to encounter. The book can be used as a text for database administration, as the basis for setting up a DBA group, to augment a DBMS-specific text or manual, and to help upper-level management explain why the DBA position is necessary. Mullins is a data management strategist in the private sector. Annotation c. Book News, Inc., Portland, OR
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780201741292
  • Publisher: Addison-Wesley
  • Publication date: 6/28/2002
  • Pages: 703
  • Product dimensions: 7.20 (w) x 8.90 (h) x 1.50 (d)

Meet the Author

Craig S. Mullins is a data management strategist for BMC Software. Craig has more than fifteen years of experience in all facets of database systems development, including developing and teaching DB2 and SQL Server classes, systems analysis and design, database and system administration, and data analysis. He has used DB2 for OS/390 since Version 1 and has experience with Oracle, Sybase, and Microsoft SQL Server. Craig has worked as a DBA, developer, instructor, and analyst in multiple industries.

0201741296AB05142002

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Read an Excerpt

A database management system (DBMS) is used to create databases. Most of today's applications deploy databases to store information such as names, addresses, and account balances. This information can be accessed and manipulated by application programs to perform business processes like payroll processing, sales processing, and customer billing. Every DBMS requires database administration to ensure efficient and effective use of databases by applications. This means that any user of Oracle, Microsoft SQL Server, DB2, Informix, Sybase, MySQL, Teradata, PostgreSQL, Ingres and any other popular DBMSs will benefit from the information in this book.

This book provides the industry's first non-product-based description of database administration techniques and practices. Many organizations have multiple DBMS products and will benefit from a consolidated view of database administration that does not focus on the internals and nuances of each particular product. Such a view is presented in this text.

The book defines the job of database administrator and outlines what is required of a database administrator, or DBA, in clear, easy-to-understand language. The book can be used

  • As a text for learning the discipline of database administration
  • As the basis for setting up a DBA group
  • To augment a DBMS-specific manual or textbook
  • To help explain to upper-level management what a DBA is, and why the position is required

Every organization that deploys databases using a DBMS needs to understand the concepts outlined in this book. Many small- to medium-sized organizations attempt to implement DBMS products without a DBA. This book explains the practice of database administration and underscores the necessity of a DBA for DBMS implementation to succeed. Other organizations implement only subsets of the database administration practices that are covered in this book. With a thorough reading of Database Administration: The Complete Guide to Practices and Procedures, it will become quite clear that a comprehensive approach to database administration is required. This book examines and explains each of the components that comprise this discipline.

As technology advances, new IT techniques emerge that impact the discipline of database administration. Two such areas are Internet-enabled database access and the storage of procedural logic in the DBMS in the form of triggers, user-defined functions, and stored procedures. Because the impact of these newer technologies and techniques on the role of the DBA is examined in this book, even seasoned database professionals will find the book useful. Indeed, the book will be helpful for any and all of the following folks:

  • DBA managers
  • IT professionals who want to become DBAs
  • IT professionals new to implementing a DBMS
  • Students of database management
  • DBAs
  • Systems programmers and system administrators who interface with DBAs and need to understand what it is that DBAs do

Because this book covers heterogeneous database administration without focusing on just one DBMS, it can be used by organizations to set up a DBA function when more than one DBMS product is being used. This is particularly important because the single-DBMS shop is a rarity these days. Analysts estimate that most medium- to large-sized organizations have from three to ten different DBMS products in use—all requiring administration.

Additionally, DBA is currently a very hot job. In many cases, DBAs demand and obtain very high salaries. As such, many technicians aspire to become DBAs, and this book will help them to do just that. If you are an IT professional with an interest in becoming a DBA, this book will help you to achieve that objective.

Other books about database administration are available, but they approach the subject from the perspective of a single DBMS. Many of these books are quite good. I wrote one myself about DB2. This book is not intended to replace such books, but to augment them with an independent treatment of database administration tasks.

How to Use This Book

This book can be used as both a tutorial and a reference. The book is organized to proceed chronologically through DBA tasks that are likely to be encountered. Therefore, if you read the book sequentially from Chapter 1 through Chapter 23, you will get a comprehensive sequential overview of the DBA job. Alternatively, you can read any chapter independently because each chapter deals with a single topic. References to other chapters are clearly made if other material in the book would aid the reader's understanding.

