BN.com Gift Guide

Database Systems: The Complete Book / Edition 2

Hardcover (Print)
Rent
Rent from BN.com
$46.80
(Save 77%)
Est. Return Date: 02/19/2015
Buy Used
Buy Used from BN.com
$118.82
(Save 41%)
Item is in good condition but packaging may have signs of shelf wear/aging or torn packaging.
Condition: Used – Good details
Used and New from Other Sellers
Used and New from Other Sellers
from $100.00
Usually ships in 1-2 business days
(Save 50%)
Other sellers (Hardcover)
  • All (20) from $100.00   
  • New (11) from $168.35   
  • Used (9) from $100.00   

Overview

Database Systems: The Complete Book is ideal for Database Systems and Database Design and Application courses offered at the junior, senior and graduate levels in Computer Science departments. A basic understanding of algebraic expressions and laws, logic, basic data structure, OOP concepts, and programming environments is implied.

Written by well-known computer scientists, this introduction to database systems offers a comprehensive approach, focusing on database design, database use, and implementation of database applications and database management systems.

The first half of the book provides in-depth coverage of databases from the point of view of the database designer, user, and application programmer. It covers the latest database standards SQL:1999, SQL/PSM, SQL/CLI, JDBC, ODL, and XML, with broader coverage of SQL than most other texts. The second half of the book provides in-depth coverage of databases from the point of view of the DBMS implementor. It focuses on storage structures, query processing, and transaction management. The book covers the main techniques in these areas with broader coverage of query optimization than most other texts, along with advanced topics including multidimensional and bitmap indexes, distributed transactions, and information integration techniques.

Read More Show Less

Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780131873254
  • Publisher: Prentice Hall
  • Publication date: 6/19/2008
  • Series: Pearson Custom Computer Science Series
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Edition number: 2
  • Pages: 1248
  • Sales rank: 443,716
  • Product dimensions: 6.50 (w) x 9.30 (h) x 1.90 (d)

Meet the Author

Hector Garcia-Molina is the L. Bosack and S. Lerner Professor of Computer Science and Electrical Engineering at Stanford University. His research interests include digital libraries, information integration, and database applications on the Internet. He was a recipient of the SIGMOD Innovations Award and a member of PITAC (President's Information-Technology Advisory Council). He currently serves on the Board of Directors of Oracle Corp.

Jeffrey D. Ullman is the Stanford W. Ascherman Professor of Computer Science (emeritus) at Stanford University. He is the author or co-author of 16 books, including Elements of ML Programming (Prentice Hall 1998). His research interests include data mining, information integration, and electronic education. He is a member of the National Academy of Engineering, and recipient of a Guggenheim Fellowship, the Karl V. Karlstom Outstanding Educator Award, the SIGMOD Contributions and Edgar F. Codd Innovations Awards, and the Knuth Prize.

Jennifer Widom is Professor of Computer Science and Electrical Engineering at Stanford University. Her research interests span many aspects of nontraditional data management. She is an ACM Fellow and a member of the National Academy of Engineering, she received the ACM SIGMOD Edgar F. Codd Innovations award in 2007 and was a Guggenheim Fellow in 2000, and she has served on a variety of program committees, advisory boards, and editorial boards.

Read More Show Less

Read an Excerpt

At Stanford, we are on the quarter system, and as a result, our introductory database instruction is divided into two courses. The first, CS145, is designed for students who will use database systems but not necessarily take a job implementing a DBMS. It is a prerequisite for CS245, which is the introduction to DBMS implementation. Students wishing to go further in the database field then take CS345 (theory), CS346 (DBMS implementation project), and CS347 (transaction processing and distributed databases).

Starting in 1997, we published a pair of books. <I>A First Course in Database Systems</I> was designed for CS145, and <I>Database System Implementation</I> was for CS245 and parts of CS346. Because many schools are on the semester system or combine the two kinds of database instruction into one introductory course, we felt that there was a need to produce the two books as a single volume. At the same time, the evolution of database systems has made a number of new topics imperative for a modern course. Thus, we have added, mostly to the application-programming area, topics such as object-relational data, SQL/PSM (stored programs), SQL/CLI (the emerging standard for the C/SQL interface), and JDBC (the same for Java/SQL).

Use of the Book

We recommend that two quarters be devoted to the material in this book. If you follow the Stanford approach, you would cover the first ten chapters in the first quarter and the last ten in the second quarter. Should you wish to cover the material in a single semester, then there will have to be some omitted portions. In general, we suggest that Chapters 2-7, 11-13, and 17-18 should be givenhighest priority, but there are pieces from each of these chapters that can be skipped.

If, as we do in CS145, you give students a substantial database-application design and implementation project, then you may have to reorder the material somewhat, so that SQL instruction occurs earlier in the Book. You may wish to defer material such as dependencies, although students need normalization for design.

Prerequisites

We have used the book at the "mezzanine" level, in courses taken both by undergraduates and beginning graduate students. The formal prerequisites for the courses are Sophomore-level treatments of: (1) Data structures, algorithms, and discrete math, and (2) Software systems, software engineering, and programming languages. Of this material, it is important that students have at least a rudimentary understanding of such topics as: algebraic expressions and laws, logic, basic data structures such as search trees and graphs, object-oriented programming concepts, and programming environments. However, we believe that adequate background is surely acquired by the end of the Junior year in a. typical computer science program.

Exercises

The book contains extensive exercises, with some for almost every section. We indicate harder exercises or parts of exercises with an exclamation point. The hardest exercises have a double exclamation point.

Some of the exercises or parts are marked with a star. For these exercises, we shall endeavor to maintain solutions accessible through the book's web page. These solutions are publicly available and should be used for self-testing. Note that in a few cases, one exercise B asks for modification or adaptation of your solution to another exercise A. If certain parts of A have solutions, then you should expect the corresponding parts of B to have solutions as well.

Support on the World Wide Web

Here are solutions to starred exercises, errata as we learn of them, and backup materials. We are making available the notes for each offering of CS145 and CS245 as we teach them, including homeworks, projects and exams.

