Database Administration: The Complete Guide to DBA Practices and Procedures / Edition 2

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Overview

Database Administration, Second Edition, is the definitive, technology-independent guide to the modern

discipline of database administration. Packed with best practices and proven solutions for any database platform

or environment, this text fully reflects the field’s latest realities and challenges. Drawing on more than thirty

years of database experience, Mullins focuses on problems that today’s DBAs actually face, and skills and

knowledge they simply must have.

Mullins presents realistic, thorough, and up-to-date coverage of every DBA task, including creating database

environments, data modeling, normalization, design, performance, data integrity, compliance, governance,

security, backup/recovery, disaster planning, data and storage management, data movement/distribution,

data warehousing, connectivity, metadata, tools, and more.

This edition adds new coverage of “Big Data,” database appliances, cloud computing, and NoSQL. Mullins

includes an entirely new chapter on the DBA’s role in regulatory compliance, with substantial new material on

data breaches, auditing, encryption, retention, and metadata management. You’ll also find an all-new glossary,

plus up-to-the-minute DBA rules of thumb.

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Editorial Reviews

From The Critics
Combining tutorial and reference elements, this guide provides a non- product-based description of database administration techniques and practices. It defines the job of the database administrator (DBA), underscoring the necessity of a DBA for a database management system (DBMS) implementation to succeed, then proceeds chronologically through every task the DBA is likely to encounter. The book can be used as a text for database administration, as the basis for setting up a DBA group, to augment a DBMS-specific text or manual, and to help upper-level management explain why the DBA position is necessary. Mullins is a data management strategist in the private sector. Annotation c. Book News, Inc., Portland, OR
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780321822949
  • Publisher: Addison-Wesley
  • Publication date: 10/25/2012
  • Edition number: 2
  • Pages: 890
  • Sales rank: 625,530
  • Product dimensions: 6.90 (w) x 9.10 (h) x 1.30 (d)

Meet the Author

Craig S. Mullins is president and principal consultant of Mullins Consulting, a leading data and database

management consultancy. Mullins has more than thirty years of experience in all facets of database administration

and development, in industries ranging from manufacturing and finance to education and research. He covered

database administration as research director for Gartner Group and authored DB2 Developer’s Guide, Sixth

Edition, the number-one guide to DB2 for z/OS. Mullins publishes The Database Site (thedatabasesite.com)

and presents at industry events worldwide. IBM named him Information Management Champion for his work

in the DB2 community.

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Read an Excerpt

A database management system (DBMS) is used to create databases. Most of today's applications deploy databases to store information such as names, addresses, and account balances. This information can be accessed and manipulated by application programs to perform business processes like payroll processing, sales processing, and customer billing. Every DBMS requires database administration to ensure efficient and effective use of databases by applications. This means that any user of Oracle, Microsoft SQL Server, DB2, Informix, Sybase, MySQL, Teradata, PostgreSQL, Ingres and any other popular DBMSs will benefit from the information in this book.

This book provides the industry's first non-product-based description of database administration techniques and practices. Many organizations have multiple DBMS products and will benefit from a consolidated view of database administration that does not focus on the internals and nuances of each particular product. Such a view is presented in this text.

The book defines the job of database administrator and outlines what is required of a database administrator, or DBA, in clear, easy-to-understand language. The book can be used

  • As a text for learning the discipline of database administration
  • As the basis for setting up a DBA group
  • To augment a DBMS-specific manual or textbook
  • To help explain to upper-level management what a DBA is, and why the position is required

Every organization that deploys databases using a DBMS needs to understand the concepts outlined in this book. Many small- to medium-sized organizations attempt to implement DBMS products without a DBA. This book explains the practice of database administration and underscores the necessity of a DBA for DBMS implementation to succeed. Other organizations implement only subsets of the database administration practices that are covered in this book. With a thorough reading of Database Administration: The Complete Guide to Practices and Procedures, it will become quite clear that a comprehensive approach to database administration is required. This book examines and explains each of the components that comprise this discipline.