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Table of Contents

(NOTE: Most chapters conclude with Summary, Review, Bonus Question and Suggested Reading.)

Preface.

How to Use This Book.

Acknowledgments.

About the Author.

1. What Is a DBA?

The DBA: Revered or Reviled?

Why Learn Database Administration?

A Unique Vantage Point.

DBA Salaries.

Database Technology.

The Management Discipline of Database Administration.

A Day in the Life of a DBA.

Evaluating a DBA Job Offer.

Database, Data, and System Administration.

Data Administration.

Database Administration.

System Administration.

DBA Tasks.

Database Design.

Performance Monitoring and Tuning.

Availability.

Database Security and Authorization.

Backup and Recovery.

Data Integrity.

DBMS Release Migration.

Jack-of-All-Trades.

Types of DBAs.

System DBA.

Database Architect.

Database Analyst.

Data Modeler.

Application DBA.

Task-Oriented DBA.

Data Warehouse Administrator.

Staffing Considerations.

How Many DBAs?

DBA Reporting Structures.

Multiplatform DBA Issues.

Test and Production.

New Technology and the DBA.

Procedural DBAs: Managing Database Logic.

The Internet: From DBA to e-DBA.

The PDA DBA.

DBA Certification.

The Rest of the Book.

2. Creating the Database Environment.

Defining the Organization's DBMS Strategy.

Choosing a DBMS.

DBMS Architectures.

DBMS Clustering.

DBMS Proliferation.

Hardware Issues.

Installing the DBMS.

DBMS Installation Basics.

Hardware Requirements.

Storage Requirements.

Memory Requirements.

Configuring the DBMS.

Connecting the DBMS to Supporting Infrastructure Software.

Installation Verification.

DBMS Environments.

Upgrading DBMS Versions and Releases.

Features and Complexity.

Complexity of the DBMS Environment.

Reputation of the DBMS Vendor.

Support Policies of the DBMS.

Organization Style.

DBA Staff Skill Set.

Platform Support.

Supporting Software.

Fallback Planning.

Migration Verification.

The DBMS Upgrade Strategy.

Database Standards and Procedures.

Database Naming Conventions.

Other Database Standards and Procedures.

DBMS Education.

3. Data Modeling and Normalization.

Data Modeling Concepts.

Entity-Relationship Diagramming.

The Components of a Data Model.

Entities.

Attributes.

Keys.

Relationships.

Discovering Entities, Attributes, and Relationships.

Conceptual, Logical, and Physical Data Models.

What Is Normalization?

The Normal Forms.

First Normal Form.

Second Normal Form.

Third Normal Form.

A Normalized Data Model.

Further Normal Forms.

Normalization in Practice.

Additional Data Modeling Issues.

4. Database Design.

From Logical Model to Physical Database.

Transform Entities to Tables.

Transform Attributes to Columns.

Build Referential Constraints for All Relationships.

Build Physical Data Structures.

Database Performance Design.

Designing Indexes.

Hashing.

Clustering.

Interleaving Data.

Denormalization.

When to Denormalize.

Prejoined Tables.

Report Tables.

Mirror Tables.

Split Tables.

Combined Tables.

Redundant Data.

Repeating Groups.

Derivable Data.

Hierarchies.

Special Physical Implementation Needs.

Denormalization Summary.

Views.

Data Definition Language.

5. Application Design.

Database Application Development and SQL.

SQL.

Set-at-a-Time Processing and Relational Closure.

Embedding SQL in a Program.

SQL Middleware and APIs.

Object Orientation and SQL.

Types of SQL.

SQL Coding for Performance.

Defining Transactions.

Transaction Guidelines.

Unit of Work.

Transaction Processing Systems.

Application Servers.

Locking.

Types of Locks.

Lock Timeouts.

Deadlocks.

Lock Duration.

Lock Escalation.

Programming Techniques to Minimize Locking Problems.

Locking Summary.

Batch Processing.

6. Design Reviews.

What Is a Design Review?