Read More Show Less

Table of Contents

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1 The Worlds of Database Systems

1.1 The Evolution of Database Systems

1.1.1 Early Database Management Systems

1.1.2 Relational Database Systems

1.1.3 Smaller and Smaller Systems

1.1.4 Bigger and Bigger Systems

1.1.5 Information Integration

1.2 Overview of a Database Management System

1.2.1 Data-Definition Language Commands

1.2.2 Overview of Query Processing

1.2.3 Storage and Buffer Management

1.2.4 Transaction Processing

1.2.5 The Query Processor

1.3 Outline of Database-System Studies

1.4 References for Chapter 1

PART I: Relational Database Modeling

2 The Relational Model of Data

2.1 An Overview of Data Models

2.1.1 What is a Data Model?

2.1.2 Important Data Models

2.1.3 The Relational Model in Brief

2.1.4 The Semistructured Model in Brief

2.1.5 Other Data Models

2.1.6 Comparison of Modeling Approaches

2.2 Basics of the Relational Model

2.2.1 Attributes

2.2.2 Schemas

2.2.3 Tuples

2.2.4 Domains

2.2.5 Equivalent Representations of a Relation

2.2.6 Relation Instances

2.2.7 Keys of Relations

2.2.8 An Example Database Schema

2.2.9 Exercises for Section 2.2

2.3 Defining a Relation Schema in SQL

2.3.1 Relations in SQL

2.3.2 Data Types

2.3.3 Simple Table Declarations

2.3.4 Modifying Relation Schemas

2.3.5 Default Values

2.3.6 Declaring Keys

2.3.7 Exercises for Section 2.3

2.4 An Algebraic Query Language

2.4.1 Why Do We Need a Special Query Language?

2.4.2 What is an Algebra?

2.4.3 Overview of Relational Algebra

2.4.4 Set Operations on Relations

2.4.5 Projection

2.4.6 Selection

2.4.7 Cartesian Product

2.4.8 Natural Joins

2.4.9 Theta-Joins

2.4.10 Combining Operations to Form Queries

2.4.11 Naming and Renaming

2.4.12 Relationships Among Operations

2.4.13 A Linear Notation for Algebraic Expressions

2.4.14 Exercises for Section 2.4

2.5 Constraints on Relations

2.5.1 Relational Algebra as a Constraint Language

2.5.2 Referential Integrity Constraints

2.5.3 Key Constraints

2.5.4 Additional Constraint Examples

2.5.5 Exercises for Section 2.5

2.6 Summary of Chapter 2

2.7 References for Chapter 2

3 Design Theory for Relational Databases

3.1 Functional Dependencies

3.1.1 Definition of Functional Dependency

3.1.2 Keys of Relations

3.1.3 Superkeys

3.1.4 Exercises for Section 3.1

3.2 Rules About Functional Dependencies

3.2.1 Reasoning About Functional Dependencies

3.2.2 The Splitting/Combining Rule

3.2.3 Trivial Functional Dependencies

3.2.4 Computing the Closure of Attributes

3.2.5 Why the Closure Algorithm Works

3.2.6 The Transitive Rule

3.2.7 Closing Sets of Functional Dependencies

3.2.8 Projecting Functional Dependencies

3.2.9 Exercises for Section 3.2

3.3 Design of Relational Database Schemas

3.3.1 Anomalies

3.3.2 Decomposing Relations

3.3.3 Boyce-Codd Normal Form

3.3.4 Decomposition into BCNF

3.3.5 Exercises for Section 3.3

3.4 Decomposition: The Good, Bad, and Ugly

3.4.1 Recovering Information from a Decomposition

3.4.2 The Chase Test for Lossless Join

3.4.3 Why the Chase Works

3.4.4 Dependency Preservation

3.4.5 Exercises for Section 3.4

3.5 Third Normal Form

3.5.1 Definition of Third Normal Form

3.5.2 The Synthesis Algorithm for 3NF Schemas

3.5.3 Why the 3NF Synthesis Algorithm Works

3.5.4 Exercises for Section 3.5

3.6 Multivalued Dependencies

3.6.1 Attribute Independence and Its Consequent Redundancy

3.6.2 Definition of Multivalued Dependencies

3.6.3 Reasoning About Multivalued Dependencies

3.6.4 Fourth Normal Form

3.6.5 Decomposition into Fourth Normal Form

3.6.6 Relationships Among Normal Forms

3.6.7 Exercises for Section 3.6

3.7 An Algorithm for Discovering MVD's

3.7.1 The Closure and the Chase

3.7.2 Extending the Chase to MVD's

3.7.3 Why the Chase Works for MVD's

3.7.4 Projecting MVD's

3.7.5 Exercises for Section 3.7

3.8 Summary of Chapter 3

3.9 References for Chapter 3

4 High-Level Database Models

4.1 The Entity/Relationship Model

4.1.1 Entity Sets

4.1.2 Attributes

4.1.3 Relationships

4.1.4 Entity-Relationship Diagrams

4.1.5 Instances of an E/R Diagram

4.1.6 Multiplicity of Binary E/R Relationships

4.1.7 Multiway Relationships

4.1.8 Roles in Relationships

4.1.9 Attributes on Relationships

4.1.10 Converting Multiway Relationships to Binary

4.1.11 Subclasses in the E/R Model

4.1.12 Exercises for Section 4.1

4.2 Design Principles

4.2.1 Faithfulness

4.2.2 Avoiding Redundancy

4.2.3 Simplicity Counts

4.2.4 Choosing the Right Relationships

4.2.5 Picking the Right Kind of Element

4.2.6 Exercises for Section 4.2

4.3 Constraints in the E/R Model

4.3.1 Keys in the E/R Model

4.3.2 Representing Keys in the E/R Model

4.3.3 Referential Integrity

4.3.4 Degree Constraints

4.3.5 Exercises for Section 4.3

4.4 Weak Entity Sets

4.4.1 Causes of Weak Entity Sets

4.4.2 Requirements for Weak Entity Sets

4.4.3 Weak Entity Set Notation

4.4.4 Exercises for Section 4.4

4.5 From E/R Diagrams to Relational Designs

4.5.1 From Entity Sets to Relations

4.5.2 From E/R Relationships to Relations

4.5.3 Combining Relations

4.5.4 Handling Weak Entity Sets

4.5.5 Exercises for Section 4.5

4.6 Converting Subclass Structures to Relations

4.6.1 E/R-Style Conversion

4.6.2 An Object-Oriented Approach

4.6.3 Using Null Values to Combine Relations

4.6.4 Comparison of Approaches

4.6.5 Exercises for Section 4.6

4.7 Unified Modeling Language

4.7.1 UML Classes

4.7.2 Keys for UML classes

4.7.3 Associations

4.7.4 Self-Associations

4.7.5 Association Classes

4.7.6 Subclasses in UML

4.7.7 Aggregations and Compositions

4.7.8 Exercises for Section 4.7

4.8 From UML Diagrams to Relations

4.8.1 UML-to-Relations Basics

4.8.2 From UML Subclasses to Relations

4.8.3 From Aggregations and Compositions to Relations

4.8.4 The UML Analog of Weak Entity Sets

4.8.5 Exercises for Section 4.8

4.9 Object Definition Language

