Design Methodologies for Space Transportation Systems

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Overview

The text discusses new conceptual changes in the design philosophy away from multistage expendable vehicles to winged, reusable launch vehicles and presents an overview of the systems engineering and vehicle design process as well as systems trades and analysis. Individual chapters are devoted to specific disciplines such as aerodynamics, aerothermal analysis, structures, materials, propulsion, flight mechanics and trajectories, avionics and computers, and control systems. The final chapters deal with human factors, payload, launch and mission operations, safety, and mission assurance.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781563474729
  • Publisher: American Institute of Aeronautics & Astronautics
  • Publication date: 1/1/2001
  • Series: AIAA Education Series
  • Pages: 839
  • Sales rank: 1,050,750
  • Product dimensions: 6.00 (w) x 9.60 (h) x 2.20 (d)

Meet the Author

Walter Hammond is a senior engineer for Pace and Waite, Inc. providing system engineering services to the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. He has 30 years' experience in the aerospace industry. Dr. Hammond is a member of the Secretariat of the USAF Scientific Advisory Board, an AIAA Associate Fellow, and a registered professional engineer. He earned a Ph.D. and an M.S. in Industrial Engineering, and an M.B.A. from Texas A & M University, as well as a B.S. and M.S. in Aerospace Engineering from the University of Texas.