Rules of Engagement.

Design Review Participants.

Knowledge and Skills Required.

Types of Design Reviews.

Conceptual Design Review.

Logical Design Review.

Physical Design Review.

Organizational Design Review.

SQL and Application Code Design Review.

Pre-Implementation Design Review.

Post-Implementation Design Review.

Design Review Output.

7. Database Change Management.

Change Management Requirements.

The Change Management Perspective of the DBA.

Types of Changes.

DBMS Software.

Hardware Configuration.

Logical and Physical Design.

Applications.

Physical Database Structures.

Impact of Change on Database Structures.

The Limitations of ALTER.

Database Change Scenarios.

Comparing Database Structures.

Requesting Database Changes.

Standardized Change Requests.

Communication.

8. Data Availability.

Defining Availability.

Increased Availability Requirements.

Cost of Downtime.

How Much Availability Is Enough?

Availability Problems.

Loss of the Data Center.

Network Problems.

Loss of the Server Hardware.

Disk-Related Outages.

Operating System Failure.

DBMS Software Failure.

Application Problems.

Security and Authorization Problems. @@BHEADS = Corruption of Data.

Loss of Database Objects.

Loss of Data.

Data Replication and Propagation Failures.

Severe Performance Problems.

Recovery Issues.

DBA Mistakes.

Outages: Planned and Unplanned.

Ensuring Availability.

Perform Routine Maintenance While Systems Remain Operational.

Automate DBA Functions.

Exploit High-Availability Features.

Exploit Clustering Technology.

Suggested Reading.

9. Performance Management.

Defining Performance.

A Basic Database Performance Road Map.

Monitoring vs. Management.

Reactive vs. Proactive.

Preproduction Performance Estimation.

Historical Trending.

Service-Level Management.

Types of Performance Tuning.

System Tuning.

Database Tuning.

Application Tuning.

Performance Tuning Tools.

DBMS Performance Basics.

10. System Performance.

The Larger Environment.

Interaction with the Operating System.

Allied Agents.

Hardware Configuration.

Components of the DBMS.

DBMS Installation and Configuration Issues.

Types of Configuration.

Memory Usage.

Data Cache Details.

“Open” Database Objects.

Database Logs.

Locking and Contention.

The System Catalog.

Other Configuration Options.

General Advice.

System Monitoring.

11. Database Performance.

Techniques for Optimizing Databases.

Partitioning.

Raw Partition vs. File System.

Indexing.

Denormalization.

Clustering.

Interleaving Data.

Free Space.

Compression.

File Placement and Allocation.

Page Size (Block Size).

Database Reorganization.

Determining When to Reorganize.

Automation.

12. Application Performance.

Designing Applications for Relational Access.

Relational Optimization.

CPU and I/O Costs.

Database Statistics.

Query Analysis.

Joins.

Access Path Choices.

Additional Optimization Considerations.

View Access.

Query Rewrite.

Rule-Based Optimization.

Reviewing Access Paths.

Forcing Access Paths.

SQL Coding and Tuning for Efficiency.

SQL Rules of Thumb.

Additional SQL Tuning Tips.

Identifying Poorly Performing SQL.

13. Data Integrity.

Types of Integrity.

Database Structure Integrity.

Types of Structural Problems.

Managing Structural Problems.

Semantic Data Integrity.

Entity Integrity.

Unique Constraints.

Data Types.

Default Values.

Check Constraints.

Triggers.

Referential Integrity.

14. Database Security.

Database Security Basics.

Database Users.

Granting and Revoking Authority.

Types of Privileges.

Granting to PUBLIC.

Revoking Privileges.

Security Reporting.

Authorization Roles and Groups.

Roles.

Groups.

Other Database Security Mechanisms.

Using Views for Security.

Using Stored Procedures for Security.

Auditing.

External Security.

Job Scheduling and Security.

Non-DBMS DBA Security.

15. Database Backup and Recovery.

Preparing for Problems.

Image Copy Backups.

Full vs. Incremental Backups.

Database Objects and Backups.

DBMS Control.

Concurrent Access Issues.

Backup Consistency.

Log Archiving and Backup.