4.9.1 Class Declarations

4.9.2 Attributes in ODL

4.9.3 Relationships in ODL

4.9.4 Inverse Relationships

4.9.5 Multiplicity of Relationships

4.9.6 Types in ODL

4.9.7 Subclasses in ODL

4.9.8 Declaring Keys in ODL

4.9.9 Exercises for Section 4.9

4.10 From ODL Designs to Relational Designs

4.10.1 From ODL Classes to Relations

4.10.2 Complex Attributes in Classes

4.10.3 Representing Set-Valued Attributes

4.10.4 Representing Other Type Constructors

4.10.5 Representing ODL Relationships

4.10.6 Exercises for Section 4.10

4.11 Summary of Chapter 4

4.12 References for Chapter 4

PART II: Relational Database Programming

5 Algebraic and Logical Query Languages

5.1 Relational Operations on Bags

5.1.1 Why Bags?

5.1.2 Union, Intersection, and Difference of Bags

5.1.3 Projection of Bags

5.1.4 Selection on Bags

5.1.5 Product of Bags

5.1.6 Joins of Bags

5.1.7 Exercises for Section 5.1

5.2 Extended Operators of Relational Algebra

5.2.1 Duplicate Elimination

5.2.2 Aggregation Operators

5.2.3 Grouping

5.2.4 The Grouping Operator

5.2.5 Extending the Projection Operator

5.2.6 The Sorting Operator

5.2.7 Outerjoins

5.2.8 Exercises for Section 5.2

5.3 A Logic for Relations

5.3.1 Predicates and Atoms

5.3.2 Arithmetic Atoms

5.3.3 Datalog Rules and Queries

5.3.4 Meaning of Datalog Rules

5.3.5 Extensional and Intensional Predicates

5.3.6 Datalog Rules Applied to Bags

5.3.7 Exercises for Section 5.3

5.4 Relational Algebra and Datalog

5.4.1 Boolean Operations

5.4.2 Projection

5.4.3 Selection

5.4.4 Product

5.4.5 Joins

5.4.6 Simulating Multiple Operations with Datalog

5.4.7 Comparison Between Datalog and Relational Algebra

5.4.8 Exercises for Section 5.4

5.5 Summary of Chapter 5

5.6 References for Chapter 5

6 The Database Language SQL

6.1 Simple Queries in SQL

6.1.1 Projection in SQL

6.1.2 Selection in SQL

6.1.3 Comparison of Strings

6.1.4 Pattern Matching in SQL

6.1.5 Dates and Times

6.1.6 Null Values and Comparisons Involving {\tt NULL}

6.1.7 The Truth-Value {\tt UNKNOWN}

6.1.8 Ordering the Output

6.1.9 Exercises for Section 6.1

6.2 Queries Involving More Than One Relation

6.2.1 Products and Joins in SQL

6.2.2 Disambiguating Attributes

6.2.3 Tuple Variables

6.2.4 Interpreting Multirelation Queries

6.2.5 Union, Intersection, and Difference of Queries

6.2.6 Exercises for Section 6.2

6.3 Subqueries

6.3.1 Subqueries that Produce Scalar Values

6.3.2 Conditions Involving Relations

6.3.3 Conditions Involving Tuples

6.3.4 Correlated Subqueries

6.3.5 Subqueries in {\tt FROM}\ Clauses

6.3.6 SQL Join Expressions

6.3.7 Natural Joins

6.3.8 Outerjoins

6.3.9 Exercises for Section 6.3

6.4 Full-Relation Operations

6.4.1 Eliminating Duplicates

6.4.2 Duplicates in Unions, Intersections, and Differences

6.4.3 Grouping and Aggregation in SQL

6.4.4 Aggregation Operators

6.4.5 Grouping

6.4.6 Grouping, Aggregation, and Nulls

6.4.7 {\tt HAVING} Clauses

6.4.8 Exercises for Section 6.4

6.5 Database Modifications

6.5.1 Insertion

6.5.2 Deletion

6.5.3 Updates

6.5.4 Exercises for Section 6.5

6.6 Transactions in SQL

6.6.1 Serializability

6.6.2 Atomicity

6.6.3 Transactions

6.6.4 Read-Only Transactions

6.6.5 Dirty Reads

6.6.6 Other Isolation Levels

6.6.7 Exercises for Section 6.6

6.7 Summary of Chapter 6

6.8 References for Chapter 6

7 Constraints and Triggers

7.1 Keys and Foreign Keys

7.1.1 Declaring Foreign-Key Constraints

7.1.2 Maintaining Referential Integrity

7.1.3 Deferred Checking of Constraints

7.1.4 Exercises for Section 7.1

7.2 Constraints on Attributes and Tuples

7.2.1 Not-Null Constraints

7.2.2 Attribute-Based {\tt CHECK} Constraints

7.2.3 Tuple-Based {\tt CHECK} Constraints

7.2.4 Comparison of Tuple- and Attribute-Based Constraints

7.2.5 Exercises for Section 7.2

7.3 Modification of Constraints

7.3.1 Giving Names to Constraints

7.3.2 Altering Constraints on Tables

7.3.3 Exercises for Section 7.3

7.4 Assertions

7.4.1 Creating Assertions

7.4.2 Using Assertions

7.4.3 Exercises for Section 7.4

7.5 Triggers

7.5.1 Triggers in SQL

7.5.2 The Options for Trigger Design

7.5.3 Exercises for Section 7.5

7.6 Summary of Chapter 7

7.7 References for Chapter 7

8 Views and Indexes

8.1 Virtual Views

8.1.1 Declaring Views

8.1.2 Querying Views

8.1.3 Renaming Attributes

8.1.4 Exercises for Section 8.1

8.2 Modifying Views

8.2.1 View Removal

8.2.2 Updatable Views

8.2.3 Instead-Of Triggers on Views

8.2.4 Exercises for Section 8.2

8.3 Indexes in SQL

8.3.1 Motivation for Indexes

8.3.2 Declaring Indexes

8.3.3 Exercises for Section 8.3

8.4 Selection of Indexes

8.4.1 A Simple Cost Model

8.4.2 Some Useful Indexes

8.4.3 Calculating the Best Indexes to Create

8.4.4 Automatic Selection of Indexes to Create

8.4.5 Exercises for Section 8.4

8.5 Materialized Views

8.5.1 Maintaining a Materialized View

8.5.2 Periodic Maintenance of Materialized Views

8.5.3 Rewriting Queries to Use Materialized Views

8.5.4 Automatic Creation of Materialized Views

8.5.5 Exercises for Section 8.5

8.6 Summary of Chapter 8

8.7 References for Chapter 8

9 SQL in a Server Environment

9.1 The Three-Tier Architecture

9.1.1 The Web-Server Tier

9.1.2 The Application Tier

9.1.3 The Database Tier

9.2 The SQL Environment

9.2.1 Environments

9.2.2 Schemas

9.2.3 Catalogs

9.2.4 Clients and Servers in the SQL Environment

9.2.5 Connections

9.2.6 Sessions

9.2.7 Modules

9.3 The SQL/Host-Language Interface

9.3.1 The Impedance Mismatch Problem

9.3.2 Connecting SQL to the Host Language

9.3.3 The {\tt DECLARE} Section

9.3.4 Using Shared Variables

9.3.5 Single-Row Select Statements

9.3.6 Cursors

9.3.7 Modifications by Cursor

9.3.8 Protecting Against Concurrent Updates

9.3.9 Dynamic SQL

9.3.10 Exercises for Section 9.3

9.4 Stored Procedures

9.4.1 Creating PSM Functions and Procedures

9.4.2 Some Simple Statement Forms in PSM

