Designing for Cisco Internetwork Solutions (Desgn) (Authorized Self-Study Guide) / Edition 2

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Overview

Authorized Self-Study Guide

Designing for Cisco Internetwork Solutions (DESGN)

Second Edition

Foundation learning for CCDA exam 640-863

Designing for Cisco Internetwork Solutions (DESGN), Second Edition, is a Cisco®-authorized, self-paced learning tool for CCDA® foundation learning. This book provides you with the knowledge needed to design enterprise networks. By reading this book, you will gain a thorough understanding of designing routed and switched network infrastructures and services within a modular architecture.

In Designing for Cisco Internetwork Solutions (DESGN), Second Edition, you will study a broad range of network design principles and guidelines. You will learn about network design in the context of the Cisco Service-Oriented Network Architecture (SONA) framework and the Cisco Enterprise Architecture. Specific topics include campus and data center infrastructure, remote connectivity, IP addressing design, routing protocol selection, voice network design, wireless network design, and including security in your designs. An ongoing case study plus chapter-ending review questions illustrate and help solidify the concepts presented in the book.

Whether you are preparing for CCDA certification or simply want to gain a better understanding of network design principles, you will benefit from the foundation information presented in this book.

Designing for Cisco Internetwork Solutions (DESGN), Second Edition, is part of a recommended learning path from Cisco that includes simulation and hands-on training from authorized Cisco Learning Partners and self-study products from Cisco Press. To find out more about instructor-led training, e-learning, and hands-on instruction offered by authorized Cisco Learning Partners worldwide, please visit www.cisco.com/go/authorizedtraining.

Diane Teare is a professional in the networking, training, and e-learning fields. She has more than 20 years of experience in designing, implementing, and troubleshooting network hardware and software and has also been involved in teaching, course design, and project management. She has extensive knowledge of network design and routing technologies and is an instructor with one of the largest authorized Cisco Learning Partners.

  • Understand the Cisco vision of intelligent networks and the SONA framework
  • Learn how to structure and modularize network designs within the Cisco Enterprise Architecture
  • Design basic campus and data center networks
  • Build designs for remote connectivity with WAN technologies
  • Create IPv4 addressing schemes
  • Understand IPv6 design
  • Select the appropriate routing protocol for various modules in the Cisco Enterprise Architecture
  • Design basic VoIP and IP telephony networks
  • Understand wireless design principles
  • Build security into your network designs

This volume is in the Certification Self-Study Series offered by Cisco Press®. Books in this series provide officially developed self-study solutions to help networking professionals understand technology implementations and prepare for the Cisco Career Certifications examinations.

Category: Cisco Press—Network Design

Covers: CCDA Exam 640-863

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781587052729
  • Publisher: Cisco Press
  • Publication date: 10/26/2007
  • Series: Self-Study Guide Series
  • Edition description: REV
  • Edition number: 2
  • Pages: 960
  • Product dimensions: 7.62 (w) x 9.28 (h) x 2.23 (d)

Meet the Author

Diane Teare is a professional in the networking, training, and e-learning fields. She has more than 20 years of experience in designing, implementing, and troubleshooting network hardware and software and has also been involved in teaching, course design, and project management. She has extensive knowledge of network design and routing technologies and is an instructor with one of the largest authorized Cisco Learning Partners. She was recently the Director of e-Learning for the same company, where she was responsible for planning and supporting all the company’s e-learning offerings in Canada, including Cisco courses. Diane has a bachelor’s degree in applied science in electrical engineering (BASc) and a master’s degree in applied science in management science (MASc). She is a certified Cisco instructor and currently holds her CCNP and CCDP certifications. She coauthored the Cisco Press titles Campus Network Design Fundamentals, the three editions of Building Scalable Cisco Internetworks (BSCI), and Building Scalable Cisco Networks. She also edited the first edition of this book and Designing Cisco Networks.

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Read an Excerpt

Authorized Self-Study Guide Designing for Cisco Internetwork Solutions (DESGN), Second EditionAuthorized Self-Study Guide Designing for Cisco Internetwork Solutions (DESGN), Second EditionIntroduction

Modern networks are both extremely complex and critical to business success. As organizational processes continue to increase the requirements for bandwidth, reliability, and functionality from their networks, network designers are challenged to rapidly develop and evolve networks that use new protocols and technologies. Network designers are also challenged to stay current with the internetworking industry's constant and rapid changes. Designing robust, reliable, scalable networks is a necessary skill for network operators and designers in the modern organizational environment.

This book teaches you how to design enterprise networks. You will learn about network design in the context of the Cisco Service Oriented Network Architecture (SONA) architectural framework and Enterprise Architecture. Specific topics include campus and data center infrastructure, remote connectivity, IP addressing design, routing protocol selection, designing voice networks, wireless network design, and including security in your designs.

An ongoing case study and chapter-ending review questions illustrate and help solidify the concepts presented in this book.

This book provides you with the knowledge and skills you need to achieve associate-level competency in network design. It starts you down the path to attaining your CCDA certification, because it provides in-depth information to help you prepare for the DESGN exam.

DESGN is the first step in the design curriculum that supports the Cisco network design certification track. This book focuses on the technology and methods currently available.