As technology advances, new IT techniques emerge that impact the discipline of database administration. Two such areas are Internet-enabled database access and the storage of procedural logic in the DBMS in the form of triggers, user-defined functions, and stored procedures. Because the impact of these newer technologies and techniques on the role of the DBA is examined in this book, even seasoned database professionals will find the book useful. Indeed, the book will be helpful for any and all of the following folks:

  • DBA managers
  • IT professionals who want to become DBAs
  • IT professionals new to implementing a DBMS
  • Students of database management
  • DBAs
  • Systems programmers and system administrators who interface with DBAs and need to understand what it is that DBAs do

Because this book covers heterogeneous database administration without focusing on just one DBMS, it can be used by organizations to set up a DBA function when more than one DBMS product is being used. This is particularly important because the single-DBMS shop is a rarity these days. Analysts estimate that most medium- to large-sized organizations have from three to ten different DBMS products in use—all requiring administration.

Additionally, DBA is currently a very hot job. In many cases, DBAs demand and obtain very high salaries. As such, many technicians aspire to become DBAs, and this book will help them to do just that. If you are an IT professional with an interest in becoming a DBA, this book will help you to achieve that objective.

Other books about database administration are available, but they approach the subject from the perspective of a single DBMS. Many of these books are quite good. I wrote one myself about DB2. This book is not intended to replace such books, but to augment them with an independent treatment of database administration tasks.

How to Use This Book

This book can be used as both a tutorial and a reference. The book is organized to proceed chronologically through DBA tasks that are likely to be encountered. Therefore, if you read the book sequentially from Chapter 1 through Chapter 23, you will get a comprehensive sequential overview of the DBA job. Alternatively, you can read any chapter independently because each chapter deals with a single topic. References to other chapters are clearly made if other material in the book would aid the reader's understanding.

