Democracy Challenged: The Rise of Semi-authoritarianism / Edition 1

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During the 1990s, international democracy promotion efforts led to the establishment of numerous regimes that cannot be easily classified as either authoritarian or democratic. They display characteristics of each, in short they are semi-authoritarian regimes.These regimes pose a considerable challenge to U.S. policymakers because the superficial stability of many semi-authoritarian regimes usually masks severe problems that need to be solved lest they lead to a future crisis. Additionally, these regimes call into question some of the ideas about democratic transitions that underpin the democracy promotion strategies of the United States and other Western countries. Despite their growing importance, semi-authoritarian regimes have not received systematic attention. Marina Ottaway examines five countries (Egypt, Azerbaijan, Venezuela, Croatia, and Senegal) which highlight the distinctive features of semi-authoritarianism and the special challenge each poses to policymakers. She explains why the dominant approach to democracy promotion isn't effective in these countries and concludes by suggesting alternative policies.Marina Ottaway is senior associate and codirector of the Democracy and Rule of Law Project at the Carnegie Endowment.

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Editorial Reviews

From the Publisher

"[excerpt from book]" —Marina Ottaway, The Chronicle of Higher Education, 2/7/2002

"[An] important new study..." —G. John Ikenberry, Foreign Affairs, 5/1/2003

Foreign Affairs
In this important new study, Ottaway argues that countries that combine elements of authoritarianism and democracy are not best understood as imperfect democracies or transitional governments. Instead, she sees them as deliberately organized and durable regimes that adopt the formal trappings of democracy but allow little real competition for power. Kazakhstan, Morocco, Peru, Singapore, and Malaysia are examples of a growing number of semi-authoritarian regimes that can be remarkably stable, yet are also prone to unpredictable political and leadership succession crises. Ottaway argues that these hybrid regimes require a rethinking of assumptions about the spread and promotion of democracy. These are not countries that will respond easily to outside carrots and sticks. Their civil societies tend to be disconnected from politics, and the creation of more open civic space can lead to ethnic nationalism (as in Yugoslavia), or religious fundamentalism (as in Egypt). The challenge for democracy promoters is to focus more on deep socioeconomic sources of semi-authoritarianism and adjust the timeline for democratic progress.
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780870031953
  • Publisher: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace
  • Publication date: 12/28/2002
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 288
  • Product dimensions: 6.00 (w) x 8.90 (h) x 0.70 (d)

Meet the Author

Marina Ottaway is a senior associate in the Democracy and Rule of Law program and director of the Carnegie Middle East program at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace.

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Table of Contents

The Challenges of Semi-Authoritarianism: An Introduction 3
Pt. 1 Varieties of Semi-Authoritarianism 29
1 Egypt: Institutionalized Semi-Authoritarianism 31
2 Azerbaijan: The Semi-Authoritarianism of Decay 51
3 Venezuela: Democratic Decay 71
4 Senegal: Democracy as "Alternance" 91
5 Croatia: Toward a Second Transition 109
Pt. 2 Why Semi-Authoritarianism? 131
6 Games Semi-Authoritarianism Regimes Play 137
7 Beyond Games: Looking at Structural Obstacles 161
Pt. 3 Intervening in Semi-Authoritarianism States 191
8 The Record So Far 195
9 Looking to the Future 225
Notes 255
Bibliography 271
Index 275
About the Author 287
Carnegie Endowment for International Peace 288
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