Objectives of This Book

The goal of this book is to provide you with the knowledge you need to gather internetworking requirements, identify solutions, and design the network infrastructure and services to ensure basic functionality, using the principles of hierarchical network design to structure and modularize a converged enterprise network design. Design tasks might include understanding the design methodology; structuring and modularizing the network design using the Cisco Enterprise Architecture; designing the Enterprise Campus, Enterprise Data Center, Enterprise Edge, and remote modules as needed; designing an addressing plan and selecting suitable routing protocols; designing basic voice transport across the network; designing a basic wireless solution; and evaluating security solutions.

Who Should Read This Book

This book is intended for network and sales engineers who are involved in network design, planning, and implementation, and for those who plan to take the 640-863 DESGN exam toward the CCDA certification. This book provides in-depth study material for that exam. To fully benefit from this book, you should have the following prerequisite skills:

  • CCNA–level knowledge (or CCNA certification), which can best be achieved by completing the related CCNA courses and using CCNA books from Cisco Press. You can find more information on the CCNA certification at http://www.cisco.com/go/ccna/.
  • Knowledge of wireless networking, quality of service (QoS), and multilayer switching is highly recommended. The level equivalent to that covered in the Building Cisco Multilayer Switched Networks (BCMSN) course or the book Building Cisco Multilayer Switched Networks (BCMSN), Fourth Edition (Richard Froom, Balaji Sivasubramanian, Erum Frahim, Cisco Press, 2007) is appropriate.

    NOTE - We assume that you understand the wireless networking material in the Cisco Press book just mentioned. In Chapter 9, we include some material from that book as an introduction to wireless technology. Refer to the Cisco Press BCMSN book for more detailed information.

  • Practical experience deploying and operating networks based on Cisco network devices and the Cisco IOS.
Summary of the Contents

The chapters and appendixes of this book are as follows:

  • Chapter 1, "Network Fundamentals Review," introduces some fundamental concepts and terminology that are the foundation for the material in the rest of the book.
  • Chapter 2, "Applying a Methodology to Network Design," introduces the Cisco vision of intelligent networks and the Service Oriented Network Architecture (SONA) architectural framework. The lifecycle of a network and a network design methodology based on the lifecycle are presented, and each phase of the network design process is explored in detail.
  • Chapter 3, "Structuring and Modularizing the Network," introduces a modular hierarchical approach to network design, the Cisco Enterprise Architecture. The chapter includes a detailed description of services within modular networks. Network management protocols and features are also discussed.
  • Chapter 4, "Designing Basic Campus and Data Center Networks," examines the design of the Enterprise Campus and Enterprise Data Center network infrastructure.
  • Chapter 5, "Designing Remote Connectivity," discusses WAN technologies and design considerations. This chapter describes the Enterprise WAN and metropolitan-area network (MAN) architectures and the Enterprise Branch and Teleworker architectures and discusses the selection of WAN hardware and software components.
  • Chapter 6, "Designing IP Addressing in the Network," discusses the design of an IP version 4 (IPv4) addressing scheme. The chapter also introduces IP version 6 (IPv6) and discusses IPv4-to-IPv6 migration strategies.
  • Chapter 7, "Selecting Routing Protocols for the Network," describes considerations for selecting the most appropriate network routing protocol. The chapter discusses why certain protocols are suitable for specific modules in the Enterprise Architecture. It concludes with a description of some advanced routing protocol deployment features, including redistribution, filtering, and summarization.
  • Chapter 8, "Voice Network Design Considerations," introduces voice design principles and provides guidelines for a successful integrated network deployment. It begins with an overview of traditional voice architectures and features and continues with a discussion of integrated voice architectures, including VoIP and IP telephony.
  • Chapter 9, "Wireless Network Design Considerations," introduces the Cisco Unified Wireless Network (UWN) architecture and discusses wireless design principles. The chapter introduces wireless technologies and explores considerations when designing Cisco UWNs in enterprise environments.
  • Chapter 10, "Evaluating Security Solutions for the Network," describes network security, including threats and risks, and network security policies. The Cisco Self-Defending Network strategy for designing network security is explored, and Cisco network security solutions for enterprise networks are discussed.
  • Appendix A, "Answers to Review Questions and Case Studies," contains answers to the review questions and case studies that appear at the end of the chapters.
  • Appendix B, "IPv4 Supplement," provides job aids and supplementary information intended for your use when working with IPv4 addresses. Topics include an IP addressing and subnetting job aid, a decimal-to-binary conversion chart, IPv4 addressing review, and IPv4 access lists.
  • Appendix C, "Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) Reference Model," is a brief overview of the OSI seven-layer model.
  • Appendix D, "Network Address Translation," contains information about Cisco's implementation of Network Address Translation (NAT) and port address translation (PAT).
  • "Acronyms and Abbreviations" spells out the abbreviations, acronyms, and initialisms used in this book.
Case Studies and Review Questions

Starting in Chapter 2, each chapter concludes with a case study on Acme County Medical Center (ACMC) Hospital, a fictitious small county hospital in the United States, to help you evaluate your understanding of the concepts presented. In each task of the case study, you act as a network design consultant and make creative proposals to accomplish the customer's business needs. The final goal of each case study is a paper solution. Also starting in Chapter 2, each chapter also includes review questions on the subjects covered in that chapter so that you can test your knowledge.

