Designing for Cisco Internetwork Solutions (Desgn) (Authorized Self-Study Guide) / Edition 2 by Diane Teare | 9781587052729 | Hardcover | Barnes & Noble
Designing for Cisco Internetwork Solutions (Desgn) (Authorized Self-Study Guide) / Edition 2
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Designing for Cisco Internetwork Solutions (Desgn) (Authorized Self-Study Guide) / Edition 2

by Diane Teare

ISBN-10: 1587052725

ISBN-13: 9781587052729

Pub. Date: 10/26/2007

Publisher: Cisco Press

Authorized Self-Study Guide

Designing for Cisco Internetwork Solutions (DESGN)

Second Edition

Foundation learning for CCDA exam 640-863

Designing for Cisco Internetwork Solutions (DESGN), Second Edition, is a Cisco®-authorized, self-paced learning tool for CCDA® foundation learning. This book provides you with the knowledge needed to design


Authorized Self-Study Guide

Designing for Cisco Internetwork Solutions (DESGN)

Second Edition

Foundation learning for CCDA exam 640-863

Designing for Cisco Internetwork Solutions (DESGN), Second Edition, is a Cisco®-authorized, self-paced learning tool for CCDA® foundation learning. This book provides you with the knowledge needed to design enterprise networks. By reading this book, you will gain a thorough understanding of designing routed and switched network infrastructures and services within a modular architecture.

In Designing for Cisco Internetwork Solutions (DESGN), Second Edition, you will study a broad range of network design principles and guidelines. You will learn about network design in the context of the Cisco Service-Oriented Network Architecture (SONA) framework and the Cisco Enterprise Architecture. Specific topics include campus and data center infrastructure, remote connectivity, IP addressing design, routing protocol selection, voice network design, wireless network design, and including security in your designs. An ongoing case study plus chapter-ending review questions illustrate and help solidify the concepts presented in the book.

Whether you are preparing for CCDA certification or simply want to gain a better understanding of network design principles, you will benefit from the foundation information presented in this book.

Designing for Cisco Internetwork Solutions (DESGN), Second Edition, is part of a recommended learning path from Cisco that includes simulation and hands-on training from authorized Cisco Learning Partners and self-study products from Cisco Press. To find out more about instructor-led training, e-learning, and hands-on instruction offered by authorized Cisco Learning Partners worldwide, please visit

Diane Teare is a professional in the networking, training, and e-learning fields. She has more than 20 years of experience in designing, implementing, and troubleshooting network hardware and software and has also been involved in teaching, course design, and project management. She has extensive knowledge of network design and routing technologies and is an instructor with one of the largest authorized Cisco Learning Partners.

  • Understand the Cisco vision of intelligent networks and the SONA framework
  • Learn how to structure and modularize network designs within the Cisco Enterprise Architecture
  • Design basic campus and data center networks
  • Build designs for remote connectivity with WAN technologies
  • Create IPv4 addressing schemes
  • Understand IPv6 design
  • Select the appropriate routing protocol for various modules in the Cisco Enterprise Architecture
  • Design basic VoIP and IP telephony networks
  • Understand wireless design principles
  • Build security into your network designs

This volume is in the Certification Self-Study Series offered by Cisco Press®. Books in this series provide officially developed self-study solutions to help networking professionals understand technology implementations and prepare for the Cisco Career Certifications examinations.