Determining Your Backup Schedule.

DBMS Instance Backup.

Designing the DBMS Environment for Recovery.

Alternate Approaches to Database Backup.

Document Your Backup Strategy.

Database Object Definition Backups.

Recovery.

Determining Recovery Options.

General Steps for Database Object Recovery.

Types of Recovery.

Index Recovery.

Testing Your Recovery Plan.

Recovering a Dropped Database Object.

Recovering Broken Blocks and Pages.

Populating Test Databases.

Alternatives to Backup and Recovery.

Standby Databases.

Replication.

Disk Mirroring.

16. Disaster Planning.

The Need for Planning.

Risk and Recovery.

General Disaster Recovery Guidelines.

The Remote Site.

The Written Plan.

Personnel.

Backing Up the Database for Disaster Recovery.

Tape Backups.

Storage Management Backups.

Other Approaches.

Some Guidelines.

Disaster Prevention.

Disaster and Contingency Planning Web Sites.

17. Data and Storage Management.

Storage Management Basics.

Files and Data Sets.

File Placement on Disk.

Raw Partitions vs. File Systems.

Temporary Database Files.

Space Management.

Data Page Layouts.

Index Page Layouts.

Transaction Logs.

Storage Options.

RAID.

JBOD.

Storage Area Networks.

Network-Attached Storage.

Direct Access File System.

Planning for the Future.

Capacity Planning.

18. Data Movement and Distribution.

Loading and Unloading Data.

The LOAD Utility.

The UNLOAD Utility.

Maintaining Application Test Beds.

EXPORT and IMPORT.

Bulk Data Movement.

ETL Software.

Replication and Propagation.

Messaging Software.

Other Methods.

Distributed Databases.

Setting Up a Distributed Environment.

Data Distribution Standards.

Accessing Distributed Data.

Two-Phase COMMIT.

Distributed Performance Problems.

19. Data Warehouse Administration.

What Is a Data Warehouse?

Analytical vs.Transaction Processing.

Administering the Data Warehouse.

Too Much Focus on Technology?

Data Warehouse Design.

Data Movement.

Data Cleansing.

Data Warehouse Scalability.

Data Warehouse Performance.

Data Freshness.

Data Content.

Data Usage.

Financial Chargeback.

Backup and Recovery.

Don't Operate in a Vacuum!

20. Database Connectivity.

Client/Server Computing.

A Historical Look.

Business Issues.

What Is Client/Server Computing?

Types of Client/Server Applications.

Database Gateways.

Network Traffic.

Databases, the Internet, and the Web.

Internet-Connected Databases.

New Technologies.

Database Design.

21. Metadata Management.

What Is Metadata?

From Data to Knowledge and Beyond.

Metadata Strategy.

Data Warehousing and Metadata.

Types of Metadata.

Repositories and Data Dictionaries.

Repository Benefits.

Repository Challenges.

Data Dictionaries.

22. DBA Tools.

Types and Benefits of DBA Tools.

Data Modeling and Design.

Database Change Management.

Table Editors.

Performance Management.

Backup and Recovery.

Database Utilities.

Data Warehousing and Business Intelligence.

Programming and Development Tools.

Miscellaneous Tools.

Evaluating DBA Tool Vendors.

Homegrown DBA Tools.

23. DBA Rules of Thumb.

The Rules.

Write Down Everything.

Keep Everything.

Automate!

Share Your Knowledge.

Analyze, Simplify, and Focus.

Don't Panic!

Measure Twice, Cut Once.

Understand the Business, Not Just the Technology.

Don't Become a Hermit.

Use All of the Resources at Your Disposal.

Keep Up-to-Date.

Final Exam.

Appendix 1. Database Fundamentals.

What Is a Database?

Why Use a DBMS?

Advantages of Using a DBMS.

Summary.

Appendix 2. The DBMS Vendors.

The Big Three.

Contact Information.

The Second Tier.

Contact Information.

Other Significant Players.

Contact Information.

Open-Source DBMS Offerings.

Nonrelational DBMS Vendors.

Object-Oriented DBMS Vendors.

PC-Based DBMS Vendors.

