Deformation of Earth Materials: An Introduction to the Rheology of Solid Earth

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Overview

Much of the recent progress in the solid Earth sciences is based on the interpretation of a range of geophysical and geological observations in terms of the properties and deformation of Earth materials. One of the greatest challenges facing geoscientists in achieving this lies in finding a link between physical processes operating in minerals at the smallest length scales to geodynamic phenomena and geophysical observations across thousands of kilometers.

This graduate textbook presents a comprehensive and unified treatment of the materials science of deformation as applied to solid Earth geophysics and geology. Materials science and geophysics are integrated to help explain important recent developments, including the discovery of detailed structure in the Earth's interior by high-resolution seismic imaging, and the discovery of the unexpectedly large effects of high pressure on material properties, such as the high solubility of water in some minerals. Starting from fundamentals such as continuum mechanics and thermodynamics, the materials science of deformation of Earth materials is presented in a systematic way that covers elastic, anelastic, and viscous deformation. Although emphasis is placed on the fundamental underlying theory, advanced discussions on current debates are also included to bring readers to the cutting edge of science in this interdisciplinary area.

Deformation of Earth Materials is a textbook for graduate courses on the rheology and dynamics of the solid Earth, and will also provide a much-needed reference for geoscientists in many fields, including geology, geophysics, geochemistry, materials science, mineralogy, and ceramics. It includes review questionswith solutions, which allow readers to monitor their understanding of the material presented.

About the Author:
Shun-ichiro Karato is a Professor in the Department of Geology and Geophysics at Yale University

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Editorial Reviews

From the Publisher
'… a welcome addition to textbooks dealing with experimental rock mechanics and its application to natural rock deformation. … provides by far the most comprehensive and authoritative treatment of this field in recent years. … its greatest value lies in the drawing together of traditional topics together with more recent developments such as the thermodynamic aspects of rock deformation and links with whole-Earth geodynamics. This is combined with a clear writing style and excellent illustrations to make this an essential addition to a researcher's bookshelf.' Geological Magazine
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780521844048
  • Publisher: Cambridge University Press
  • Publication date: 3/31/2008
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Pages: 474
  • Product dimensions: 7.44 (w) x 9.69 (h) x 1.06 (d)

Meet the Author

SHUN-ICHIRO KARATO is a professor in the Department of Geology and Geophysics at Yale University. His research interests include mineral physics and chemistry, high-pressure/temperature experimental studies and their applications to geophysical and geological problems. Professor Karato is a fellow of the American Geophysical Union and a recipient of the Alexander von Humboldt Prize (1995), the Japan Academy Award (1999), and the Vening Meinesz medal from the Vening Meinesz School of Geodynamics in The Netherlands (2006). He is the author of more than 160 journal articles and has written/edited five other books.
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Table of Contents

Preface     ix
General background     1
Stress and strain     3
Stress     3
Deformation, strain     7
Thermodynamics     13
Thermodynamics of reversible processes     13
Some comments on the thermodynamics of a stressed system     28
Thermodynamics of irreversible processes     29
Thermally activated processes     32
Phenomenological theory of deformation     34
Classification of deformation     34
Some general features of plastic deformation     35
Constitutive relationships for non-linear rheology     36
Constitutive relation for transient creep     38
Linear time-dependent deformation     39
Materials science of deformation     49
Elasticity     51
Introduction     51
Elastic constants     52
Isothermal versus adiabatic elastic constants     55
Experimental techniques     57
Some general trends in elasticity: Birch's law     59
Effects of chemical composition     67
Elastic constants in several crystal structures     70
Effects of phase transformations     72
Crystallinedefects     75
Defects and plastic deformation: general introduction     75
Point defects     76
Dislocations     82
Grain boundaries     94
Experimental techniques for study of plastic deformation     99
Introduction     99
Sample preparation and characterization     99
Control of thermochemical environment and its characterization     102
Generation and measurements of stress and strain     104
Methods of mechanical tests     108
Various deformation geometries     112
Brittle deformation, brittle-plastic and brittle-ductile transition     114
Brittle fracture and plastic flow: a general introduction     114
Brittle fracture     115
Transitions between different regimes of deformation     118
Diffusion and diffusional creep     123
Fick's law     123
Diffusion and point defects     125
High-diffusivity paths     126
Self-diffusion, chemical diffusion     127
Grain-size sensitive creep (diffusional creep, superplasticity)     129
Dislocation creep     143
General experimental observations on dislocation creep     143
The Orowan equation     145
Dynamics of dislocation motion     145
Dislocation multiplication, annihilation     154
Models for steady-state dislocation creep     157
Low-temperature plasticity (power-law breakdown)     161
Deformation of a polycrystalline aggregate by dislocation creep     162
How to identify the microscopic mechanisms of creep     164
Summary of dislocation creep models and a deformation mechanism map     164
Effects of pressure and water     168
Introduction     168
Intrinsic effects of pressure     169
Effects of water     181
Physical mechanisms of seismic wave attenuation     199
Introduction     199
Experimental techniques of anelasticity measurements     199
Solid-state mechanisms of anelasticity     202
Anelasticity in a partially molten material     210
Deformation of multi-phase materials     214
Introduction     214
Some simple examples     215
More general considerations     216
Percolation     222
Chemical effects     225
Deformation of a single-phase polycrystalline material     225
Experimental observations      225
Structure and plastic deformation of a partially molten material     227
Grain size     232
Introduction     232
Grain-boundary migration     233
Grain growth     236
Dynamic recrystallization     243
Effects of phase transformations     249
Grain size in Earth's interior     253
Lattice-preferred orientation     255
Introduction     255
Lattice-preferred orientation: definition, measurement and representation     256
Mechanisms of lattice-preferred orientation     262
A fabric diagram     268
Summary     269
Effects of phase transformations     271
Introduction     271
Effects of crystal structure and chemical bonding: isomechanical groups     271
Effects of transformation-induced stress-strain: transformation plasticity     280
Effects of grain-size reduction     286
Anomalous rheology associated with a second-order phase transformation     286
Other effects     287
Stability and localization of deformation     288
Introduction     288
General principles of instability and localization     289
Mechanisms of shear instability and localization     293
Long-term behavior of a shear zone     300
Localization of deformation in Earth     300
Geological and geophysical applications     303
Composition and structure of Earth's interior     305
Gross structure of Earth and other terrestrial planets     305
Physical conditions of Earth's interior     306
Composition of Earth and other terrestrial planets     314
Summary: Earth structure related to rheological properties     322
Inference of rheological structure of Earth from time-dependent deformation     323
Time-dependent deformation and rheology of Earth's interior     323
Seismic wave attenuation     324
Time-dependent deformation caused by a surface load: post-glacial isostatic crustal rebound     326
Time-dependent deformation caused by an internal load and its gravitational signature     331
Summary     337
Inference of rheological structure of Earth from mineral physics     338
Introduction     338
General notes on inferring the rheological properties in Earth's interior from mineral physics     339
Strength profile of the crust and the upper mantle     342
Rheological properties of the deep mantle      358
Rheological properties of the core     361
Heterogeneity of Earth structure and its geodynamic implications     363
Introduction     363
High-resolution seismology     364
Geodynamical interpretation of velocity (and attenuation) tomography     370
Seismic anisotropy and its geodynamic implications     391
Introduction     391
Some fundamentals of elastic wave propagation in anisotropic media     392
Seismological methods for detecting anisotropic structures     398
Major seismological observations     401
Mineral physics bases of geodynamic interpretation of seismic anisotropy     402
Geodynamic interpretation of seismic anisotropy     407
References     412
Materials index     452
Subject index     454
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