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Table of Contents

How to Use This Book xxxiii

Acknowledgments xxxv

About the Author xxxvii

Chapter 1:What Is a DBA? 1

Why Learn Database Administration? 3

A Unique Vantage Point 4

The Management Discipline of Database Administration 9

Evaluating a DBA Job Offer 14

Database, Data, and System Administration 15

DBA Tasks 20

DBMS Release Migration 29

The Types of DBAs 31

Staffing Considerations 37

Multiplatform DBA Issues 42

Production versus Test 44

The Impact of Newer Technology on DBA 46

DBA Certification 56

The Rest of the Book 58

Review 58

Chapter 2: Creating the Database Environment 61

Defining the Organization’s DBMS Strategy 61

Installing the DBMS 75

Upgrading DBMS Versions and Releases 82

Database Standards and Procedures 92

DBMS Education 103

Summary 104

Review 104

Suggested Reading 105

Chapter 3: Data Modeling and Normalization 107

Data Modeling Concepts 108

The Components of a Data Model 113

Discovering Entities, Attributes, and Relationships 124

Conceptual, Logical, and Physical Data Models 125

What Is Normalization? 128

The Normal Forms 128

Normalization in Practice 135

Additional Data Modeling Issues 135

Summary 136

Review 137

Suggested Reading 138

Chapter 4: Database Design 141

From Logical Model to Physical Database 141

Database Performance Design 150

Denormalization 160

Views 175

Data Definition Language 177

Temporal Data Support 177

Summary 180

Review 181

Suggested Reading 182

Chapter 5: Application Design 185

Database Application Development and SQL 186

Defining Transactions 205

Locking 210

Batch Processing 221

Summary 222

Review 222

Suggested Reading 223

Chapter 6: Design Reviews 227

What Is a Design Review? 227

Types of Design Reviews 232

Design Review Output 239

Additional Considerations 240

Summary 241

Review 241

Suggested Reading 242

Chapter 7: Database Change Management 243

Change Management Requirements 244

Types of Changes 247

Impact of Change on Database Structures 250

Summary 262

Review 263

Suggested Reading 263

Chapter 8: Data Availability 265

Defining Availability 267

Cost of Downtime 271

Availability Problems 274

Ensuring Availability 287

Summary 296

Review 297

Suggested Reading 298

Chapter 9: Performance Management 299

Defining Performance 299

Service-Level Management 308

Types of Performance Tuning 311

Performance Tuning Tools 313

DBMS Performance Basics 315

Summary 316

Review 316

Suggested Reading 317

Chapter 10: System Performance 319

The Larger Environment 320

DBMS Installation and Configuration Issues 327

System Monitoring 345

Summary 346

Review 346

Suggested Reading 347

Chapter 11: Database Performance 349

Techniques for Optimizing Databases 349

Database Reorganization 365

Summary 371

Review 371

Suggested Reading 372

Chapter 12: Application Performance 373

Designing Applications for Relational Access 373

Relational Optimization 374

Additional Optimization Considerations 391

Reviewing Access Paths 394

SQL Coding and Tuning for Efficiency 399

Summary 407

Review 407

Suggested Reading 408

Chapter 13: Data Integrity 409

Types of Integrity 409

Database Structure Integrity 410

Semantic Data Integrity 414

Temporal Database Systems 444

Summary 446

Review 447

Suggested Reading 448

Chapter 14: Database Security 449

Data Breaches 449

Database Security Basics 451

Granting and Revoking Authority 456

Authorization Roles and Groups 466

Other Database Security Mechanisms 468

Encryption 470

SQL Injection 473

Auditing 477

External Security 478

DBMS Fixpacks and Maintenance 480

Summary 481

Review 481

Suggested Reading 482

Chapter 15: Regulatory Compliance and Database

Administration 483

A Collaborative Approach to Compliance 486

Metadata Management, Data Quality, and Data Governance 488

Database Auditing and Data Access Tracking 490

Data Masking and Obfuscation 496

Database Archiving for Long-Term Data Retention 498

Closer Tracking of Traditional DBA Tasks 507

Summary 511

Review 511

Suggested Reading 512

Chapter 16: Database Backup and Recovery 515

The Importance of Backup and Recovery 515

Preparing for Problems 516

Backup 517

Recovery 537

Alternatives to Backup and Recovery 554

Summary 557

Review 557

Suggested Reading 558

Chapter 17: Disaster Planning 559

The Need for Planning 559

General Disaster Recovery Guidelines 563

Backing Up the Database for Disaster Recovery 569

Disaster Prevention 575

Summary 576

Review 576

Suggested Reading 577

Chapter 18: Data and Storage Management 579

Storage Management Basics 579

Files and Data Sets 583

Space Management 587

Fragmentation and Storage 595

Storage Options 596

Planning for the Future 608

Summary 609

Review 609

Suggested Reading 610

Chapter 19: Data Movement and Distribution 613

Loading and Unloading Data 614

EXPORT and IMPORT 622

Bulk Data Movement 623

Distributed Databases 626

Summary 633

Review 634

Suggested Reading 635

Chapter 20: Data Warehouse Administration 637

What Is a Data Warehouse? 637

Administering the Data Warehouse 640

Summary 658

Review 658

Suggested Reading 659

Chapter 21: Database Connectivity 661

Multitier, Distributed Computing 661

Network Traffic 670

Databases, the Internet, and the Web 675

Summary 681

Review 682

Suggested Reading 682

Chapter 22: Metadata Management 685

What Is Metadata? 685

Types of Metadata 689

Repositories and Data Dictionaries 691

Summary 696

Review 696

Suggested Reading 697

Chapter 23: DBA Tools 699

Types and Benefits of DBA Tools 699

Examine Native DBA Tools 728

Evaluating DBA Tool Vendors 729

Summary 733

Review 733

Chapter 24: DBA Rules of Thumb 735

Write Down Everything 735

Keep Everything 736

Automate! 737

Share Your Knowledge 739

Analyze, Simplify, and Focus 741

Don’t Panic! 742

Measure Twice, Cut Once 743

Understand the Business, Not Just the Technology 743

Don’t Become a Hermit 745