To find out how you did and what material you might need to study further, you can compare your answers to those provided in Appendix A. Note that for each case study task, Appendix A provides a solution based on the assumptions made. There is no claim that the provided solution is the best or only solution. Your solution might be more appropriate for the assumptions you made. The provided solution allows you to understand the author's reasoning and offers you a means of comparing and contrasting your solution.

What's New in This Edition

This book is an update to CCDA Self-Study: Designing for Cisco Internetwork Solutions (DESGN), ISBN 1-58705-141-9. This second edition reflects changes to the DESGN course. The following are the major changes between editions:

  • Every chapter has been rewritten. Some material that was removed from the main portion of the previous edition because of course changes has been put in sidebars, as appropriate. The appendixes have been modified and updated to reflect the book's content.
  • The methodology used throughout the book is now based on Cisco's SONA framework and Enterprise architectures.
  • New topics include the design of the data center and the design of teleworker and branch offices.
  • A new chapter on wireless network design, Chapter 9, has been included.
  • Chapter 1 has been enhanced to include a more thorough review of networking fundamentals and to reflect new prerequisite material.
  • Some information on IP addressing in the main body of the first edition has been moved to Appendix B.
  • Chapter 10 includes details of Cisco network security solutions and the Cisco Self-Defending Network strategy.
  • The information about network management has been condensed and moved to Chapter 3.
  • The case study is new and includes a more thorough examination of network design issues. Simulation output is no longer included.
Author's Notes, Key Points, Sidebars, and Cautions

The notes, key points, and sidebars found in this book provide extra information on a subject.

Key Point

The key points highlight information that is important for understanding the topic at hand and specific points of interest.

Resources for Further Study

Within each chapter are references to other resources that provide you with further information on specific topics. For more information about Cisco exams, training, and certifications, refer to the Training and Events area on the Cisco website at http://www.cisco.com/web/learning/index.html.

NOTE - The website references in this book were accurate at the time of writing; however, they might have since changed. If a URL is unavailable, you might try conducting a search using the title as keywords in your favorite search engine.

© Copyright Pearson Education. All rights reserved.

