Design of Straw Bale Buildings: The State of the Art

Design of Straw Bale Buildings: The State of the Art

by Bruce King
     
 

ISBN-10: 0976491117

ISBN-13: 9780976491118

Pub. Date: 09/07/2006

Publisher: Green Building Press


For the first time, a design manual for practicing professionals, as well as teachers, is made available, drawing on the collective experience of the most senior and respected figures in the rapidly-emerging field of straw bale construction.

This is the only book that provides truly useful information to architects, engineers, building officials and builders who

Overview


For the first time, a design manual for practicing professionals, as well as teachers, is made available, drawing on the collective experience of the most senior and respected figures in the rapidly-emerging field of straw bale construction.

This is the only book that provides truly useful information to architects, engineers, building officials and builders who want to design intelligently with plastered straw bales.

Product Details

ISBN-13:
9780976491118
Publisher:
Green Building Press
Publication date:
09/07/2006
Pages:
296
Product dimensions:
8.20(w) x 10.60(h) x 0.70(d)

Table of Contents


Caveats     xiii
Preface     xv
About the Authors     xvii
Introduction     xi
Straw and Bales     1
Straw
Bales
The Straw Bale Family Tree     7
Historic Precursors to Straw Bale Construction
Some New Offshoots Of Straw Bale Construction
Other Kinds of Straw Bales
Plastic and Other Baled Materials
Straw Panels, Blocks, and Lumber
Retrofit: the Bale Wrap
Proprietary Straw Bale Building Systems
Plaster and Reinforcing   Mark Aschheim   Kevin Donahue   Kelly Lerner     19
What is Plaster?
The Functions of Plaster Skins
Moisture Control
Thermal Resistance and Thermal Storage
Fire Control
Protection from Insects, Rodents and Ruminants
Structural Behavior
Finishes and Aesthetics
The Components of Plaster
Binders
Sand
Fiber
Types of Plasters
Cement Plasters
Lime Plasters
Earth Plasters (Clay Binder)
Key Structural Properties of Plasters
Plaster Bonding
Compressive Strength
Modulus of Rupture (MOR)
Modulus of Elasticity (MOE)
General Conclusions about Structural Qualities of Plasters
Reinforcing for Plasters
Fiber Reinforcements
Mesh Reinforcements
Summary of Recent Mesh and Anchorage Tests
Materials
Wire Tests
Mesh Anchorage Tests
Recommended Stapled Mesh Details
The Role of Plasters in Moisture Control
Durability and Maintenance: Erosion, Coatings, and Repairability
Environmental Considerations
Methods of Application
Preparationand Curing
Structure   Mark Aschheim   Kevin Donahue   David Mar   Dan Smith     57
Introduction to Structural Behavior
A First Look
Types of Wall Assemblies
Common Practice with all Straw Bale Building
Voids
Pinning
Fear of Water
Basic Details
Flat or On Edge?
Precompression
Plaster
General Loading Considerations
Structural Model of a Plastered Straw Bale Wall
The Transformed Section
The Sliced Transformed Section
Vertical Load
Wall Behavior and Failure Modes
Summary of Test Results
Tests on Unplastered Bales
Tests on Unplastered Bale Walls
Tests on Plastered Bales
Tests on Plastered Bale Walls
Summary of Ultimate Wall Loads
Design Methodology
Creep, Initial Settlement, and Precompression
Creep Test Summary and Conclusions
Out-of-Plane Load
Introduction
Two-Phased Wall Behavior Under Out-of-Plane Load
Pre-Cracking Wall Behavior Under Out-of-Plane Load
Post-Cracking Wall Behavior Under Out-of-Plane Load
Example Seven-Step Calculation
Comments
Summary of Recent Tests
Projectile Loads - What Happens in Hurricanes and Tornadoes?
In-Plane Load
Introduction to In-Plane Loads