Appendix 3. DBA Tool Vendors.

The Major Vendors.

Other DBA Tool Vendors.

Data Modeling Tool Vendors.

Repository Vendors.

Data Movement and Business Intelligence Vendors.

Appendix 4. DBA Web Resources.

Usenet Newsgroups.

Mailing Lists.

Web Sites and Portals.

Vendor Web Sites.

Magazine Web Sites.

Consultant Web Sites.

Database Portals.

Other Web Sites.

Bibliography.

Database Management and Database Systems.

Data Administration, Data Modeling, and Database Design.

Data Warehousing.

Object Orientation and Database Management.

Related Topics.

DB2.

IMS.

Informix.

Oracle.

SQL Server.

Sybase.

Index. 0201741296T05292002

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Preface

A database management system (DBMS) is used to create databases. Most of today's applications deploy databases to store information such as names, addresses, and account balances. This information can be accessed and manipulated by application programs to perform business processes like payroll processing, sales processing, and customer billing. Every DBMS requires database administration to ensure efficient and effective use of databases by applications. This means that any user of Oracle, Microsoft SQL Server, DB2, Informix, Sybase, MySQL, Teradata, PostgreSQL, Ingres and any other popular DBMSs will benefit from the information in this book.

This book provides the industry's first non-product-based description of database administration techniques and practices. Many organizations have multiple DBMS products and will benefit from a consolidated view of database administration that does not focus on the internals and nuances of each particular product. Such a view is presented in this text.

The book defines the job of database administrator and outlines what is required of a database administrator, or DBA, in clear, easy-to-understand language. The book can be used

  • As a text for learning the discipline of database administration
  • As the basis for setting up a DBA group
  • To augment a DBMS-specific manual or textbook
  • To help explain to upper-level management what a DBA is, and why the position is required

Every organization that deploys databases using a DBMS needs to understand the concepts outlined in this book. Many small- to medium-sized organizations attempt to implement DBMS products without a DBA. This book explains the practice of database administration and underscores the necessity of a DBA for DBMS implementation to succeed. Other organizations implement only subsets of the database administration practices that are covered in this book. With a thorough reading of Database Administration: The Complete Guide to Practices and Procedures, it will become quite clear that a comprehensive approach to database administration is required. This book examines and explains each of the components that comprise this discipline.

As technology advances, new IT techniques emerge that impact the discipline of database administration. Two such areas are Internet-enabled database access and the storage of procedural logic in the DBMS in the form of triggers, user-defined functions, and stored procedures. Because the impact of these newer technologies and techniques on the role of the DBA is examined in this book, even seasoned database professionals will find the book useful. Indeed, the book will be helpful for any and all of the following folks:

  • DBA managers
  • IT professionals who want to become DBAs
  • IT professionals new to implementing a DBMS
  • Students of database management
  • DBAs
  • Systems programmers and system administrators who interface with DBAs and need to understand what it is that DBAs do

Because this book covers heterogeneous database administration without focusing on just one DBMS, it can be used by organizations to set up a DBA function when more than one DBMS product is being used. This is particularly important because the single-DBMS shop is a rarity these days. Analysts estimate that most medium- to large-sized organizations have from three to ten different DBMS products in use—all requiring administration.

Additionally, DBA is currently a very hot job. In many cases, DBAs demand and obtain very high salaries. As such, many technicians aspire to become DBAs, and this book will help them to do just that. If you are an IT professional with an interest in becoming a DBA, this book will help you to achieve that objective.

Other books about database administration are available, but they approach the subject from the perspective of a single DBMS. Many of these books are quite good. I wrote one myself about DB2. This book is not intended to replace such books, but to augment them with an independent treatment of database administration tasks.

How to Use This Book

This book can be used as both a tutorial and a reference. The book is organized to proceed chronologically through DBA tasks that are likely to be encountered. Therefore, if you read the book sequentially from Chapter 1 through Chapter 23, you will get a comprehensive sequential overview of the DBA job. Alternatively, you can read any chapter independently because each chapter deals with a single topic. References to other chapters are clearly made if other material in the book would aid the reader's understanding.

0201741296P05292002

Read More Show Less

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