9.4.3 Branching Statements

9.4.4 Queries in PSM

9.4.5 Loops in PSM

9.4.6 For-Loops

9.4.7 Exceptions in PSM

9.4.8 Using PSM Functions and Procedures

9.4.9 Exercises for Section 9.4

9.5 Using a Call-Level Interface

9.5.1 Introduction to SQL/CLI

9.5.2 Processing Statements

9.5.3 Fetching Data From a Query Result

9.5.4 Passing Parameters to Queries

9.5.5 Exercises for Section 9.5

9.6 JDBC

9.6.1 Introduction to JDBC

9.6.2 Creating Statements in JDBC

9.6.3 Cursor Operations in JDBC

9.6.4 Parameter Passing

9.6.5 Exercises for Section 9.6

9.7 PHP

9.7.1 PHP Basics

9.7.2 Arrays

9.7.3 The PEAR DB Library

9.7.4 Creating a Database Connection Using DB

9.7.5 Executing SQL Statements

9.7.6 Cursor Operations in PHP

9.7.7 Dynamic SQL in PHP

9.7.8 Exercises for Section 9.7

9.8 Summary of Chapter 9

9.9 References for Chapter 9

10 Advanced Topics in Relational Databases

10.1 Security and User Authorization in SQL

10.1.1 Privileges

10.1.2 Creating Privileges

10.1.3 The Privilege-Checking Process

10.1.4 Granting Privileges

10.1.5 Grant Diagrams

10.1.6 Revoking Privileges

10.1.7 Exercises for Section 10.1

10.2 Recursion in SQL

10.2.1 Defining Recursive Relations in SQL

10.2.2 Problematic Expressions in Recursive SQL

10.2.3 Exercises for Section 10.2

10.3 The Object-Relational Model

10.3.1 From Relations to Object-Relations

10.3.2 Nested Relations

10.3.3 References

10.3.4 Object-Oriented Versus Object-Relational

10.3.5 Exercises for Section 10.3

10.4 User-Defined Types in SQL

10.4.1 Defining Types in SQL

10.4.2 Method Declarations in UDT's

10.4.3 Method Definitions

10.4.4 Declaring Relations with a UDT

10.4.5 References

10.4.6 Creating Object ID's for Tables

10.4.7 Exercises for Section 10.4

10.5 Operations on Object-Relational Data

10.5.1 Following References

10.5.2 Accessing Components of Tuples with a UDT

10.5.3 Generator and Mutator Functions

10.5.4 Ordering Relationships on UDT's

10.5.5 Exercises for Section 10.5

10.6 On-Line Analytic Processing

10.6.1 OLAP and Data Warehouses

10.6.2 OLAP Applications

10.6.3 A Multidimensional View of OLAP Data

10.6.4 Star Schemas

10.6.5 Slicing and Dicing

10.6.6 Exercises for Section 10.6

10.7 Data Cubes

10.7.1 The Cube Operator

10.7.2 The Cube Operator in SQL

10.7.3 Exercises for Section 10.7

10.8 Summary of Chapter 10

10.9 References for Chapter 10

PART III: Modeling and Programming for Semistructured Data

11 The Semistructured-Data Model

11.1 Semistructured Data

11.1.1 Motivation for the Semistructured-Data Model

11.1.2 Semistructured Data Representation

11.1.3 Information Integration Via Semistructured Data

11.1.4 Exercises for Section 11.1

11.2 XML

11.2.1 Semantic Tags

11.2.2 XML With and Without a Schema

11.2.3 Well-Formed XML

11.2.4 Attributes

11.2.5 Attributes That Connect Elements

11.2.6 Namespaces

11.2.7 XML and Databases

11.2.8 Exercises for Section 11.2

11.3 Document Type Definitions

11.3.1 The Form of a DTD

11.3.2 Using a DTD

11.3.3 Attribute Lists

11.3.4 Identifiers and References

11.3.5 Exercises for Section 11.3

11.4 XML Schema

11.4.1 The Form of an XML Schema

11.4.2 Elements

11.4.3 Complex Types

11.4.4 Attributes

11.4.5 Restricted Simple Types

11.4.6 Keys in XML Schema

11.4.7 Foreign Keys in XML Schema

11.4.8 Exercises for Section 11.4

11.5 Summary of Chapter 11

11.6 References for Chapter 11

12 Programming Languages for XML

12.1 XPath

12.1.1 The XPath Data Model

12.1.2 Document Nodes

12.1.3 Path Expressions

12.1.4 Relative Path Expressions

12.1.5 Attributes in Path Expressions

12.1.6 Axes

12.1.7 Context of Expressions

12.1.8 Wildcards

12.1.9 Conditions in Path Expressions

12.1.10 Exercises for Section 12.1

12.2 XQuery

12.2.1 XQuery Basics

12.2.2 FLWR Expressions

12.2.3 Replacement of Variables by Their Values

12.2.4 Joins in XQuery

12.2.5 XQuery Comparison Operators

12.2.6 Elimination of Duplicates

12.2.7 Quantification in XQuery

12.2.8 Aggregations

12.2.9 Branching in XQuery Expressions

12.2.10 Ordering the Result of a Query

12.2.11 Exercises for Section 12.2

12.3 Extensible Stylesheet Language

12.3.1 XSLT Basics

12.3.2 Templates

12.3.3 Obtaining Values From XML Data

12.3.4 Recursive Use of Templates

12.3.5 Iteration in XSLT

12.3.6 Conditionals in XSLT

12.3.7 Exercises for Section 12.3

12.4 Summary of Chapter 12

12.5 References for Chapter 12

PART IV: Database System Implementation

13 Secondary Storage Management

13.1 The Memory Hierarchy

13.1.1 The Memory Hierarchy

13.1.2 Transfer of Data Between Levels

13.1.3 Volatile and Nonvolatile Storage

13.1.4 Virtual Memory

13.1.5 Exercises for Section 13.1

13.2 Disks

13.2.1 Mechanics of Disks

13.2.2 The Disk Controller

13.2.3 Disk Access Characteristics

13.2.4 Exercises for Section 13.2

13.3 Accelerating Access to Secondary Storage

13.3.1 The I/O Model of Computation

13.3.2 Organizing Data by Cylinders

13.3.3 Using Multiple Disks

13.3.4 Mirroring Disks

13.3.5 Disk Scheduling and the Elevator Algorithm

13.3.6 Prefetching and Large-Scale Buffering

13.3.7 Exercises for Section 13.3

13.4 Disk Failures

13.4.1 Intermittent Failures

13.4.2 Checksums

13.4.3 Stable Storage

13.4.4 Error-Handling Capabilities of Stable Storage

13.4.5 Recovery from Disk Crashes

13.4.6 Mirroring as a Redundancy Technique

13.4.7 Parity Blocks

13.4.8 An Improvement: RAID 5

13.4.9 Coping With Multiple Disk Crashes

13.4.10 Exercises for Section 13.4

13.5 Arranging Data on Disk

13.5.1 Fixed-Length Records

13.5.2 Packing Fixed-Length Records into Blocks

13.5.3 Exercises for Section 13.5

13.6 Representing Block and Record Addresses

13.6.1 Addresses in Client-Server Systems

13.6.2 Logical and Structured Addresses

13.6.3 Pointer Swizzling

13.6.4 Returning Blocks to Disk

13.6.5 Pinned Records and Blocks

13.6.6 Exercises for Section 13.6

13.7 Variable-Length Data and Records