General Considerations for In-Plane Wall Design
Wall Layout
Load Path and Design Philosophy
Selecting Wall Details and Materials
Bales
Plaster
Reinforcing
Fasteners and Anchorage
Summary Review of Cyclic In-Plane Load Tests
Hysteretic Curves From Cyclic Wall Tests
Wall A Earth-Plastered Wall / Light Detailing
Wall B Earth-Plastered Wall / Medium Detailing
Wall C Earth-Plastered Wall / Heavy Detailing
Wall D Lime-Cement-Plastered Wall / Light Detailing
Wall E Lime-Cement-Plastered Wall / Medium Detailing
Wall F Lime-Cement-Plastered Wall / Heavy Detailing
Wall G Lime-Cement-Plastered Wall with Medium Detailing and 2:1 Aspect Ratio
Commentary
Design Recommendations
Conclusions
Design Recommendations - Final Thoughts
The Seventh Inning Stretch     132
Moisture     133
Moisture, Materials and Straw Bales   John Straube
About Water
Materials
The Water Molecule and its States
Water's Interaction with Materials
Moisture Storage and Material Response
Moisture Storage Regimes
Practical Implications
Moisture Problems
The Moisture Balance
Moisture Sources and Wetting
Moisture Sinks and Drying
Moisture Storage
Moisture Control Practices John Straube
Rain Control
Deflection
Climate
Site
Building Shape & Mass
Rainwater on Walls
Drainage/Storage/Exclusion
Rainwater
Ground and Surface Water
Water Vapor Control
Air Barriers
Diffusion Control and Vapor Barriers
Moisture-Control Layers
Building Papers and Housewraps
Waterproof and Vapor Barrier Membranes
Plumbing
Wetting During Construction
Glossary
Moisture and Decomposition in Straw: Implications for Straw Bale Construction   Matthew Summers
Introduction
Moisture Experiments
Results
Discussion
Moisture Management in Straw Bale Buildings
Fire   Bob Theis     173
Introduction
Bales Burn Badly
Laboratory Test Results
Flame Spread and Smoke Density
Still, It Burns - Field Reports
Fire Safety Measures
Published Straw Bale Fire Tests
Conclusions
Insulation   Nehemiah Stone     185
What is Thermal Performance?
R-Values of Wall Systems
Measurement
Factors Affecting the R-value
R-value is Dynamic, Not Static
More Isn't Always that Much Better
Straw Bales Aren't Bricks
What About Straw Bale Ceilings, Arches, and Floors?
Conclusion
How Much Does a Straw Bale Structure Save Energy and Sequester Carbon?
Acoustics   Rene Dalmeijer     195
Introduction
Review of tests
Recipe for Straw Bale Wall Acoustic Isolation
Room Acoustics
Sound Transmission Class Examples
Insects and Other Uninvited Guests     203
Introduction
Insects
Termites
Other Uninvited Guests
Summary
Details and Design   Kelly Lerner   Dan Smith     209
Introduction to the Design Checklist
Seismicity
Building Codes
Climate
Exterior Moisture Exposure
Interior Climate (Moisture Exposure)
Basic Guidelines for Moisture Control
Use and Durability
Basic Guidelines for Mechanical Durability
Structural Requirements
Materials
Environmental Considerations
Labor and Construction Methods
Construction Scheduling
Financial Considerations
Codes and Standards   Martin Hammer     221
The Status of Straw Bale Codes and Permitting Worldwide
A General View
A Worldwide Code Survey of Straw Bale Codes and Permitting
Australia
Belarus
Canada
Central America
China
Czech Republic
Denmark
France
Germany
Greece
Ireland
Italy
Japan
Mexico
Mongolia
The Netherlands
New Zealand
Russia/Siberia
Saudi Arabia
South Africa
South America
Spain
United Kingdom
United States
Where Do Straw Bale Codes Go From Here?
Table of Straw Bale Building Codes
Current Draft Amendment to California Building Code
Tools and Resources     257
About Green Building Press     258

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