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Table of Contents

Foreword

Introduction

Chapter 1 Network Fundamentals Review

Introduction to Networks

Protocols and the OSI Model

The OSI Model

Protocols

The OSI Layers

Physical Layer—Layer 1

Data Link Layer—Layer 2

Network Layer—Layer 3

Transport Layer—Layer 4

Upper Layers—Layers 5 Through 7

Communication Among OSI Layers

LANs and WANs

Network Devices

Terminology: Domains, Bandwidth, Unicast, Broadcast, and Multicast

Hubs

Switches

Routers

Introduction to the TCP/IP Suite

TCP/IP Transport Layer Protocols

Port Numbers

TCP Sequencing, Acknowledgment, and Windowing

TCP/IP Internet Layer Protocols

Protocols

IP Datagrams

TCP/IP-Related Data Link Layer Protocol

Routing

Routers Work at the Lower Three OSI Layers

Routing Tables

Routing Protocols

Addressing

Physical Addresses

Logical Addresses

Routing and Network Layer Addresses

IP Addresses

IP Address Classes

Private and Public IP Addresses

Subnets

Switching Types

Layer 2 Switching

Layer 3 Switching

Spanning Tree Protocol

Redundancy in Layer 2 Switched Networks

STP Terminology and Operation

STP Terminology

STP States

Rapid STP

Virtual LANs

VLAN Membership

Trunks

STP and VLANs

Inter-VLAN Routing

Comprehensive Example

Summary

Chapter 2 Applying a Methodology to Network Design

The Cisco Service Oriented Network Architecture

Business Drivers for a New Network Architecture

Intelligence in the Network

Cisco SONA Framework

Network Design Methodology

Design as an Integral Part of the PPDIOO Methodology

Benefits of the Lifecycle Approach to Network Design

Design Methodology

Identifying Customer Requirements

Assessing the Scope of a Network Design Project

Identifying Required Information

Extracting Initial Requirements

Gathering Network Requirements

Planned Applications and Network Services

Organizational Goals

Organizational Constraints

Technical Goals

Technical Constraints

Characterizing the Existing Network and Sites

Customer Input

Sample Site Contact Information

Sample High-Level Network Diagram

Auditing or Assessing the Existing Network

Tools for Assessing the Network

Manual Information Collection Examples

Automatic Information Collection Examples

Analyzing Network Traffic and Applications

Tools for Analyzing Traffic

NBAR

NetFlow

Other Network Analysis Tools Examples

Network Health Checklist

Summary Report

Creating a Draft Design Document

Time Estimates for Performing Network Characterization

Using the Top-Down Approach to Network Design

The Top-Down Approach to Network Design

Top-Down Approach Compared to Bottom-Up Approach

Top-Down Design Example

Decision Tables in Network Design

Structured Design

Network Design Tools

Building a Prototype or Pilot Network

Documenting the Design

The Design Implementation Process

Planning a Design Implementation

Implementing and Verifying the Design

Monitoring and Redesigning the Network

Summary

References

Case Study: ACMC Hospital Network Upgrade

Case Study Scenario

Organizational Facts

Current Situation

Plans and Requirements

Case Study Questions

Review Questions

Chapter 3 Structuring and Modularizing the Network

Network Hierarchy

Hierarchical Network Model

Hierarchical Network Design Layers

Access Layer Functionality

The Role of the Access Layer

Layer 2 and Multilayer Switching in the Access Layer

Access Layer Example

Distribution Layer Functionality

The Role of the Distribution Layer

Distribution Layer Example

Core Layer Functionality

The Role of the Core Layer

Switching in the Core Layer

Hierarchical Routing in the WAN

Using a Modular Approach to Network Design

Evolution of Enterprise Networks

Cisco SONA Framework

Functional Areas of the Cisco Enterprise Architecture

Guidelines for Creating an Enterprise Network

Enterprise Campus Modules

Campus Infrastructure Module

Building Access Layer

Building Distribution Layer

Campus Core Layer

Server Farm Module

Enterprise Campus Guidelines

Enterprise Edge Modules

E-commerce Module

Internet Connectivity Module

Remote Access and VPN Module

WAN and MAN and Site-to-Site VPN Module

Enterprise Edge Guidelines

Service Provider Modules

Internet Service Provider Module

PSTN Module

Frame Relay/ATM Module

Remote Enterprise Modules

Enterprise Branch Module

Enterprise Data Center Module

Enterprise Teleworker Module

Services Within Modular Networks

Interactive Services

Security Services in a Modular Network Design

Internal Security

External Threats

High-Availability Services in a Modular Network Design

Designing High Availability into a Network

High Availability in the Server Farm

Designing Route Redundancy

Designing Link Redundancy

Voice Services in a Modular Network Design

Two Voice Implementations

IP Telephony Components

Modular Approach in Voice Network Design

Evaluating the Existing Data Infrastructure for Voice Design

Wireless Services in a Modular Network

Centralized WLAN Components

Application Networking Services in a Modular Network Design

ANS Examples

ANS Components

Network Management Protocols and Features

Network Management Architecture

Protocols and Standards

SNMP

SNMPv1

SNMPv2

SNMPv3

MIB

MIB-II

Cisco MIB

MIB Polling Guidelines

MIB Example

RMON

RMON1

RMON1 Groups

RMON1 and RMON2

RMON2 Groups

Netflow

NetFlow Versus RMON Information Gathering

CDP

CDP Information

How CDP Works

Syslog Accounting

Syslog Distributed Architecture

Summary

References

Case Study: ACMC Hospital Modularity

Review Questions

Chapter 4 Designing Basic Campus and Data Center Networks

Campus Design Considerations

Designing an Enterprise Campus

Network Application Characteristics and Considerations

Peer-Peer Applications

Client–Local Server Applications

Client–Server Farm Applications

Client–Enterprise Edge Applications

Application Requirements

Environmental Characteristics and Considerations

Network Geography Considerations

Transmission Media Considerations

Infrastructure Device Characteristics and Considerations

Convergence Time

Multilayer Switching and Cisco Express Forwarding

IP Multicast

QoS Considerations in LAN Switches

Load Sharing in Layer 2 and Layer 3 Switches

Enterprise Campus Design

Enterprise Campus Requirements

Building Access Layer Design Considerations

Managing VLANs and STP

Managing Trunks Between Switches

Managing Default PAgP Settings

Implementing Routing in the Building Access Layer

Building Distribution Layer Design Considerations

Using First-Hop Redundancy Protocols

Deploying Layer 3 Routing Protocols Between Building Distribution and Campus Core Switches

Supporting VLANs That Span Multiple Building Access Layer Switches

Campus Core Design Considerations

Large Campus Design

Small and Medium Campus Design Options

Edge Distribution at the Campus Core

Server Placement

Servers Directly Attached to Building Access or Building Distribution Layer Switches

Servers Directly Attached to the Campus Core

Servers in a Server Farm Module

Server Farm Design Guidelines

Server Connectivity Options

The Effect of Applications on Switch Performance

Enterprise Data Center Design Considerations

The Enterprise Data Center

The Cisco Enterprise Data Center Architecture Framework

Enterprise Data Center Infrastructure

Data Center Access Layer

Data Center Aggregation Layer

Data Center Core Layer

Density and Scalability of Servers

Summary

References

Case Study: ACMC Hospital Network Campus Design

Case Study Additional Information

Case Study Questions

Review Questions

Chapter 5 Designing Remote Connectivity

Enterprise Edge WAN Technologies

Introduction to WANs

WAN Interconnections

Traditional WAN Technologies

Packet-Switched Network Topologies

WAN Transport Technologies

TDM (Leased Lines)