Category: Cisco Press—Network Design

Covers: CCDA Exam 640-863

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Table of Contents



Chapter 1 Network Fundamentals Review

Introduction to Networks

Protocols and the OSI Model

The OSI Model


The OSI Layers

Physical Layer—Layer 1

Data Link Layer—Layer 2

Network Layer—Layer 3

Transport Layer—Layer 4

Upper Layers—Layers 5 Through 7

Communication Among OSI Layers

LANs and WANs

Network Devices

Terminology: Domains, Bandwidth, Unicast, Broadcast, and Multicast




Introduction to the TCP/IP Suite

TCP/IP Transport Layer Protocols

Port Numbers

TCP Sequencing, Acknowledgment, and Windowing

TCP/IP Internet Layer Protocols


IP Datagrams

TCP/IP-Related Data Link Layer Protocol


Routers Work at the Lower Three OSI Layers

Routing Tables

Routing Protocols


Physical Addresses

Logical Addresses

Routing and Network Layer Addresses

IP Addresses

IP Address Classes

Private and Public IP Addresses


Switching Types

Layer 2 Switching

Layer 3 Switching

Spanning Tree Protocol

Redundancy in Layer 2 Switched Networks

STP Terminology and Operation

STP Terminology

STP States

Rapid STP

Virtual LANs

VLAN Membership



Inter-VLAN Routing

Comprehensive Example


Chapter 2 Applying a Methodology to Network Design

The Cisco Service Oriented Network Architecture

Business Drivers for a New Network Architecture

Intelligence in the Network

Cisco SONA Framework

Network Design Methodology

Design as an Integral Part of the PPDIOO Methodology

Benefits of the Lifecycle Approach to Network Design

Design Methodology

Identifying Customer Requirements

Assessing the Scope of a Network Design Project

Identifying Required Information

Extracting Initial Requirements

Gathering Network Requirements

Planned Applications and Network Services

Organizational Goals

Organizational Constraints

Technical Goals

Technical Constraints

Characterizing the Existing Network and Sites

Customer Input

Sample Site Contact Information

Sample High-Level Network Diagram

Auditing or Assessing the Existing Network

Tools for Assessing the Network

Manual Information Collection Examples

Automatic Information Collection Examples

Analyzing Network Traffic and Applications

Tools for Analyzing Traffic



Other Network Analysis Tools Examples

Network Health Checklist

Summary Report

Creating a Draft Design Document

Time Estimates for Performing Network Characterization

Using the Top-Down Approach to Network Design

The Top-Down Approach to Network Design

Top-Down Approach Compared to Bottom-Up Approach

Top-Down Design Example

Decision Tables in Network Design

Structured Design

Network Design Tools

Building a Prototype or Pilot Network

Documenting the Design

The Design Implementation Process

Planning a Design Implementation

Implementing and Verifying the Design

Monitoring and Redesigning the Network



Case Study: ACMC Hospital Network Upgrade

Case Study Scenario

Organizational Facts

Current Situation

Plans and Requirements

Case Study Questions

Review Questions

Chapter 3 Structuring and Modularizing the Network

Network Hierarchy

Hierarchical Network Model

Hierarchical Network Design Layers

Access Layer Functionality

The Role of the Access Layer

Layer 2 and Multilayer Switching in the Access Layer

Access Layer Example

Distribution Layer Functionality

The Role of the Distribution Layer

Distribution Layer Example

Core Layer Functionality

The Role of the Core Layer

Switching in the Core Layer

Hierarchical Routing in the WAN

Using a Modular Approach to Network Design

Evolution of Enterprise Networks

Cisco SONA Framework

Functional Areas of the Cisco Enterprise Architecture

Guidelines for Creating an Enterprise Network

Enterprise Campus Modules

Campus Infrastructure Module

