Detection Technologies For Chemical Warfare Agents And Toxic Vapors

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Overview

While it is not possible to predict — or necessarily prevent — terrorist incidents in which chemical warfare agents (CWAs) and toxic industrial chemicals (TICs) are deployed, correctly chosen, fast, and reliable detection equipment will allow prepared rescue workers to respond quickly and minimize potential casualties.

Detection Technologies for Chemical Warfare Agents and Toxic Vapors discusses the principles, instrumentation, and context for applying technologies such as ion mobility spectrometry, infrared spectroscopy, colorimetric chemistry, and flame ionization to the detection of TICs and lethal CWAs. It conveys techniques — some of which have been patented by the authors — developed for generating vapors and closely imitating potential environmental effects in a laboratory setting, specifically for the testing and evaluation of hand-held, portable, and remote devices. This book also provides a comprehensive list of toxic industrial chemicals classified in terms of hazardousness and their physical, chemical, and toxicological properties. Following a brief historical overview, the text also includes a review of federal detection requirements and the government’s rationale for preparedness and response.

By providing insight on the behavior of toxic chemicals, the authors hope to minimize the fear and chaotic effect in a potential event involving chemical agents. Well written and accessible to technical and non-technical audiences, no other book focuses on analytical methods and explains current detection devices for chemical warfare agents.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781566706681
  • Publisher: Taylor & Francis
  • Publication date: 8/1/2004
  • Pages: 288
  • Product dimensions: 6.14 (w) x 9.21 (h) x 0.69 (d)

Table of Contents

INTRODUCTION
Historical Overview
Chemical Warfare Agents
Toxic Industrial Compounds
CWA and TIC Detection

CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENTS AND TOXIC INDUSTRIAL CHEMICALS
Chemical, Physical, and Toxicological Properties
Toxic Properties
Common CWAs
Nerve Agents, Blister Agents, Blood Agents
Toxic Industrial Compounds
GOVERNMENT POLICIES AND PROGRAMS
CWA Detection Standards and Criteria for Deployment
Joint Services Operational Requirements for Chemical Agent Detectors
Objective and Approaches at Dugway Proving Ground
JCAD Requirements for Detection and Identification Functions
General Capabilities Necessary to Mitigate Vulnerability
Evaluation of Commercially Available Detection Devices for Certification as CWA Detectors
Safety Risk Assessment for Release of Tested, Contractor-Owned Materials to Contractor
VAPOR GENERATION TECHNIQUES
Gas Law and Gas Concentration
Vapor Generation Methods
Dilution and Mixing System
Comparison of Generation Techniques
Humidification of Generated Vapor
Generation of CWA or TIC Vapor with Interferent Vapor
CWA Simulants
DETECTOR SELECTION FACTORS
Selectivity
Sensitivity
Limit of Detection
Response Dynamic Range
Quantitative Analysis Capability
False Alarm Rate
Response Time
Resistance to Environmental Conditions
Setup and Warmup Time
Calibration/Verification in Field Applications
Other Factors
ION MOBILITY SPECTROMETRY
Principle of Operation
Instrumentation of Typical IMS Detector
Technique Specification
Applications
Fact Sheets for Selected IMS-Based Detectors
FLAME PHOTOMETRY
Principle of Operation
Instrumentation
Technical Specifications
Pulsed Flame Photometry
Applications
Fact Sheets on Selected Photometry-Based Detectors
INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY
Principle of Operation
Instrumentation of Filter IR and Photoacoustic Detectors
Fourier Transform Infrared Detectors
Applications
Fact Sheets for Selected IR-Based Detectors

SURFACE ACOUSTIC WAVE AND ELECTROCHEMICAL TECHNIQUES
Principle of Operation of SAW Devices
Instrumentation
Analysis Processes
Technical Specifications
Applications
Electrochemical Sensors
Fact Sheets for Selected SAW and/or Electrochemical Detectors

COLORIMETRIC TECHNOLOGY
Principle of Operation
Instrumentation
Applications
Fact Sheets on Selected Colorimetric-Technique—Based Detectors
PHOTOIONIZATION AND FLAME IONIZATION DETECTION TECHNIQUES
Photoionization Technique
Flame Ionization Technology
Comparison of Photoionization, Flame Ionization, and Flame Photometric Techniques Applications
FUTURE TRENDS IN CWA AND TIC DETECTION
Material Safety Data Sheet
Standing Operating Procedure
Index of Chemical Agent Detectors and Supplies and
Manufacturers
Glossary and Abbreviations
Bibliography
Index

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