ISDN

Frame Relay

Asynchronous Transfer Mode

MPLS

Metro Ethernet

DSL Technologies

Cable Technology

Wireless Technologies

Synchronous Optical Network and Synchronous Digital Hierarchy

Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing

Dark Fiber

WAN Transport Technology Pricing and Contract Considerations

WAN Design

Application Requirements of WAN Design

Response Time

Throughput

Packet Loss

Reliability

Technical Requirements: Maximum Offered Traffic

Technical Requirements: Bandwidth

Evaluating the Cost-Effectiveness of WAN Ownership

Optimizing Bandwidth in a WAN

Data Compression

Bandwidth Combination

Window Size

Queuing to Improve Link Utilization

Congestion Avoidance

Traffic Shaping and Policing to Rate-Limit Traffic Classes

Using WAN Technologies

Remote Access Network Design

VPN Design

VPN Applications

VPN Connectivity Options

Benefits of VPNs

WAN Backup Strategies

Dial Backup Routing

Permanent Secondary WAN Link

Shadow PVC

The Internet as a WAN Backup Technology

IP Routing Without Constraints

Layer 3 Tunneling with GRE and IPsec

Enterprise Edge WAN and MAN Architecture

Enterprise Edge WAN and MAN Considerations

Cisco Enterprise MAN and WAN Architecture Technologies

Selecting Enterprise Edge Components

Hardware Selection

Software Selection

Cisco IOS Software Packaging

Cisco IOS Packaging Technology Segmentation

Comparing the Functions of Cisco Router Platforms and Software Families

Comparing the Functions of Multilayer Switch Platforms and Software Families

Enterprise Branch and Teleworker Design

Enterprise Branch Architecture

Enterprise Branch Design

Small Branch Office Design

Medium Branch Office Design

Large Branch Office Design

Enterprise Teleworker (Branch of One) Design

Summary

References

Case Study: ACMC Hospital Network WAN Design

Case Study Additional Information

Business Factors

Technical Factors

Case Study Questions

Review Questions

Chapter 6 Designing IP Addressing in the Network

Designing an IP Addressing Plan

Private and Public IPv4 Addresses

Private Versus Public Address Selection Criteria

Interconnecting Private and Public Addresses

Guidelines for the Use of Private and Public Addresses in an Enterprise Network

Determining the Size of the Network

Determining the Network Topology

Size of Individual Locations

Planning the IP Addressing Hierarchy

Hierarchical Addressing

Route Summarization

IP Addressing Hierarchy Criteria

Benefits of Hierarchical Addressing

Summarization Groups

Impact of Poorly Designed IP Addressing

Benefits of Route Aggregation

Fixed- and Variable-Length Subnet Masks

Routing Protocol Considerations

Classful Routing Protocols

Classless Routing Protocols

Hierarchical IP Addressing and Summarization Plan Example

Methods of Assigning IP Addresses

Static Versus Dynamic IP Address Assignment Methods

When to Use Static or Dynamic Address Assignment

Guidelines for Assigning IP Addresses in the Enterprise Network

Using DHCP to Assign IP Addresses

Name Resolution

Static Versus Dynamic Name Resolution

When to Use Static or Dynamic Name Resolution

Using DNS for Name Resolution

DHCP and DNS Server Location in a Network

Introduction to IPv6

IPv6 Features

IPv6 Address Format

IPv6 Address Types

IPv6 Address Scope Types

Interface Identifiers in IPv6 Addresses

IPv6 Unicast Addresses

Global Aggregatable Unicast Addresses

Link-Local Unicast Addresses

IPv6 Address Assignment Strategies

Static IPv6 Address Assignment

Dynamic IPv6 Address Assignment

IPv6 Name Resolution

Static and Dynamic IPv6 Name Resolution

IPv4- and IPv6-Aware Applications and Name Resolution

IPv4-to-IPv6 Transition Strategies and Deployments

Differences Between IPv4 and IPv6

IPv4-to-IPv6 Transition

Dual-Stack Transition Mechanism

Tunneling Transition Mechanism

Translation Transition Mechanism

IPv6 Routing Protocols

RIPng

EIGRP for IPv6

OSPFv3

Integrated IS-IS Version 6

BGP4+

Summary

References

Case Study: ACMC Hospital IP Addressing Design

Review Questions

Chapter 7 Selecting Routing Protocols for the Network

Routing Protocol Features

Static Versus Dynamic Routing

Static Routing

Dynamic Routing

Interior Versus Exterior Routing Protocols

IGP and EGP Example

Distance Vector Versus Link-State Versus Hybrid Protocols

Distance Vector Example

Link-State Example

Routing Protocol Metrics

What Is a Routing Metric?