Building Access Layer

Building Distribution Layer

Campus Core Layer

Server Farm Module

Enterprise Campus Guidelines

Enterprise Edge Modules

E-commerce Module

Internet Connectivity Module

Remote Access and VPN Module

WAN and MAN and Site-to-Site VPN Module

Enterprise Edge Guidelines

Service Provider Modules

Internet Service Provider Module

PSTN Module

Frame Relay/ATM Module

Remote Enterprise Modules

Enterprise Branch Module

Enterprise Data Center Module

Enterprise Teleworker Module

Services Within Modular Networks

Interactive Services

Security Services in a Modular Network Design

Internal Security

External Threats

High-Availability Services in a Modular Network Design

Designing High Availability into a Network

High Availability in the Server Farm

Designing Route Redundancy

Designing Link Redundancy

Voice Services in a Modular Network Design

Two Voice Implementations

IP Telephony Components

Modular Approach in Voice Network Design

Evaluating the Existing Data Infrastructure for Voice Design

Wireless Services in a Modular Network

Centralized WLAN Components

Application Networking Services in a Modular Network Design

ANS Examples

ANS Components

Network Management Protocols and Features

Network Management Architecture

Protocols and Standards







Cisco MIB

MIB Polling Guidelines

MIB Example



RMON1 Groups


RMON2 Groups


NetFlow Versus RMON Information Gathering


CDP Information

How CDP Works

Syslog Accounting

Syslog Distributed Architecture



Case Study: ACMC Hospital Modularity

Review Questions

Chapter 4 Designing Basic Campus and Data Center Networks

Campus Design Considerations

Designing an Enterprise Campus

Network Application Characteristics and Considerations

Peer-Peer Applications

Client–Local Server Applications

Client–Server Farm Applications

Client–Enterprise Edge Applications

Application Requirements

Environmental Characteristics and Considerations

Network Geography Considerations

Transmission Media Considerations

Infrastructure Device Characteristics and Considerations

Convergence Time

Multilayer Switching and Cisco Express Forwarding

IP Multicast

QoS Considerations in LAN Switches

Load Sharing in Layer 2 and Layer 3 Switches

Enterprise Campus Design

Enterprise Campus Requirements

Building Access Layer Design Considerations

Managing VLANs and STP

Managing Trunks Between Switches

Managing Default PAgP Settings

Implementing Routing in the Building Access Layer

Building Distribution Layer Design Considerations

Using First-Hop Redundancy Protocols

Deploying Layer 3 Routing Protocols Between Building Distribution and Campus Core Switches

Supporting VLANs That Span Multiple Building Access Layer Switches

Campus Core Design Considerations

Large Campus Design

Small and Medium Campus Design Options

Edge Distribution at the Campus Core

Server Placement

Servers Directly Attached to Building Access or Building Distribution Layer Switches

Servers Directly Attached to the Campus Core

Servers in a Server Farm Module

Server Farm Design Guidelines

Server Connectivity Options

The Effect of Applications on Switch Performance

Enterprise Data Center Design Considerations

The Enterprise Data Center

The Cisco Enterprise Data Center Architecture Framework

Enterprise Data Center Infrastructure

Data Center Access Layer

Data Center Aggregation Layer

Data Center Core Layer

Density and Scalability of Servers



Case Study: ACMC Hospital Network Campus Design

Case Study Additional Information

Case Study Questions

Review Questions

Chapter 5 Designing Remote Connectivity

Enterprise Edge WAN Technologies

Introduction to WANs

WAN Interconnections

Traditional WAN Technologies

Packet-Switched Network Topologies

WAN Transport Technologies

TDM (Leased Lines)


