Designing for Situation Awareness: An Approach to User-Centered Design, Second Edition / Edition 2

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Overview

Enhancing situational awareness (SA) is a major design goal for projects in many fields, including aviation, ground transportation, air traffic control, nuclear power, medicine, space and systems maintenance, but little information exists in an integral format to support this. Human factors practitioners can be helped to create designs to support SA across a wide variety of domains and design issues by applying theoretical and empirical information on SA to the system design process and by using basic perception guidelines and human-computer interface guidelines. Designing for Situation Awareness requires that designers understand how people acquire and interpret information in such worlds and appreciate the factors that undermine this process. This reduces the incidence of human error, which has been found to be largely due to failures in SA. While many previous efforts have dealt with design at the surface feature level, SA-oriented design seeks to deal with it from the standpoint of the operator's information needs and cognitive processes.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781420063554
  • Publisher: Taylor & Francis
  • Publication date: 1/9/2012
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Edition number: 2
  • Pages: 396
  • Sales rank: 616,667
  • Product dimensions: 6.10 (w) x 9.20 (h) x 0.80 (d)

Table of Contents

Understanding Situation Awareness in System Design
User-Centered Design
Who Is This Book For?
Why Do We Need User-Centered Design?
What Does User-Centered Design Mean?
Principles for User-Centered Design
Situation Awareness: The Key to User-Centered Design

What Is Situation Awareness?
SA Defined
Time as a Part of SA
Situation Awareness as a Product of the Process
Perception and Attention
Working Memory
Mental Models, Schema, and Scripts
Goals and SA
Expectations
Automaticity and SA
Summary

SA Demons: The Enemies of Situation Awareness
Attentional Tunneling
Requisite Memory Trap
Workload, Anxiety, Fatigue, and Other Stressors
Data Overload
Misplaced Salience
Complexity Creep
Errant Mental Models
Out-of-the-Loop Syndrome
Summary

Design Process
Systems Development Life Cycle
User Interface Design Process
Situation Awareness-Oriented Design

Creating Situation Awareness-Oriented Designs
Determining SA Requirements
Goal-Directed Task Analysis
Methodology Overview
Interviews
Determining the Preliminary Goal Structure
Future Interviews
Interview Issues
Organizational Tips
GDTA Validation

Principles of Designing for SA
From Theory to Design
Case Study: SA-Oriented Design

Confidence and Uncertainty in SA and Decision Making
Uncertainty
Types and Sources of Uncertainty
Role of Confidence in Linking SA and Decision Making
Management of Uncertainty
Design Principles for Representing Uncertainty

Dealing with Complexity
Simplified View of Complexity
Design Principles for Taming Complexity

Alarms, Diagnosis, and SA
An Alarming Practice
Processing Alarms in the Context of SA
Principles for the Design of Alarm Systems

Automation and Situation Awareness
Automation: A Help or a Hindrance?
Out-of-the-Loop Syndrome
Automation and Level of Understanding
Decision Support Dilemma
New Approaches to Automation
Principles for Designing Automated Systems

Designing to Support SA for Multiple and Distributed Operators
Team Operations
SA in Teams
What Is Shared SA?
Critical Factors Affecting SA in Teams
SA in Distributed Teams
SA Breakdowns in Teams
Design Principles for Supporting Team Operations

Unmanned and Remotely Operated Vehicles
Unmanned Vehicles for Many Uses
Classes of Unmanned Vehicle Control
Human Error in Unmanned Vehicle Operations
Situation Awareness Requirements for Unmanned Vehicle Operations
Challenges for SA in Remote Operations
Factors for Effective Design of Unmanned Vehicle Tasks and Systems
Summary

SA Oriented Training
Need for Training to Enhance SA
Challenges for Novices
Mental Models Form a Key Mechanism for Expertise
Schema of Prototypical Situations or Patterns
Critical Skills for SA
Examples of SA Deficits in Novices
Training Approaches for Improving Situation Awareness
Summary

Completing the Design Cycle
Evaluating Design Concepts for SA
Indirect Measures of Situation Awareness
Direct Measures of Situation Awareness
Measuring Team SA
Case Study
Summary

Applying SA-Oriented Design to Complex Systems
Combating the Enemies of Situation Awareness
SA-Oriented Design Synergy
System Evaluation
Future Directions

Appendix A: Goal-Directed Task Analysis for Commercial Airline Pilots
References
Index

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