Metrics Used by Routing Protocols

Routing Protocol Convergence

RIPv2 Convergence Example

Comparison of Routing Protocol Convergence

Flat Versus Hierarchical Routing Protocols

Flat Routing Protocols

Hierarchical Routing Protocols

Routing Protocols for the Enterprise

EIGRP

EIGRP Terminology

EIGRP Characteristics

OSPF

OSPF Hierarchical Design

OSPF Characteristics

Integrated IS-IS

Integrated IS-IS Terminology

Integrated IS-IS Characteristics

Summary of Interior Routing Protocol Features

Selecting an Appropriate Interior Routing Protocol

When to Choose EIGRP

When to Choose OSPF

Border Gateway Protocol

BGP Implementation Example

External and Internal BGP

Routing Protocol Deployment

Routing Protocols in the Enterprise Architecture

Routing in the Campus Core

Routing in the Building Distribution Layer

Routing in the Building Access Layer

Routing in the Enterprise Edge Modules

Route Redistribution

Using Route Redistribution

Administrative Distance

Selecting the Best Route

Route Redistribution Direction

Route Redistribution Planning

Route Redistribution in the Enterprise Architecture

Route Filtering

Redistributing and Filtering with BGP

Route Summarization

The Benefits of Route Summarization

Recommended Practice: Summarize at the Distribution Layer

Recommended Practice: Passive Interfaces for IGP at the Access Layer

Summary

References

Case Study: ACMC Hospital Routing Protocol Design

Review Questions

Chapter 8 Voice Network Design Considerations

Traditional Voice Architectures and Features

Analog and Digital Signaling

The Analog-to-Digital Process

Time-Division Multiplexing in PSTN

PBXs and the PSTN

Differences Between a PBX and a PSTN Switch

PBX Features

PSTN Switches

Local Loops, Trunks, and Interswitch Communications

Telephony Signaling

Telephony Signaling Types

Analog Telephony Signaling

Digital Telephony Signaling

PSTN Numbering Plans

International Numbering Plans

Call Routing

Numbering Plans

Integrating Voice Architectures

Introduction to Integrated Networks

Drivers for Integrating Voice and Data Networks

H.323

Introduction to H.323

H.323 Components

H.323 Example

Introduction to IP Telephony

IP Telephony Design Goals

Single-Site IP Telephony Design

Multisite WAN with Centralized Call Processing Design

Multisite WAN with Distributed Call Processing Design

Call Control and Transport Protocols

Voice Conversation Protocols

Call Control Functions with H.323

Call Control Functions with the Skinny Client Control Protocol

Call Control Functions with SIP

Call Control Functions with MGCP

Voice Issues and Requirements

Voice Quality Issues

Packet Delays

Fixed Network Delays

Variable Network Delays

Jitter

Packet Loss

Echo

Voice Coding and Compression

Coding and Compression Algorithms

Voice Coding Standards (Codecs)

Sound Quality

Codec Complexity, DSPs, and Voice Calls

Bandwidth Considerations

Reducing the Amount of Voice Traffic

Voice Bandwidth Requirements

Codec Design Considerations

QoS for Voice

Bandwidth Provisioning

Signaling Techniques

Classification and Marking

Congestion Avoidance

Traffic Policing and Shaping

Congestion Management: Queuing and Scheduling

Link Efficiency

CAC

Building Access Layer QoS Mechanisms for Voice

AutoQoS

Introduction to Voice Traffic Engineering

Terminology

Blocking Probability and GoS

Erlang

CCS

Busy Hour and BHT

CDR

Erlang Tables

Erlang B Table

Erlang Examples

Trunk Capacity Calculation Example

Off-Net Calls Cost Calculation Example

Calculating Trunk Capacity or Bandwidth

Cisco IP Communications Return on Investment Calculator

Summary

References

Case Study: ACMC Hospital Network Voice Design

Case Study Additional Information

Case Study Questions

Review Questions

Chapter 9 Wireless Network Design Considerations

Introduction to Wireless Technology

RF Theory

Phenomena Affecting RF

RF Math

Antennas

Agencies and Standards Groups

IEEE 802.11 Operational Standards

IEEE 802.11b/g Standards in the 2.4 GHz Band

802.11a Standard in the 5-GHz Band

802.11 WLANs Versus 802.3 Ethernet LANs

WLAN Topologies

WLAN Components

Cisco-Compatible WLAN Clients

Autonomous APs

Lightweight APs

AP Power

WLAN Operation

WLAN Security

The Cisco Unified Wireless Network

The Cisco UWN Architecture

Cisco UWN Elements

Cisco UWN Lightweight AP and WLC Operation

Cisco UWN Wireless Authentication and Encryption

LWAPP Fundamentals

Layer 2 LWAPP Architecture

Layer 3 LWAPP Architecture

WLAN Controllers

WLC Terminology

WLC Interfaces

WLC Platforms

Access Point Support Scalability

Lightweight APs

Lightweight AP Discovery and Join Process

Lightweight AP and WLC Control Messages

Access Point Modes

Mobility in a Cisco Unified Wireless Network

Intracontroller Roaming

Intercontroller Roaming at Layer 2

Intercontroller Roaming at Layer 3

Mobility Groups

Recommended Practices for Supporting Roaming

Radio Resource Management and RF Groups

Radio Resource Management

RF Grouping

AP Self-Healing

Cisco UWN Review

Designing Wireless Networks with Lightweight Access Points and Wireless LAN Controllers