13.7.1 Records With Variable-Length Fields

13.7.2 Records With Repeating Fields

13.7.3 Variable-Format Records

13.7.4 Records That Do Not Fit in a Block

13.7.5 BLOBs

13.7.6 Column Stores

13.7.7 Exercises for Section 13.7

13.8 Record Modifications

13.8.1 Insertion

13.8.2 Deletion

13.8.3 Update

13.8.4 Exercises for Section 13.8

13.9 Summary of Chapter 13

13.10 References for Chapter 13

14 Index Structures

14.1 Index-Structure Basics

14.1.1 Sequential Files

14.1.2 Dense Indexes

14.1.3 Sparse Indexes

14.1.4 Multiple Levels of Index

14.1.5 Secondary Indexes

14.1.6 Applications of Secondary Indexes

14.1.7 Indirection in Secondary Indexes

14.1.8 Document Retrieval and Inverted Indexes

14.1.9 Exercises for Section 14.1

14.2 B-Trees

14.2.1 The Structure of B-trees

14.2.2 Applications of B-trees

14.2.3 Lookup in B-Trees

14.2.4 Range Queries

14.2.5 Insertion Into B-Trees

14.2.6 Deletion From B-Trees

14.2.7 Efficiency of B-Trees

14.2.8 Exercises for Section 14.2

14.3 Hash Tables

14.3.1 Secondary-Storage Hash Tables

14.3.2 Insertion Into a Hash Table

14.3.3 Hash-Table Deletion

14.3.4 Efficiency of Hash Table Indexes

14.3.5 Extensible Hash Tables

14.3.6 Insertion Into Extensible Hash Tables

14.3.7 Linear Hash Tables

14.3.8 Insertion Into Linear Hash Tables

14.3.9 Exercises for Section 14.3

14.4 Multidimensional Indexes

14.4.1 Applications of Multidimensional Indexes

14.4.2 Executing Range Queries Using Conventional Indexes

14.4.3 Executing Nearest-Neighbor Queries Using Conventional Indexes

14.4.4 Overview of Multidimensional Index Structures

14.5 Hash Structures for Multidimensional Data

14.5.1 Grid Files

14.5.2 Lookup in a Grid File

14.5.3 Insertion Into Grid Files

14.5.4 Performance of Grid Files

14.5.5 Partitioned Hash Functions

14.5.6 Comparison of Grid Files and Partitioned Hashing

14.5.7 Exercises for Section 14.5

14.6 Tree Structures for Multidimensional Data

14.6.1 Multiple-Key Indexes

14.6.2 Performance of Multiple-Key Indexes

14.6.3 $kd$-Trees

14.6.4 Operations on $kd$-Trees

14.6.5 Adapting $kd$-Trees to Secondary Storage

14.6.6 Quad Trees

14.6.7 R-Trees

14.6.8 Operations on R-Trees

14.6.9 Exercises for Section 14.6

14.7 Bitmap Indexes

14.7.1 Motivation for Bitmap Indexes

14.7.2 Compressed Bitmaps

14.7.3 Operating on Run-Length-Encoded Bit-Vectors

14.7.4 Managing Bitmap Indexes

14.7.5 Exercises for Section 14.7

14.8 Summary of Chapter 14

14.9 References for Chapter 14

15 Query Execution

15.1 Introduction to Physical-Query-Plan Operators

15.1.1 Scanning Tables

15.1.2 Sorting While Scanning Tables

15.1.3 The Computation Model for Physical Operators

15.1.4 Parameters for Measuring Costs

15.1.5 I/O Cost for Scan Operators

15.1.6 Iterators for Implementation of Physical Operators

15.2 One-Pass Algorithms

15.2.1 One-Pass Algorithms for Tuple-at-a-Time Operations

15.2.2 One-Pass Algorithms for Unary, Full-Relation Operations

15.2.3 One-Pass Algorithms for Binary Operations

15.2.4 Exercises for Section 15.2

15.3 Nested-Loop Joins

15.3.1 Tuple-Based Nested-Loop Join

15.3.2 An Iterator for Tuple-Based Nested-Loop Join

15.3.3 Block-Based Nested-Loop Join Algorithm

15.3.4 Analysis of Nested-Loop Join

15.3.5 Summary of Algorithms so Far

15.3.6 Exercises for Section 15.3

15.4 Two-Pass Algorithms Based on Sorting

15.4.1 Two-Phase, Multiway Merge-Sort

15.4.2 Duplicate Elimination Using Sorting

15.4.3 Grouping and Aggregation Using Sorting

15.4.4 A Sort-Based Union Algorithm

15.4.5 Sort-Based Intersection and Difference

15.4.6 A Simple Sort-Based Join Algorithm

15.4.7 Analysis of Simple Sort-Join

15.4.8 A More Efficient Sort-Based Join

15.4.9 Summary of Sort-Based Algorithms

15.4.10 Exercises for Section 15.4

15.5 Two-Pass Algorithms Based on Hashing

15.5.1 Partitioning Relations by Hashing

15.5.2 A Hash-Based Algorithm for Duplicate Elimination

15.5.3 Hash-Based Grouping and Aggregation

15.5.4 Hash-Based Union, Intersection, and Difference

15.5.5 The Hash-Join Algorithm

15.5.6 Saving Some Disk I/O's

15.5.7 Summary of Hash-Based Algorithms

15.5.8 Exercises for Section 15.5

15.6 Index-Based Algorithms

15.6.1 Clustering and Nonclustering Indexes

15.6.2 Index-Based Selection

15.6.3 Joining by Using an Index

15.6.4 Joins Using a Sorted Index

15.6.5 Exercises for Section 15.6

15.7 Buffer Management

15.7.1 Buffer Management Architecture

15.7.2 Buffer Management Strategies

15.7.3 The Relationship Between Physical Operator Selection and Buffer Management

15.7.4 Exercises for Section 15.7

15.8 Algorithms Using More Than Two Passes

15.8.1 Multipass Sort-Based Algorithms

15.8.2 Performance of Multipass, Sort-Based Algorithms

15.8.3 Multipass Hash-Based Algorithms

15.8.4 Performance of Multipass Hash-Based Algorithms

15.8.5 Exercises for Section 15.8

15.9 Summary of Chapter 15

15.10 References for Chapter 15

16 The Query Compiler

16.1 Parsing and Preprocessing

16.1.1 Syntax Analysis and Parse Trees

16.1.2 A Grammar for a Simple Subset of SQL

16.1.3 The Preprocessor

16.1.4 Preprocessing Queries Involving Views

16.1.5 Exercises for Section 16.1

16.2 Algebraic Laws for Improving Query Plans

16.2.1 Commutative and Associative Laws

16.2.2 Laws Involving Selection

16.2.3 Pushing Selections

16.2.4 Laws Involving Projection

16.2.5 Laws About Joins and Products

16.2.6 Laws Involving Duplicate Elimination

16.2.7 Laws Involving Grouping and Aggregation

16.2.8 Exercises for Section 16.2

16.3 From Parse Trees to Logical Query Plans

16.3.1 Conversion to Relational Algebra

16.3.2 Removing Subqueries From Conditions

16.3.3 Improving the Logical Query Plan

16.3.4 Grouping Associative/Commutative Operators

16.3.5 Exercises for Section 16.3

16.4 Estimating the Cost of Operations

16.4.1 Estimating Sizes of Intermediate Relations

16.4.2 Estimating the Size of a Projection