Use All of the Resources at Your Disposal 745

Keep Up-to-Date 746

Invest in Yourself 747

Summary 748

Final Exam 748

Appendix A: Database Fundamentals 753

What Is a Database? 753

Why Use a DBMS? 754

Summary 759

Appendix B: The DBMS Vendors 761

The Big Three 762

The Second Tier 763

Other Significant Players 763

Open-Source DBMS Offerings 764

Nonrelational DBMS Vendors 765

NoSQL DBMS Vendors 765

Object-Oriented DBMS Vendors 766

PC-Based DBMS Vendors 766

Appendix C: DBA Tool Vendors 769

The Major Vendors 769

Other DBA Tool Vendors 770

Data Modeling Tool Vendors 771

Repository Vendors 772

Data Movement and Business Intelligence Vendors 773

Appendix D: DBA Web Resources 775

Usenet Newsgroups 775

Mailing Lists 776

Web Sites, Blogs, and Portals 778

Appendix E: Sample DBA Job Posting 785

Job Posting 785

Bibliography 793

Database Management and Database Systems 793

Data Administration, Data Modeling, and Database Design 799

Database Security, Protection, and Compliance 802

Data Warehousing 804

SQL 805

Object Orientation and Database Management 807

Operating Systems 807

Related Topics 808

DB2 812

IMS 813

MySQL 813

Oracle 814

SQL Server 815

Sybase 816

Other Database Systems 817

Glossary 819

Index 853

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Preface

A Database Management System (DBMS) is used to create databases. Most of today's applications deploy databases to store information like names, addresses, account balances, etc. This information can be accessed and manipulated by application programs to perform business processes (like payroll processing, sales processing, and customer billing). Every DBMS requires database administration to ensure efficient and effective usage of databases by applications. This means that every user of Oracle, Microsoft SQL Server, DB2, Informix, Sybase, mySQL, Teradata, PostgreSQL, Ingres and any other popular DBMS will benefit from the information in this book.

Many organizations have multiple of these products and will benefit from a consolidated view of DBA that does not focus on the internals and nuances of each particular DBMS product. Such a view is presented in this text.This book provides the industry's first non-product based description of database administration techniques and practices. The book defines the job of database administrator and outlines what is required of a DBA in clear, easy-to-understand language. The book can be used:

  • As a text for learning the discipline of database administration
  • As the basis for setting up a DBA group
  • To augment a DBMS-specific manual or text book
  • To help explain to upper-level management what a DBA is, and why it is required.

Every organization that deploys databases using a DBMS needs to understand the concepts outlined in this book. Many small to medium organizations attempt to implement DBMS products without DBA. This book explains the practice of DBA and can be used to educateorganizations as to the necessity of DBA in order for DBMS implementation to succeed. Other organizations implement only subsets of the DBA practices that are covered in this book. With a thorough reading of Database Administration: Practices and Procedures, it will become quite clear that a comprehensive approach to DBA is required. This book examines and explains each of the components that comprise the discipline of database administration.

As technology advances new IT techniques emerge that impact the discipline of DBA. Two such areas are Internet-enabled database access and storing procedural logic in the DBMS in the form of triggers, user-defined functions, and stored procedures. Because the impact of these newer technologies and techniques on the role of the DBA is examined in this book, even seasoned database professionals will find the book useful. Indeed, the book will be helpful for any and all of the following folks:

  • Anyone who want to understand what DBAs do
  • DBA Managers
  • IT professionals who want to become DBAs
  • IT professionals new to implementing a DBMS
  • Students of Database Management
  • DBAs
  • Systems Programmers and System Administrators who interface with DBAs and need to understand what it is that DBAs do

Because this book covers heterogeneous database administration without focusing on just one DBMS, it can be used by organizations to set up a DBA function when more than one DBMS product is being used. This is particularly important because Gartner Group, the industry analyst firm, estimates that most medium to large organizations have from 3 to 10 different DB require administration. The single-DBMS shop is a rarity these days.

Additionally, DBA positions are currently very hot, with DBAs demanding and obtaining very high salaries. As such, many technicians aspire to become DBAs and this book will help them to do just that. If you are an IT professional with interest in becoming a DBA, this book will help you to achieve that objective.Other books about database administration are available, but they approach the subject from the perspective of a single DBMS. Many of these books are quite good. I wrote one myself for DB2. This book is not intended to replace such books, but to augment these books with an independent treatment of database administration tasks.

How to Use This book

This book can be used as both a tutorial and a reference. The book is organized to proceed chronologically through DBA tasks that are likely to be encountered. So, if you read the book sequentially from Chapter 1 through Chapter 23 you will get a comprehensive chronological overview of the DBA job. Or you can read any chapter independently if you wish because each chapter deals with a single subject matter. References to other chapters are clearly made where appropriate if other material in the book would aid the reader's understanding.



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