Design and Optimization of Passive UHF RFID Systems / Edition 1

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Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) is an automatic identification method, relying on storing and remotely retrieving data using devices called RFID tags or transponders. An RFID tag is an object that can be attached to or incorporated into a product, animal, or person for the purpose of identification using radio waves. Chip-based RFID tags contain silicon chips and antennas. Active tags require an internal power source, while passive tags do not.

Design and Optimization of UHF RFID Systems considers the analysis, design and optimization of UHF passive RFID systems for long-range applications. There are many key aspects thoroughly described in the text: Wireless power transmission, Tag-to-reader backscattering communication, Reader and tag architectures and IC design. Wireless power transmission is studied using a rectifier (a fundamental tag building-block) for which there has been a proven prediction model developed. Proposed is a theoretical analysis of possible backscattering modulations, as well as an experimental procedure to measure how the impedance modulation at the tag side, affects the signal at the reader. Finally, a complete tag design achieving a read range of 12 m at 2.45 GHz (4 W EIRP) is provided. At the time of writing, the results of this design outperform any other available IC tag.

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Editorial Reviews

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From the reviews:

"In this agile book of just 148 pages, the reader is introduced to the design of a passive RFID system operating in the UHF band. … The book is a useful tool for the RFID UHF system designer, and can also be a valuable guide for the newcomer interested in understanding the multifaceted issues involved in the development of RFID and of its specifications." (S. Donati and T. Tambosso, Optics and Photonics News, July/August, 2007)

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780387352749
  • Publisher: Springer US
  • Publication date: 10/25/2006
  • Edition description: 2007
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 150
  • Product dimensions: 9.21 (w) x 6.14 (h) x 0.44 (d)

Table of Contents

Preface     ix
Introduction     1
Objective of this work     2
Organization of this book     2
Wireless Power Transmission     3
History of Wireless Power Transmission     3
The rectenna     4
Rectifier building blocks     6
Clamping circuit     6
Rectifier circuit     7
The voltage doubler     7
Full-wave rectifier     8
Full-wave Greinacher rectifier     8
Antenna     9
Loss resistance     10
Radiation resistance     11
Antenna-Rectifier interface     11
Numerical example     12
WPT today and possible future applications     13
Conclusion     15
Analysis of the Modified-Greinacher Rectifier     17
Matching strategy     17
Rectifier equivalent circuit     19
Analysis strategy     20
Ideal case     21
Steady-state solution of the ideal rectifier     21
Determination of R[subscript i]     23
Real case     24
Steady-state solution     24
Determination of C[subscript i]     26
Determination of R[subscript i]     27
Determination of R[subscript out]     29
Rectifier efficiency     30
Results and comparisons     30
Design     33
Trade-offs     33
Capacitor design     33
Antenna and matching issues     34
Conclusion     35
Introduction to RFID     37
Introduction     37
Transponder types     38
Low frequency systems     38
High frequency systems     40
Standards     40
The EPC standard     41
The ISO standard     41
Regulations     42
Power regulations     42
Radar Cross Section (RCS)     42
Backscattering modulation technique     43
Link budget     44
Environmental impacts     46
Data integrity     46
Transponder-driven procedure     46
Interrogator-driven procedure     47
Conclusion     48
Backscattering architecture and choice of modulation type     49
Modulation types     49
Modulator architectures     50
ASK modulator      50
PSK modulator     52
Analysis strategy     53
ASK series-parallel case     54
Voltage considerations     54
Power considerations     55
Communication considerations     59
PSK series-series case     61
Voltage considerations     63
Power considerations     64
Communication considerations     66
ASK and PSK comparison     66
PSK based on ASK or pseudo-PSK     67
Pseudo-PSK     69
Communication considerations     69
Wireless power transmission and communication optimization     71
Conclusion     72
Backscattering modulation analysis     75
Introduction     75
Theoretical analysis     76
Experimental characterization     78
Practical procedure     78
Results     79
Impact on RFID Systems     79
Graphical Interpretation     82
Impact on Wireless Power Transmission     87
Conclusion     88
RFID Tag design     89
UHF and [micro]wave RFID circuit state-of-the-art     89
Tag specifications      91
Technological issues     95
Operational principle     97
Communication protocol     97
Transponder architecture     100
Transponder building blocks     101
Rectifier and limiter     101
Power-on-reset     103
Detector, Data sheer and Decoder     104
Shift register and logic     106
IF Oscillator     108
Modulator     109
Current reference     111
Antenna     112
Transponder input impedance     112
Choice of antenna     113
Experimental results     113
Conclusion     115
High frequency interrogator architecture and analysis     117
Introduction     117
Communication protocol     117
Interrogator architecture description     118
Direct coupling     119
System input IP3     120
Direct coupling compensation     121
DC component suppression     122
Phase noise     124
Effect on down-conversion     124
Reciprocal mixing     126
Antenna noise temperature     127
Receiver design      128
IF modulation frequency     129
IF processing     129
Conclusion     131
Conclusion     133
Appendix     135
Probability functions     135
References     137
Index     147
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