RF Site Survey

RF Site Survey Process

Define the Customer Requirements

Identify Coverage Areas and User Density

Determine Preliminary AP Locations

Perform the Actual Survey

Document the Findings

Controller Redundancy Design

Dynamic Controller Redundancy

Deterministic Controller Redundancy

Deterministic Redundancy Options

Design Considerations for Guest Services in Wireless Networks

Design Considerations for Outdoor Wireless Networks

Wireless Mesh Components

MAP-to-RAP Connectivity

Mesh Design Recommendations

Design Considerations for Campus Wireless Networks

Common Wireless Design Questions

Controller Placement Design

Campus Controller Options

Design Considerations for Branch Office Wireless Networks

Branch Office Considerations

Local MAC

REAP

Hybrid REAP

Branch Office WLAN Controller Options

Summary

References

Case Study: ACMC Hospital UWN Considerations

Review Questions

Chapter 10 Evaluating Security Solutions for the Network

Network Security

The Need for Network Security

Network Security Requirements

Security Legislation Examples

Terminology Related to Security

Threats and Risks

Threat: Reconnaissance Attacks

Threat: Gaining Unauthorized Access to Systems

Threat: DoS

Risk: Integrity Violations and Confidentiality Breaches

Network Security Policy and Process

Security Policy

The Need for a Security Policy

Risk Assessment and Management

Documenting the Security Policy

Network Security Process

The Cisco Self-Defending Network

The Cisco Self-Defending Network Framework

Secure Network Platform

Cisco Self-Defending Network Phases

Trust and Identity Management

Trust

Identity

Access Control

Trust and Identity Management Technologies

Identity and Access Control Deployment

Threat Defense

Physical Security

Infrastructure Protection

Threat Detection and Mitigation

Secure Connectivity

Encryption Fundamentals

VPN Protocols

Transmission Confidentiality: Ensuring Privacy

Maintaining Data Integrity

Security Management

Cisco Security Management Technologies

Network Security Solutions

Integrated Security Within Network Devices

Cisco IOS Router Security

Security Appliances

IPSs

Catalyst Services Modules

Endpoint Security Solutions

Securing the Enterprise Network

Deploying Security in the Enterprise Campus

Deploying Security in the Enterprise Data Center

Deploying Security in the Enterprise Edge

Summary

References

Case Study 10-1: ACMC Hospital Network Security Design

Case Study Questions

Case Study 10-2: ACMC Hospital Network—Connecting More Hospitals

Case Study Questions

Review Questions

Appendix A Answers to Review Questions and Case Studies

Appendix B IPv4 Supplement

Appendix C Open System Interconnection (OSI) Reference Model

Appendix D Network Address Translation

Acronyms and Abbreviations

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Preface

Authorized Self-Study Guide Designing for Cisco Internetwork Solutions (DESGN), Second Edition

Introduction

Modern networks are both extremely complex and critical to business success. As organizational processes continue to increase the requirements for bandwidth, reliability, and functionality from their networks, network designers are challenged to rapidly develop and evolve networks that use new protocols and technologies. Network designers are also challenged to stay current with the internetworking industry's constant and rapid changes. Designing robust, reliable, scalable networks is a necessary skill for network operators and designers in the modern organizational environment.

This book teaches you how to design enterprise networks. You will learn about network design in the context of the Cisco Service Oriented Network Architecture (SONA) architectural framework and Enterprise Architecture. Specific topics include campus and data center infrastructure, remote connectivity, IP addressing design, routing protocol selection, designing voice networks, wireless network design, and including security in your designs.

An ongoing case study and chapter-ending review questions illustrate and help solidify the concepts presented in this book.

This book provides you with the knowledge and skills you need to achieve associate-level competency in network design. It starts you down the path to attaining your CCDA certification, because it provides in-depth information to help you prepare for the DESGN exam.

DESGN is the first step in the design curriculum that supports the Cisco network design certification track. This book focuses on the technology and methods currently available.

Objectives of This Book

The goal of this book is to provide you with the knowledge you need to gather internetworking requirements, identify solutions, and design the network infrastructure and services to ensure basic functionality, using the principles of hierarchical network design to structure and modularize a converged enterprise network design. Design tasks might include understanding the design methodology; structuring and modularizing the network design using the Cisco Enterprise Architecture; designing the Enterprise Campus, Enterprise Data Center, Enterprise Edge, and remote modules as needed; designing an addressing plan and selecting suitable routing protocols; designing basic voice transport across the network; designing a basic wireless solution; and evaluating security solutions.

Who Should Read This Book

This book is intended for network and sales engineers who are involved in network design, planning, and implementation, and for those who plan to take the 640-863 DESGN exam toward the CCDA certification. This book provides in-depth study material for that exam. To fully benefit from this book, you should have the following prerequisite skills:

  • CCNA–level knowledge (or CCNA certification), which can best be achieved by completing the related CCNA courses and using CCNA books from Cisco Press. You can find more information on the CCNA certification at http://www.cisco.com/go/ccna/.
  • Knowledge of wireless networking, quality of service (QoS), and multilayer switching is highly recommended. The level equivalent to that covered in the Building Cisco Multilayer Switched Networks (BCMSN) course or the book Building Cisco Multilayer Switched Networks (BCMSN), Fourth Edition (Richard Froom, Balaji Sivasubramanian, Erum Frahim, Cisco Press, 2007) is appropriate.

  • NOTE - We assume that you understand the wireless networking material in the Cisco Press book just mentioned. In Chapter 9, we include some material from that book as an introduction to wireless technology. Refer to the Cisco Press BCMSN book for more detailed information.

  • Practical experience deploying and operating networks based on Cisco network devices and the Cisco IOS.