Frame Relay

Asynchronous Transfer Mode


Metro Ethernet

DSL Technologies

Cable Technology

Wireless Technologies

Synchronous Optical Network and Synchronous Digital Hierarchy

Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing

Dark Fiber

WAN Transport Technology Pricing and Contract Considerations

WAN Design

Application Requirements of WAN Design

Response Time


Packet Loss


Technical Requirements: Maximum Offered Traffic

Technical Requirements: Bandwidth

Evaluating the Cost-Effectiveness of WAN Ownership

Optimizing Bandwidth in a WAN

Data Compression

Bandwidth Combination

Window Size

Queuing to Improve Link Utilization

Congestion Avoidance

Traffic Shaping and Policing to Rate-Limit Traffic Classes

Using WAN Technologies

Remote Access Network Design

VPN Design

VPN Applications

VPN Connectivity Options

Benefits of VPNs

WAN Backup Strategies

Dial Backup Routing

Permanent Secondary WAN Link

Shadow PVC

The Internet as a WAN Backup Technology

IP Routing Without Constraints

Layer 3 Tunneling with GRE and IPsec

Enterprise Edge WAN and MAN Architecture

Enterprise Edge WAN and MAN Considerations

Cisco Enterprise MAN and WAN Architecture Technologies

Selecting Enterprise Edge Components

Hardware Selection

Software Selection

Cisco IOS Software Packaging

Cisco IOS Packaging Technology Segmentation

Comparing the Functions of Cisco Router Platforms and Software Families

Comparing the Functions of Multilayer Switch Platforms and Software Families

Enterprise Branch and Teleworker Design

Enterprise Branch Architecture

Enterprise Branch Design

Small Branch Office Design

Medium Branch Office Design

Large Branch Office Design

Enterprise Teleworker (Branch of One) Design



Case Study: ACMC Hospital Network WAN Design

Case Study Additional Information

Business Factors

Technical Factors

Case Study Questions

Review Questions

Chapter 6 Designing IP Addressing in the Network

Designing an IP Addressing Plan

Private and Public IPv4 Addresses

Private Versus Public Address Selection Criteria

Interconnecting Private and Public Addresses

Guidelines for the Use of Private and Public Addresses in an Enterprise Network

Determining the Size of the Network

Determining the Network Topology

Size of Individual Locations

Planning the IP Addressing Hierarchy

Hierarchical Addressing

Route Summarization

IP Addressing Hierarchy Criteria

Benefits of Hierarchical Addressing

Summarization Groups

Impact of Poorly Designed IP Addressing

Benefits of Route Aggregation

Fixed- and Variable-Length Subnet Masks

Routing Protocol Considerations

Classful Routing Protocols

Classless Routing Protocols

Hierarchical IP Addressing and Summarization Plan Example

Methods of Assigning IP Addresses

Static Versus Dynamic IP Address Assignment Methods

When to Use Static or Dynamic Address Assignment

Guidelines for Assigning IP Addresses in the Enterprise Network

Using DHCP to Assign IP Addresses

Name Resolution

Static Versus Dynamic Name Resolution

When to Use Static or Dynamic Name Resolution

Using DNS for Name Resolution

DHCP and DNS Server Location in a Network

Introduction to IPv6

IPv6 Features

IPv6 Address Format

IPv6 Address Types

IPv6 Address Scope Types

Interface Identifiers in IPv6 Addresses

IPv6 Unicast Addresses

Global Aggregatable Unicast Addresses

Link-Local Unicast Addresses

IPv6 Address Assignment Strategies

Static IPv6 Address Assignment

Dynamic IPv6 Address Assignment

IPv6 Name Resolution

Static and Dynamic IPv6 Name Resolution

IPv4- and IPv6-Aware Applications and Name Resolution

IPv4-to-IPv6 Transition Strategies and Deployments

Differences Between IPv4 and IPv6

IPv4-to-IPv6 Transition

Dual-Stack Transition Mechanism

Tunneling Transition Mechanism

Translation Transition Mechanism

IPv6 Routing Protocols


EIGRP for IPv6


Integrated IS-IS Version 6




Case Study: ACMC Hospital IP Addressing Design

Review Questions

Chapter 7 Selecting Routing Protocols for the Network

Routing Protocol Features

Static Versus Dynamic Routing

Static Routing

Dynamic Routing

Interior Versus Exterior Routing Protocols

IGP and EGP Example

Distance Vector Versus Link-State Versus Hybrid Protocols

Distance Vector Example

Link-State Example

Routing Protocol Metrics

What Is a Routing Metric?