16.4.3 Estimating the Size of a Selection

16.4.4 Estimating the Size of a Join

16.4.5 Natural Joins With Multiple Join Attributes

16.4.6 Joins of Many Relations

16.4.7 Estimating Sizes for Other Operations

16.4.8 Exercises for Section 16.4

16.5 Introduction to Cost-Based Plan Selection

16.5.1 Obtaining Estimates for Size Parameters

16.5.2 Computation of Statistics

16.5.3 Heuristics for Reducing the Cost of Logical Query Plans

16.5.4 Approaches to Enumerating Physical Plans

16.5.5 Exercises for Section 16.5

16.6 Choosing an Order for Joins

16.6.1 Significance of Left and Right Join Arguments

16.6.2 Join Trees

16.6.3 Left-Deep Join Trees

16.6.4 Dynamic Programming to Select a Join Order and Grouping

16.6.5 Dynamic Programming With More Detailed Cost Functions

16.6.6 A Greedy Algorithm for Selecting a Join Order

16.6.7 Exercises for Section 16.6

16.7 Completing the Physical-Query-Plan

16.7.1 Choosing a Selection Method

16.7.2 Choosing a Join Method

16.7.3 Pipelining Versus Materialization

16.7.4 Pipelining Unary Operations

16.7.5 Pipelining Binary Operations

16.7.6 Notation for Physical Query Plans

16.7.7 Ordering of Physical Operations

16.7.8 Exercises for Section 16.7

16.8 Summary of Chapter 16

16.9 References for Chapter 16

17 Coping With System Failures

17.1 Issues and Models for Resilient Operation

17.1.1 Failure Modes

17.1.2 More About Transactions

17.1.3 Correct Execution of Transactions

17.1.4 The Primitive Operations of Transactions

17.1.5 Exercises for Section 17.1

17.2 Undo Logging

17.2.1 Log Records

17.2.2 The Undo-Logging Rules

17.2.3 Recovery Using Undo Logging

17.2.4 Checkpointing

17.2.5 Nonquiescent Checkpointing

17.2.6 Exercises for Section 17.2

17.3 Redo Logging

17.3.1 The Redo-Logging Rule

17.3.2 Recovery With Redo Logging

17.3.3 Checkpointing a Redo Log

17.3.4 Recovery With a Checkpointed Redo Log

17.3.5 Exercises for Section 17.3

17.4 Undo/Redo Logging

17.4.1 The Undo/Redo Rules

17.4.2 Recovery With Undo/Redo Logging

17.4.3 Checkpointing an Undo/Redo Log

17.4.4 Exercises for Section 17.4

17.5 Protecting Against Media Failures

17.5.1 The Archive

17.5.2 Nonquiescent Archiving

17.5.3 Recovery Using an Archive and Log

17.5.4 Exercises for Section 17.5

17.6 Summary of Chapter 17

17.7 References for Chapter 17

18 Concurrency Control

18.1 Serial and Serializable Schedules

18.1.1 Schedules

18.1.2 Serial Schedules

18.1.3 Serializable Schedules

18.1.4 The Effect of Transaction Semantics

18.1.5 A Notation for Transactions and Schedules

18.1.6 Exercises for Section 18.1

18.2 Conflict-Serializability

18.2.1 Conflicts

18.2.2 Precedence Graphs and a Test for Conflict-Serializability

18.2.3 Why the Precedence-Graph Test Works

18.2.4 Exercises for Section 18.2

18.3 Enforcing Serializability by Locks

18.3.1 Locks

18.3.2 The Locking Scheduler

18.3.3 Two-Phase Locking

18.3.4 Why Two-Phase Locking Works

18.3.5 Exercises for Section 18.3

18.4 Locking Systems With Several Lock Modes

18.4.1 Shared and Exclusive Locks

18.4.2 Compatibility Matrices

18.4.3 Upgrading Locks

18.4.4 Update Locks

18.4.5 Increment Locks

18.4.6 Exercises for Section 18.4

18.5 An Architecture for a Locking Scheduler

18.5.1 A Scheduler That Inserts Lock Actions

18.5.2 The Lock Table

18.5.3 Exercises for Section 18.5

18.6 Hierarchies of Database Elements

18.6.1 Locks With Multiple Granularity

18.6.2 Warning Locks

18.6.3 Phantoms and Handling Insertions Correctly

18.6.4 Exercises for Section 18.6

18.7 The Tree Protocol

18.7.1 Motivation for Tree-Based Locking

18.7.2 Rules for Access to Tree-Structured Data

18.7.3 Why the Tree Protocol Works

18.7.4 Exercises for Section 18.7

18.8 Concurrency Control by Timestamps

18.8.1 Timestamps

18.8.2 Physically Unrealizable Behaviors

18.8.3 Problems With Dirty Data

18.8.4 The Rules for Timestamp-Based Scheduling

18.8.5 Multiversion Timestamps

18.8.6 Timestamps Versus Locking

18.8.7 Exercises for Section 18.8

18.9 Concurrency Control by Validation

18.9.1 Architecture of a Validation-Based Scheduler

18.9.2 The Validation Rules

18.9.3 Comparison of Three Concurrency-Control Mechanisms

18.9.4 Exercises for Section 18.9

18.10 Summary of Chapter 18

18.11 References for Chapter 18

19 More About Transaction Management

19.1 Serializability and Recoverability

19.1.1 The Dirty-Data Problem

19.1.2 Cascading Rollback

19.1.3 Recoverable Schedules

19.1.4 Schedules That Avoid Cascading Rollback

19.1.5 Managing Rollbacks Using Locking

19.1.6 Group Commit

19.1.7 Logical Logging

19.1.8 Recovery From Logical Logs

19.1.9 Exercises for Section 19.1

19.2 Deadlocks

19.2.1 Deadlock Detection by Timeout

19.2.2 The Waits-For Graph

19.2.3 Deadlock Prevention by Ordering Elements

19.2.4 Detecting Deadlocks by Timestamps

19.2.5 Comparison of Deadlock-Management Methods

19.2.6 Exercises for Section 19.2

19.3 Long-Duration Transactions

19.3.1 Problems of Long Transactions

19.3.2 Sagas

19.3.3 Compensating Transactions

19.3.4 Why Compensating Transactions Work

19.3.5 Exercises for Section 19.3

19.4 Summary of Chapter 19

19.5 References for Chapter 19

20 Parallel and Distributed Databases

20.1 Parallel Algorithms on Relations

20.1.1 Models of Parallelism

20.1.2 Tuple-at-a-Time Operations in Parallel

20.1.3 Parallel Algorithms for Full-Relation Operations

20.1.4 Performance of Parallel Algorithms

20.1.5 Exercises for Section 20.1

20.2 The Map-Reduce Parallelism Framework

20.2.1 The Storage Model

20.2.2 The Map Function

20.2.3 The Reduce Function

20.2.4 Exercises for Section 20.2

20.3 Distributed Databases

20.3.1 Distribution of Data

20.3.2 Distributed Transactions

20.3.3 Data Replication

20.3.4 Exercises for Section 20.3

20.4 Distributed Query Processing

20.4.1 The Distributed Join Problem

20.4.2 Semijoin Reductions

20.4.3 Joins of Many Relations

20.4.4 Acyclic Hypergraphs