Summary of the Contents

The chapters and appendixes of this book are as follows:

  • Chapter 1, "Network Fundamentals Review," introduces some fundamental concepts and terminology that are the foundation for the material in the rest of the book.
  • Chapter 2, "Applying a Methodology to Network Design," introduces the Cisco vision of intelligent networks and the Service Oriented Network Architecture (SONA) architectural framework. The lifecycle of a network and a network design methodology based on the lifecycle are presented, and each phase of the network design process is explored in detail.
  • Chapter 3, "Structuring and Modularizing the Network," introduces a modular hierarchical approach to network design, the Cisco Enterprise Architecture. The chapter includes a detailed description of services within modular networks. Network management protocols and features are also discussed.
  • Chapter 4, "Designing Basic Campus and Data Center Networks," examines the design of the Enterprise Campus and Enterprise Data Center network infrastructure.
  • Chapter 5, "Designing Remote Connectivity," discusses WAN technologies and design considerations. This chapter describes the Enterprise WAN and metropolitan-area network (MAN) architectures and the Enterprise Branch and Teleworker architectures and discusses the selection of WAN hardware and software components.
  • Chapter 6, "Designing IP Addressing in the Network," discusses the design of an IP version 4 (IPv4) addressing scheme. The chapter also introduces IP version 6 (IPv6) and discusses IPv4-to-IPv6 migration strategies.
  • Chapter 7, "Selecting Routing Protocols for the Network," describes considerations for selecting the most appropriate network routing protocol. The chapter discusses why certain protocols are suitable for specific modules in the Enterprise Architecture. It concludes with a description of some advanced routing protocol deployment features, including redistribution, filtering, and summarization.
  • Chapter 8, "Voice Network Design Considerations," introduces voice design principles and provides guidelines for a successful integrated network deployment. It begins with an overview of traditional voice architectures and features and continues with a discussion of integrated voice architectures, including VoIP and IP telephony.
  • Chapter 9, "Wireless Network Design Considerations," introduces the Cisco Unified Wireless Network (UWN) architecture and discusses wireless design principles. The chapter introduces wireless technologies and explores considerations when designing Cisco UWNs in enterprise environments.
  • Chapter 10, "Evaluating Security Solutions for the Network," describes network security, including threats and risks, and network security policies. The Cisco Self-Defending Network strategy for designing network security is explored, and Cisco network security solutions for enterprise networks are discussed.
  • Appendix A, "Answers to Review Questions and Case Studies," contains answers to the review questions and case studies that appear at the end of the chapters.
  • Appendix B, "IPv4 Supplement," provides job aids and supplementary information intended for your use when working with IPv4 addresses. Topics include an IP addressing and subnetting job aid, a decimal-to-binary conversion chart, IPv4 addressing review, and IPv4 access lists.
  • Appendix C, "Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) Reference Model," is a brief overview of the OSI seven-layer model.
  • Appendix D, "Network Address Translation," contains information about Cisco's implementation of Network Address Translation (NAT) and port address translation (PAT).
  • "Acronyms and Abbreviations" spells out the abbreviations, acronyms, and initialisms used in this book.

Case Studies and Review Questions

Starting in Chapter 2, each chapter concludes with a case study on Acme County Medical Center (ACMC) Hospital, a fictitious small county hospital in the United States, to help you evaluate your understanding of the concepts presented. In each task of the case study, you act as a network design consultant and make creative proposals to accomplish the customer's business needs. The final goal of each case study is a paper solution. Also starting in Chapter 2, each chapter also includes review questions on the subjects covered in that chapter so that you can test your knowledge.

To find out how you did and what material you might need to study further, you can compare your answers to those provided in Appendix A. Note that for each case study task, Appendix A provides a solution based on the assumptions made. There is no claim that the provided solution is the best or only solution. Your solution might be more appropriate for the assumptions you made. The provided solution allows you to understand the author's reasoning and offers you a means of comparing and contrasting your solution.

What's New in This Edition

This book is an update to CCDA Self-Study: Designing for Cisco Internetwork Solutions (DESGN), ISBN 1-58705-141-9. This second edition reflects changes to the DESGN course. The following are the major changes between editions:

  • Every chapter has been rewritten. Some material that was removed from the main portion of the previous edition because of course changes has been put in sidebars, as appropriate. The appendixes have been modified and updated to reflect the book's content.
  • The methodology used throughout the book is now based on Cisco's SONA framework and Enterprise architectures.
  • New topics include the design of the data center and the design of teleworker and branch offices.
  • A new chapter on wireless network design, Chapter 9, has been included.
  • Chapter 1 has been enhanced to include a more thorough review of networking fundamentals and to reflect new prerequisite material.
  • Some information on IP addressing in the main body of the first edition has been moved to Appendix B.
  • Chapter 10 includes details of Cisco network security solutions and the Cisco Self-Defending Network strategy.
  • The information about network management has been condensed and moved to Chapter 3.
  • The case study is new and includes a more thorough examination of network design issues. Simulation output is no longer included.

Author's Notes, Key Points, Sidebars, and Cautions

The notes, key points, and sidebars found in this book provide extra information on a subject.

Key Point

The key points highlight information that is important for understanding the topic at hand and specific points of interest.

Resources for Further Study

Within each chapter are references to other resources that provide you with further information on specific topics. For more information about Cisco exams, training, and certifications, refer to the Training and Events area on the Cisco website at http://www.cisco.com/web/learning/index.html.


NOTE - The website references in this book were accurate at the time of writing; however, they might have since changed. If a URL is unavailable, you might try conducting a search using the title as keywords in your favorite search engine.

© Copyright Pearson Education. All rights reserved.

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