Metrics Used by Routing Protocols

Routing Protocol Convergence

RIPv2 Convergence Example

Comparison of Routing Protocol Convergence

Flat Versus Hierarchical Routing Protocols

Flat Routing Protocols

Hierarchical Routing Protocols

Routing Protocols for the Enterprise


EIGRP Terminology

EIGRP Characteristics


OSPF Hierarchical Design

OSPF Characteristics

Integrated IS-IS

Integrated IS-IS Terminology

Integrated IS-IS Characteristics

Summary of Interior Routing Protocol Features

Selecting an Appropriate Interior Routing Protocol

When to Choose EIGRP

When to Choose OSPF

Border Gateway Protocol

BGP Implementation Example

External and Internal BGP

Routing Protocol Deployment

Routing Protocols in the Enterprise Architecture

Routing in the Campus Core

Routing in the Building Distribution Layer

Routing in the Building Access Layer

Routing in the Enterprise Edge Modules

Route Redistribution

Using Route Redistribution

Administrative Distance

Selecting the Best Route

Route Redistribution Direction

Route Redistribution Planning

Route Redistribution in the Enterprise Architecture

Route Filtering

Redistributing and Filtering with BGP

Route Summarization

The Benefits of Route Summarization

Recommended Practice: Summarize at the Distribution Layer

Recommended Practice: Passive Interfaces for IGP at the Access Layer



Case Study: ACMC Hospital Routing Protocol Design

Review Questions

Chapter 8 Voice Network Design Considerations

Traditional Voice Architectures and Features

Analog and Digital Signaling

The Analog-to-Digital Process

Time-Division Multiplexing in PSTN

PBXs and the PSTN

Differences Between a PBX and a PSTN Switch

PBX Features

PSTN Switches

Local Loops, Trunks, and Interswitch Communications

Telephony Signaling

Telephony Signaling Types

Analog Telephony Signaling

Digital Telephony Signaling

PSTN Numbering Plans

International Numbering Plans

Call Routing

Numbering Plans

Integrating Voice Architectures

Introduction to Integrated Networks

Drivers for Integrating Voice and Data Networks


Introduction to H.323

H.323 Components

H.323 Example

Introduction to IP Telephony

IP Telephony Design Goals

Single-Site IP Telephony Design

Multisite WAN with Centralized Call Processing Design

Multisite WAN with Distributed Call Processing Design

Call Control and Transport Protocols

Voice Conversation Protocols

Call Control Functions with H.323

Call Control Functions with the Skinny Client Control Protocol

Call Control Functions with SIP

Call Control Functions with MGCP

Voice Issues and Requirements

Voice Quality Issues

Packet Delays

Fixed Network Delays

Variable Network Delays


Packet Loss


Voice Coding and Compression

Coding and Compression Algorithms

Voice Coding Standards (Codecs)