20.4.5 Full Reducers for Acyclic Hypergraphs

20.4.6 Why the Full-Reducer Algorithm Works

20.4.7 Exercises for Section 20.4

20.5 Distributed Commit

20.5.1 Supporting Distributed Atomicity

20.5.2 Two-Phase Commit

20.5.3 Recovery of Distributed Transactions

20.5.4 Exercises for Section 20.5

20.6 Distributed Locking

20.6.1 Centralized Lock Systems

20.6.2 A Cost Model for Distributed Locking Algorithms

20.6.3 Locking Replicated Elements

20.6.4 Primary-Copy Locking

20.6.5 Global Locks From Local Locks

20.6.6 Exercises for Section 20.6

20.7 Peer-to-Peer Distributed Search

20.7.1 Peer-to-Peer Networks

20.7.2 The Distributed-Hashing Problem

20.7.3 Centralized Solutions for Distributed Hashing

20.7.4 Chord Circles

20.7.5 Links in Chord Circles

20.7.6 Search Using Finger Tables

20.7.7 Adding New Nodes

20.7.8 When a Peer Leaves the Network

20.7.9 When a Peer Fails

20.7.10 Exercises for Section 20.7

20.8 Summary of Chapter 20

20.9 References for Chapter 20

PART V: Other Issues in Management of Massive Data

21 Information Integration

21.1 Introduction to Information Integration

21.1.1 Why Information Integration?

21.1.2 The Heterogeneity Problem

21.2 Modes of Information Integration

21.2.1 Federated Database Systems

21.2.2 Data Warehouses

21.2.3 Mediators

21.2.4 Exercises for Section 21.2

21.3 Wrappers in Mediator-Based Systems

21.3.1 Templates for Query Patterns

21.3.2 Wrapper Generators

21.3.3 Filters

21.3.4 Other Operations at the Wrapper

21.3.5 Exercises for Section 21.3

21.4 Capability-Based Optimization

21.4.1 The Problem of Limited Source Capabilities

21.4.2 A Notation for Describing Source Capabilities

21.4.3 Capability-Based Query-Plan Selection

21.4.4 Adding Cost-Based Optimization

21.4.5 Exercises for Section 21.4

21.5 Optimizing Mediator Queries

21.5.1 Simplified Adornment Notation

21.5.2 Obtaining Answers for Subgoals

21.5.3 The Chain Algorithm

21.5.4 Incorporating Union Views at the Mediator

21.5.5 Exercises for Section 21.5

21.6 Local-as-View Mediators

21.6.1 Motivation for LAV Mediators

21.6.2 Terminology for LAV Mediation

21.6.3 Expanding Solutions

21.6.4 Containment of Conjunctive Queries

21.6.5 Why the Containment-Mapping Test Works

21.6.6 Finding Solutions to a Mediator Query

21.6.7 Why the LMSS Theorem Holds

21.6.8 Exercises for Section 21.6

21.7 Entity Resolution

21.7.1 Deciding Whether Records Represent a Common Entity

21.7.2 Merging Similar Records

21.7.3 Useful Properties of Similarity and Merge Functions

21.7.4 The R-Swoosh Algorithm for ICAR Records

21.7.5 Why R-Swoosh Works

21.7.6 Other Approaches to Entity Resolution

21.7.7 Exercises for Section 21.7

21.8 Summary of Chapter 21

21.9 References for Chapter 21

22 Data Mining

22.1 Frequent-Itemset Mining

22.1.1 The Market-Basket Model

22.1.2 Basic Definitions

22.1.3 Association Rules

22.1.4 The Computation Model for Frequent Itemsets

22.1.5 Exercises for Section 22.1

22.2 Algorithms for Finding Frequent Itemsets

22.2.1 The Distribution of Frequent Itemsets

22.2.2 The Naive Algorithm for Finding Frequent Itemsets

22.2.3 The A-Priori Algorithm

22.2.4 Implementation of the A-Priori Algorithm

22.2.5 Making Better Use of Main Memory

22.2.6 When to Use the PCY Algorithm

22.2.7 The Multistage Algorithm

22.2.8 Exercises for Section 22.2

22.3 Finding Similar Items

22.3.1 The Jaccard Measure of Similarity

22.3.2 Applications of Jaccard Similarity

22.3.3 Minhashing

22.3.4 Minhashing and Jaccard Distance

22.3.5 Why Minhashing Works

22.3.6 Implementing Minhashing

22.3.7 Exercises for Section 22.3

22.4 Locality-Sensitive Hashing

22.4.1 Entity Resolution as an Example of LSH

22.4.2 Locality-Sensitive Hashing of Signatures

22.4.3 Combining Minhashing and Locality-Sensitive Hashing

22.4.4 Exercises for Section 22.4

22.5 Clustering of Large-Scale Data

22.5.1 Applications of Clustering

22.5.2 Distance Measures

22.5.3 Agglomerative Clustering

22.5.4 $k$-Means Algorithms

22.5.5 $k$-Means for Large-Scale Data

22.5.6 Processing a Memory Load of Points

22.5.7 Exercises for Section 22.5

22.6 Summary of Chapter 22

22.7 References for Chapter 22

23 Database Systems and the Internet

23.1 The Architecture of a Search Engine

23.1.1 Components of a Search Engine

23.1.2 Web Crawlers

23.1.3 Query Processing in Search Engines

23.1.4 Ranking Pages

23.2 PageRank for Identifying Important Pages

23.2.1 The Intuition Behind PageRank

23.2.2 Recursive Formulation of PageRank\nobreakspace {}--- First Try

23.2.3 Spider Traps and Dead Ends

23.2.4 PageRank Accounting for Spider Traps and Dead Ends

23.2.5 Exercises for Section 23.2

23.3 Topic-Specific PageRank

23.3.1 Teleport Sets

23.3.2 Calculating A Topic-Specific PageRank

23.3.3 Link Spam

23.3.4 Topic-Specific PageRank and Link Spam

23.3.5 Exercises for Section 23.3

23.4 Data Streams

23.4.1 Data-Stream-Management Systems

23.4.2 Stream Applications

23.4.3 A Data-Stream Data Model

23.4.4 Converting Streams Into Relations

23.4.5 Converting Relations Into Streams

23.4.6 Exercises for Section 23.4

23.5 Data Mining of Streams

23.5.1 Motivation

23.5.2 Counting Bits

23.5.3 Counting the Number of Distinct Elements

23.5.4 Exercises for Section 23.5

23.6 Summary of Chapter 23

23.7 References for Chapter 23

Read More Show Less

Preface

At Stanford, we are on the quarter system, and as a result, our introductory database instruction is divided into two courses. The first, CS145, is designed for students who will use database systems but not necessarily take a job implementing a DBMS. It is a prerequisite for CS245, which is the introduction to DBMS implementation. Students wishing to go further in the database field then take CS345 (theory), CS346 (DBMS implementation project), and CS347 (transaction processing and distributed databases).

