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Deconstructing Legitimacy: Viceroys, Merchants, and the Military in Late Colonial Peru

Overview

The overthrow of Viceroy Joaquín de la Pezuela on 29 January 1821 has not received much attention from historians, who have viewed it as a simple military uprising. Yet in this careful study of the episode, based on deep archival research, Patricia Marks reveals it to be the culmination of decades of Peruvian opposition to the Bourbon reforms of the late eighteenth century, especially the Reglamento de comercio libre of 1778. It also marked a radical change in political culture brought about by the constitutional...

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Overview

The overthrow of Viceroy Joaquín de la Pezuela on 29 January 1821 has not received much attention from historians, who have viewed it as a simple military uprising. Yet in this careful study of the episode, based on deep archival research, Patricia Marks reveals it to be the culmination of decades of Peruvian opposition to the Bourbon reforms of the late eighteenth century, especially the Reglamento de comercio libre of 1778. It also marked a radical change in political culture brought about by the constitutional upheavals that followed Napolean's invasion of Spain.

Although Pezuela's overthrow was organized and carried out by royalists among the merchants and the military, it proved to be an important event in the development of the independence movement as well as a pivotal factor in the failure to establish a stable national state in post-independence Peru. The golpe de estado may thereby be seen as an early manifestation of Latin American praetorianism, in which a sector of the civilian population, unable to prevail politically and unwilling to compromise, pressures army officers to act in order to "save" the state.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780271032108
  • Publisher: Penn State University Press
  • Publication date: 1/8/2009
  • Pages: 416
  • Product dimensions: 6.00 (w) x 9.00 (h) x 1.20 (d)

Meet the Author

Patricia H. Marks is an independent scholar who received her doctorate in history from Princeton in 2003.

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Table of Contents

Contents

Illustrations

Acknowledgments

Abbreviations

Introduction: Mercantile Conflict and Political Culture

1. City of Kings, City of Commerce

2. Bourbon Reformers and the Merchants of Lima

3. Sabotaging Reform

4. Preventing Independence

5. The Free-Trade Dispute

6. Merchants, the Military, and the Disintegration of Pezuela’s Authority

7. The Pronunciamiento and Its Aftermath

Conclusion: Legitimacy and the Salvation of the State

Glossary of Spanish Terms

Bibliography

Index

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