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Table of Contents

Preface xvii
Acknowledgments xxi
Chapter 1. Overview of the Systems Engineering and Vehicle Design Process 1
1.1 Introduction 1
1.2 Systems Engineering 3
1.3 Space Transportation System Design Considerations 19
1.4 Integration Model for the Vehicle Design Process 23
1.5 Computerized Design Synthesis 31
1.6 Software 32
1.7 Other Design Functions 42
1.8 Summary 43
References 43
Further Reading 44
Chapter 2. Conceptual Design and Tradeoffs Process 45
2.1 Introduction: Encapsulation of the Space Transportation System Design Process 45
2.2 Overview of the Design Process 46
2.3 Design Process Summary 51
2.4 Design Creation 55
2.5 Establishing Vehicle System Characteristics 58
2.6 Methods for Conceptual Design: Closed-Form Impulsive Velocity Calculations 62
2.7 Preliminary Design 67
2.8 Recoverable vs Expendable Systems Analysis 84
2.9 A Holistic Approach is Needed 114
2.10 Summary 115
References 115
Chapter 3. Taking a Closer Look at the Design Sequence 119
3.1 Introduction 119
3.2 Overview of the System Design Process 120
3.3 Design Sequence: From Conceptual, to Preliminary, to Detailed Design 132
3.4 Design Process and Procedures Guidelines 160
3.5 Summary 164
References 164
Further Reading 165
Chapter 4. Aerothermodynamics Discipline 167
4.1 Introduction 167
4.2 Testing 171
4.3 Computational Flow Simulation 173
4.4 Role of Aerothermodynamics in the Space Vehicle Design Process 176
4.5 Aerodynamic Design Function Applied to Space Vehicles 182
4.6 Industrial CFD 188
4.7 Aerodynamic Shape Optimization 197
4.8 Application of Control Theory 199
4.9 NASP CFD Work 211
4.10 Some Hypersonic Flow Analysis Codes 212
4.11 Opportunity to Reengineer the Design Process 216
4.12 Summary 226
References 227
Further Reading 232
Chapter 5. Thermal Heating and Design 233
5.1 Introduction 233
5.2 Types of Heat Transfer 233
5.3 Thermal Analysis 237
5.4 Types of Thermal Protection Systems for Space Vehicles 239
5.5 Thermal Design for Space Transportation Systems 241
5.6 Space Vehicle Thermal Heating Considerations 251
5.7 Aerothermal Analysis Considerations 254
5.8 Some Aerothermal Analysis and Simulation Codes 257
5.9 Leveraging 268
5.10 Need for Collaborative Engineering Process 270
5.11 Summary 271
References 272
Chapter 6. Structures and Materials 279
6.1 Historical Introduction 279
6.2 Structural Materials Considerations 280
6.3 Structures Design Function 291
6.4 Materials and Processes 302
6.5 Integrated Design and Manufacturing 308
6.6 Computationally Driven Materials Developments 310
6.7 Materials and Manufacturing Design Functions 312
6.8 Material Design/Analysis Tasks 314
6.9 Recent Progress in Structures and Materials 315
6.10 Future Trends in Materials and Manufacturing 316
6.11 Processing and Fabrication Technology 329
6.12 Manufacturing Considerations 339
6.13 Summary 345
References 346
Further Reading 346
Chapter 7. Propulsion Systems 347
Nomenclature 347
7.1 Introduction 349
7.2 Rocket-Thrust Equations and Performance Parameters 352
7.3 Liquid Propulsion Systems 369
7.4 Solid Propulsion Systems 381
7.5 Hybrid Rocket Propulsion 384
7.6 Gelled Propellants 387
7.7 Airbreathing Propulsion Systems 389
7.8 Electric Propulsion Systems 402
7.9 Nuclear Propulsion Systems 408
7.10 Other Propulsion Methods 420
7.11 Summary 428
References 429
Further Reading 431
Chapter 8. Flight Mechanics and Trajectories 433
8.1 Introduction 433
8.2 Space Transportation System Trajectory Design 436
8.3 Space Vehicle Trajectory Design Tasks 438
8.4 Basics of GNC 442
8.5 Navigation and Guidance Applied to Space Transportation Systems 453
8.6 Guidance and Navigation Tasks 463
8.7 Flight Mechanics and Trajectories Applications 466
8.8 Summary 485
References 486
Further Reading 486
Chapter 9. Avionics, Computers, and Control Systems 487
9.1 Introduction 487
9.2 Avionics Design Function 494
9.3 Avionics Design Tasks 499
9.4 Sensors 501
9.5 Computers 505
9.6 Integrated Control and Health Monitoring 506
9.7 Control Systems for Launch Vehicles 511
9.8 Vehicle Control System Design Tasks 518
9.9 Fly-by-Wire Control Systems 521
9.10 Fly-by-Light Flight Control Systems 524
9.11 Summary 526
References 527
Further Reading 527
Chapter 10. Multidisciplinary Design Optimization and Simulation 529
10.1 Introduction 529
10.2 Airframe/Propulsion System Integration 532
10.3 Calculus-Based Methods 534
10.4 Optimization Using Response Surfaces 539
10.5 Expert Systems 546
10.6 Genetic Algorithms for Optimization 548
10.7 Simulated Annealing 553
10.8 Neural Networks 555
10.9 Selecting Methods and Combining Methods 557
10.10 Guidelines for Building Good Simulation Code 558
10.11 Multidisciplinary Design Optimization Applied to Today's Aerospace Systems 561
10.12 Conclusions 577
References 578
Chapter 11. Human Factors and Life Support 583
11.1 Introduction 583
11.2 Natural and Induced Environments 585
11.3 Environmental Control and Life-Support Systems 596
11.4 Controlled Ecological Life-Support Systems 606
11.5 Future Bioengineering Applications 608
11.6 Guidelines for Human Rating of Spacecraft 611
References 613
Further Reading 615
Chapter 12. Payloads and Integration 617
12.1 Introduction 617
12.2 Payload Classification 617
12.3 Payload Considerations 623
12.4 Payload Design and Sizing 627
12.5 Launch Vehicle/Payload Interfaces 629
12.6 Launch Site Operations 631
12.7 Payload/Launch Vehicle Integration 635
12.8 Launch and Mission Operations 637
12.9 Conclusions and Summary 639
References 639
Further Reading 640
Chapter 13. Launch and Mission Operations 641
13.1 Introduction 641
13.2 Mission Requirements Analysis 643
13.3 Launch Vehicles 645
13.4 Objectives and Approaches to Launch Operations 655
13.5 Launch Vehicle Ground Processing 661
13.6 Test Organization and Responsibility 665
13.7 Test Processing Equipment Requirements 668
13.8 Launch Vehicle Range Requirements 670
13.9 Telemetry Systems Requirements 673
13.10 Vehicle Launch Operations 676
13.11 Reducing Operations Costs 687
13.12 Future Launch and Mission Operations 691
13.13 Some Operations Lessons Learned 695
13.14 Summary 696
References 697
Further Reading 698
Chapter 14. Safety and Mission Assurance 699
14.1 Introduction 699
14.2 Ensuring Mission Success 699
14.3 Risk Management 705
14.4 Risk Analysis Techniques 707
14.5 Process Hazard Analysis Techniques 723
14.6 Designing for Safety in Space Vehicle Program 734
14.7 Prelaunch Operations Safety 745
14.8 Launch, On-Orbit, Abort, and Recovery Operations Safety 746
14.9 Quality and Mission Assurance 751
14.10 Transportability and Maintainability Analysis 756
14.11 Some Lessons Learned in Risk Management 763
References 763
Further Reading 764
Appendix A Some Space Transportation Systems Lessons Learned 767
Appendix B Equations and Approaches for Modeling Space Transportation Systems 781
Appendix C Historical Perspective on Space Transportation 795
Appendix D Case Study: Base Drag and Base Aeroheating for Space Vehicles 821
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