Starting in 1997, we published a pair of books. <I>A First Course in Database Systems</I> was designed for CS145, and <I>Database System Implementation</I> was for CS245 and parts of CS346. Because many schools are on the semester system or combine the two kinds of database instruction into one introductory course, we felt that there was a need to produce the two books as a single volume. At the same time, the evolution of database systems has made a number of new topics imperative for a modern course. Thus, we have added, mostly to the application-programming area, topics such as object-relational data, SQL/PSM (stored programs), SQL/CLI (the emerging standard for the C/SQL interface), and JDBC (the same for Java/SQL).

Use of the Book

We recommend that two quarters be devoted to the material in this book. If you follow the Stanford approach, you would cover the first ten chapters in the first quarter and the last ten in the second quarter. Should you wish to cover the material in a single semester, then there will have to be some omitted portions. In general, we suggest that Chapters 2-7, 11-13, and 17-18 should be given highestpriority, but there are pieces from each of these chapters that can be skipped.

If, as we do in CS145, you give students a substantial database-application design and implementation project, then you may have to reorder the material somewhat, so that SQL instruction occurs earlier in the Book. You may wish to defer material such as dependencies, although students need normalization for design.

Prerequisites

We have used the book at the "mezzanine" level, in courses taken both by undergraduates and beginning graduate students. The formal prerequisites for the courses are Sophomore-level treatments of: (1) Data structures, algorithms, and discrete math, and (2) Software systems, software engineering, and programming languages. Of this material, it is important that students have at least a rudimentary understanding of such topics as: algebraic expressions and laws, logic, basic data structures such as search trees and graphs, object-oriented programming concepts, and programming environments. However, we believe that adequate background is surely acquired by the end of the Junior year in a. typical computer science program.

Exercises

The book contains extensive exercises, with some for almost every section. We indicate harder exercises or parts of exercises with an exclamation point. The hardest exercises have a double exclamation point.

Some of the exercises or parts are marked with a star. For these exercises, we shall endeavor to maintain solutions accessible through the book's web page. These solutions are publicly available and should be used for self-testing. Note that in a few cases, one exercise B asks for modification or adaptation of your solution to another exercise A. If certain parts of A have solutions, then you should expect the corresponding parts of B to have solutions as well.

Read More Show Less

Customer Reviews

Be the first to write a review
( 0 )
Rating Distribution

5 Star

(0)

4 Star

(0)

3 Star

(0)

2 Star

(0)

1 Star

(0)

Your Rating:

Your Name: Create a Pen Name or

Barnes & Noble.com Review Rules

Our reader reviews allow you to share your comments on titles you liked, or didn't, with others. By submitting an online review, you are representing to Barnes & Noble.com that all information contained in your review is original and accurate in all respects, and that the submission of such content by you and the posting of such content by Barnes & Noble.com does not and will not violate the rights of any third party. Please follow the rules below to help ensure that your review can be posted.

Reviews by Our Customers Under the Age of 13

We highly value and respect everyone's opinion concerning the titles we offer. However, we cannot allow persons under the age of 13 to have accounts at BN.com or to post customer reviews. Please see our Terms of Use for more details.

What to exclude from your review:

Please do not write about reviews, commentary, or information posted on the product page. If you see any errors in the information on the product page, please send us an email.

Reviews should not contain any of the following:

  • - HTML tags, profanity, obscenities, vulgarities, or comments that defame anyone
  • - Time-sensitive information such as tour dates, signings, lectures, etc.
  • - Single-word reviews. Other people will read your review to discover why you liked or didn't like the title. Be descriptive.
  • - Comments focusing on the author or that may ruin the ending for others
  • - Phone numbers, addresses, URLs
  • - Pricing and availability information or alternative ordering information
  • - Advertisements or commercial solicitation

Reminder:

  • - By submitting a review, you grant to Barnes & Noble.com and its sublicensees the royalty-free, perpetual, irrevocable right and license to use the review in accordance with the Barnes & Noble.com Terms of Use.
  • - Barnes & Noble.com reserves the right not to post any review -- particularly those that do not follow the terms and conditions of these Rules. Barnes & Noble.com also reserves the right to remove any review at any time without notice.
  • - See Terms of Use for other conditions and disclaimers.
Search for Products You'd Like to Recommend

Recommend other products that relate to your review. Just search for them below and share!

Create a Pen Name

Your Pen Name is your unique identity on BN.com. It will appear on the reviews you write and other website activities. Your Pen Name cannot be edited, changed or deleted once submitted.

 
Your Pen Name can be any combination of alphanumeric characters (plus - and _), and must be at least two characters long.

Continue Anonymously

    If you find inappropriate content, please report it to Barnes & Noble
    Why is this product inappropriate?
    Comments (optional)