Sound Quality

Codec Complexity, DSPs, and Voice Calls

Bandwidth Considerations

Reducing the Amount of Voice Traffic

Voice Bandwidth Requirements

Codec Design Considerations

QoS for Voice

Bandwidth Provisioning

Signaling Techniques

Classification and Marking

Congestion Avoidance

Traffic Policing and Shaping

Congestion Management: Queuing and Scheduling

Link Efficiency


Building Access Layer QoS Mechanisms for Voice


Introduction to Voice Traffic Engineering


Blocking Probability and GoS



Busy Hour and BHT


Erlang Tables

Erlang B Table

Erlang Examples

Trunk Capacity Calculation Example

Off-Net Calls Cost Calculation Example

Calculating Trunk Capacity or Bandwidth

Cisco IP Communications Return on Investment Calculator



Case Study: ACMC Hospital Network Voice Design

Case Study Additional Information

Case Study Questions

Review Questions

Chapter 9 Wireless Network Design Considerations

Introduction to Wireless Technology

RF Theory

Phenomena Affecting RF

RF Math


Agencies and Standards Groups

IEEE 802.11 Operational Standards

IEEE 802.11b/g Standards in the 2.4 GHz Band

802.11a Standard in the 5-GHz Band

802.11 WLANs Versus 802.3 Ethernet LANs

WLAN Topologies

WLAN Components

Cisco-Compatible WLAN Clients

Autonomous APs

Lightweight APs

AP Power

WLAN Operation

WLAN Security

The Cisco Unified Wireless Network

The Cisco UWN Architecture

Cisco UWN Elements

Cisco UWN Lightweight AP and WLC Operation

Cisco UWN Wireless Authentication and Encryption

LWAPP Fundamentals

Layer 2 LWAPP Architecture

Layer 3 LWAPP Architecture

WLAN Controllers

WLC Terminology

WLC Interfaces

WLC Platforms

Access Point Support Scalability

Lightweight APs

Lightweight AP Discovery and Join Process

Lightweight AP and WLC Control Messages

Access Point Modes

Mobility in a Cisco Unified Wireless Network

Intracontroller Roaming

Intercontroller Roaming at Layer 2

Intercontroller Roaming at Layer 3

Mobility Groups

Recommended Practices for Supporting Roaming

Radio Resource Management and RF Groups

Radio Resource Management

RF Grouping

AP Self-Healing

Cisco UWN Review

Designing Wireless Networks with Lightweight Access Points and Wireless LAN Controllers

RF Site Survey

RF Site Survey Process

Define the Customer Requirements

Identify Coverage Areas and User Density

Determine Preliminary AP Locations

Perform the Actual Survey

Document the Findings

Controller Redundancy Design

Dynamic Controller Redundancy

Deterministic Controller Redundancy

Deterministic Redundancy Options

Design Considerations for Guest Services in Wireless Networks

Design Considerations for Outdoor Wireless Networks

Wireless Mesh Components

MAP-to-RAP Connectivity

Mesh Design Recommendations

Design Considerations for Campus Wireless Networks

Common Wireless Design Questions

Controller Placement Design

Campus Controller Options

Design Considerations for Branch Office Wireless Networks

Branch Office Considerations

Local MAC


Hybrid REAP

Branch Office WLAN Controller Options



Case Study: ACMC Hospital UWN Considerations

Review Questions

Chapter 10 Evaluating Security Solutions for the Network

Network Security

The Need for Network Security

Network Security Requirements

Security Legislation Examples

Terminology Related to Security

Threats and Risks

Threat: Reconnaissance Attacks

Threat: Gaining Unauthorized Access to Systems

Threat: DoS

Risk: Integrity Violations and Confidentiality Breaches

Network Security Policy and Process

Security Policy

The Need for a Security Policy

Risk Assessment and Management

Documenting the Security Policy

Network Security Process

The Cisco Self-Defending Network

The Cisco Self-Defending Network Framework

Secure Network Platform

Cisco Self-Defending Network Phases

Trust and Identity Management



Access Control

Trust and Identity Management Technologies

Identity and Access Control Deployment

Threat Defense

Physical Security

Infrastructure Protection

Threat Detection and Mitigation

Secure Connectivity

Encryption Fundamentals

VPN Protocols

Transmission Confidentiality: Ensuring Privacy

Maintaining Data Integrity

Security Management

Cisco Security Management Technologies

Network Security Solutions

Integrated Security Within Network Devices

Cisco IOS Router Security

Security Appliances


Catalyst Services Modules

Endpoint Security Solutions

Securing the Enterprise Network

Deploying Security in the Enterprise Campus

Deploying Security in the Enterprise Data Center

Deploying Security in the Enterprise Edge



Case Study 10-1: ACMC Hospital Network Security Design

Case Study Questions

Case Study 10-2: ACMC Hospital Network—Connecting More Hospitals

Case Study Questions

Review Questions

Appendix A Answers to Review Questions and Case Studies

Appendix B IPv4 Supplement

Appendix C Open System Interconnection (OSI) Reference Model

Appendix D Network Address Translation

Acronyms and Abbreviations

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