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The Democratic Debate examines the struggle between the elite and popular models of democracy which, the authors argue, have alternated as the dominant vision in America since its founding. The text uses the standard of popular democracy to examine the United States from anti-federalism to contemporary social movements. Special attention is given to people, famous and otherwise, whose actions demonstrate how individuals can make a difference in democracy. Thorough coverage of recent events includes a discussion of Enron and issues of corporate responsibility, the evolution of the Christian Right into a mass movement, the protests against the War in Iraq, and the Terry Schiavo case as it relates to Federalism.
I. Foundations 1. Introduction: The Democratic Debate What Is Democracy? Origins of the Democratic Debate: The Founding Evolution of Popular Democracy: The Logic of Inclusion Evolution of Elite Democracy: The Logic of Expertise Summarizing the Democratic Debate Interpreting Political Facts: The Problem of Participation Conclusion: Joining the Democratic Debate 2. The Revolution and the Constitution: Origins of the Democratic Debate From Colonials to Revolutionaries From Revolution to Constitution The Constitutional Convention Ratification Struggle and the Democratic Debate The Bill of Rights Conclusion: Beginning the Democratic Debate 3. The American Political Economy Wal-Mart: The Future Political Economy? The Democratic Debate on the Political Economy Unaccountable Corporate Power The Problem of Rising Inequality Political Economy and Civil Society Conclusion: Choosing Democracy and Prosperity 4. Public Opinion and Political Culture: Can the People Be Fooled? Public Opinion and the Democratic Debate American Political Culture Interpreting Divides Within the Political Culture Ideologies and Public Opinion Where Does Public Opinion Originate? How Public Opinion Is Organized: Polls Conclusion: The Sensible Public II. Participation 5. Where Have All the Voters Gone? The Mysterious Facts About Nonvoting Elite Democratic Theories of Nonvoting Popular Democrats and Nonvoting Mobilizing Nonvoters: Would It Make a Difference? Conclusion: Who's Afraid of Nonvoters? 6. The Media: Who Sets the Political Agenda? The Democratic Debate and the Mass Media Media Power and U.S. History Corporate Ownership and Control Government Influence on the Media Making (and Creating) the News Conclusion: Democratizing the Mass Media 7. U.S. Parties: Who Has a Voice? Why Political Parties Are Important Why American Parties Are Unique Agents of Change, Sometimes Reacting to the Sixties: A New Republican Era? Parties from the Top Down Conclusion: Strong Parties, Uncertain Electorate 8. Campaigns: Organized Money Versus Organized People Elite Democracy: Campaign Rules Rules of the Cash Game What Money Buys: The Rise of Campaign Professionals and Marketers Marketing Versus Grassroots Campaigns: Is There a Difference? Conclusion: Campaigns and Elite and Popular Democracy 9. Interest Group Politics: Elite Bias Interest Group Politics and the Democratic Debate The Growth of Interest Group Politics Money and Interest Groups Traditional Lobbying: The Insider Strategy The Class Bias of the Interest Group System The Rise of Public Interest Groups The New Lobbying: Elite Countermobilization The New Interest Group Politics: Astroturf Lobbying The Battle over Social Security Conclusion: What Can Be Done? 10. Mass Movement Politics: The Great Equalizer Protest Politics: Goals and Tactics Mass Movements in American History Mass Movements: The Necessary Ingredients Protest Tactics: Walking a Fine Line The Elite Response to Mass Movements The Democratic Debate over Mass Movements Conclusion: The Future of Protest Politics III. Institutions 11. Congress: A Vehicle for Popular Democracy? Congress Before the Revolution Congress During the Revolution Congress After the Revolution Congress and the Executive Conclusion: The Post-Revolution Congress and the Democratic Debate 12. Presidential Leadership and Elite Democracy The Personalized Presidency The Presidency as an Institution The Presidency and the Congress The Presidency and Economic Power The Presidency and National Security The President and the Public The President and the Media The Presidency and Democratic Movements Conclusion: The Elite Democratic Presidency 13. Bureaucracy: Myth and Reality The Democratic Debate over Bureaucracy: A Short History The Modern Administrative State in America Bureaucrats as Policy Makers The Political Environment of Bureaucracy Bureaucracy and the Political Economy The Democratic Debate over Reforming the Bureaucracy Conclusion: Beyond Monster Bureaucracy 14. The Judiciary and the Democratic Debate Judicial Power and the Democratic Debate The Supreme Court in History Judicial Selection The Federal Court System The Supreme Court: Process The Supreme Court: Politics The Supreme Court and the Political System Conclusion: Law, Politics, and the Democratic Debate 15. State and Local Politics: The Dilemma of Federalism Federalism and the Constitution The Failure of Dual Federalism Intergovernmental Relations Local Government and the Problem of Uneven Development Reformers and the Attack on Party Government States as Laboratories of Democracy Conclusion: Is There a Way out of the Dilemma? IV. Policy 16. Civil Liberties and Civil Rights Civil Liberties and Civil Rights: Foes and Friends Civil Liberties and Civil Rights: Historical Bases The First Amendment The Rights of Persons Accused of Crimes The Right of Privacy: Birth Control and Abortion Civil Rights Conclusion: The Struggle over Liberties and Rights 17. Economic and Social Policy: The Democratic Connections Policy Debates: The Democratic Dimension The Democratic Debate over the Money Supply Fiscal Policy: The Rise and Fall of the Keynesian Consensus Supply-Side Economics and Its Critics The Politics of Taxation The Contours of Social Policy Conclusion: The Future of Economic and Social Policy 18. Foreign Policy in the National Security State Beginnings of the Democratic Debate over Foreign Policy Isolation and Expansion The Democratic Debate over the Cold War Foreign and Defense Policy: Institutions Foreign Policy and Economic Power Foreign Policy and Public Opinion Post Cold-War Foreign Policy U.S. Foreign Policy After September 11 Conclusion: A More Democratic Foreign Policy? Appendix The Declaration of Independence in Congress The Constitution of the United States of America Federalist No. 10 Anti-Federalist Paper, October 18, 1757 Presidents of the United States