Developer's Handbook to DB2 for Common Servers

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Reviewed for accuracy by a team of IBM analysts and DB2 specialists,this authoritative,one-stop reference to development DB2/2 and DB2/6000 applications is the only comprehensive and up-to-date sourcebook on the latest versions of the red-hot database software that doubled its sales in the past year. Author Roger E. Sanders provides complete source code examples in this logically organized,impressively sized volume. He covers the underlying database architecture,application development fundamentals,and the latest...
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Overview

Reviewed for accuracy by a team of IBM analysts and DB2 specialists,this authoritative,one-stop reference to development DB2/2 and DB2/6000 applications is the only comprehensive and up-to-date sourcebook on the latest versions of the red-hot database software that doubled its sales in the past year. Author Roger E. Sanders provides complete source code examples in this logically organized,impressively sized volume. He covers the underlying database architecture,application development fundamentals,and the latest tools for developing object-oriented DB2/2 and DB2/6000 database applications.
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Editorial Reviews

Booknews
Database 2's claim to fame is its role as the IBM information delivery system at the 1996 Summer Olympics in Atlanta. The author (SAS Institute) attempts to fill a perceived gap in the resource literature beyond IBM manuals on DB2 for Common Servers (released 1985). Version 2.1, its present incarnation, has been used by relational database application programmers developing software for the OS2/Warp and AIX 4.0 since 1995. Spans database concepts and application development basics, structured query language, cell level interface (CLI) functions, and application programming interface (API) functions. Appendices access SQL data structures, SQL functions, and SQL State cross-reference. Annotation c. by Book News, Inc., Portland, Or.
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Product Details

Table of Contents


Foreword

Acknowledgments

Introduction

PART ONE - Basic DB2 for Common Servers Database Concepts

1. DB2 for Common Servers database architecture
Overview
The relational database
Relational database objects
Data objects
Databases
Table Spaces
Tables
Data Types
Check Constraints
Indexes
Keys
Views
Packages (Access Plans)
Triggers
Aliases
Event Monitors
Schemas
Support objects
System catalog views
Recovery log file
Configuration files
DB2 Database Directories
Physical database directories
Volume directories
System directory
Workstation directory
Database Connection Services (DCS) directories
Summary

2. DB2 for Common Servers database consistency mechanisms
Overview
What is database consistency?
Transactions
Concurrency and isolation levels
Repeatable Read
Read Stability
Cursor Stability
Uncommitted Read
Specifying the isolation level
Locking
Lock Attributes
Lock States
Locks and application performance
Concurrency Versus Lock Size
Deadlocks
Lock Waits and Time-outs
Lock Compatibility
Lock Conversion
Lock Escalation
Transaction Logging
How transaction logging works
Log file and database synchronization
Managing log file space
Database recovery
Summary

PART TWO - DB2 for Common Servers Database Application Development Fundamentals

3. Understanding the DB2 for Common Servers application development process
Overview
What is a DB2 database application ?
Designing a DB2 database application
Elements of a DB2 database application
High-Level Programming Language
Structured Query Language (SQL) Statements
Static SQL
Dynamic SQL
Call Level Interface (CLI) Function Calls
Application Programming Interface (API) Function Calls
Establishing the DB2 database application development environment
Environment Paths
Establishing the DB2 database application testing environment
Creating a testing database
Creating testing tables and views
Generating test data
Managing transactions
Creating and preparing source code files
Summary

4. Writing DB2 for Common Servers embedded SQL applications
Overview
Prototyping embedded SQL statements
The main parts of an embedded SQL source code file
Creating the Prolog
Declaring host variables
Declaring and using indicator variables
Declaring SQL data structures
Using the WHENEVER SQL statement
Creating the Body
Establishing a database server connection
Starting a transaction
Creating the Epilog
Ending the current transaction
Disconnecting from the database server
Defining WHENEVER SQL statement error handling routines
Creating and using a common error handling routine
Using Exception, Signal, and Interrupt handers
Creating executables and packages
Precompiling source code files
Compiling source code files
Linking object modules
Creating and binding packages
A word about timestamps
Running, testing and debugging embedded SQL applications
Summary

5. Writing DB2 for Common Servers CLI applications
Overview
Differences between embedded SQL and CLI function calls
Prototyping CLI function calls
The main parts of a CLI source code file
The Initialization task
The Transaction Processing task
Allocating statement handles
Preparing and executing SQL statements
Processing the results
Ending the transaction (ROLLBACK or COMMIT)
Freeing SQL statement handles
The Termination task
Error handling
Evaluating return codes
Evaluating SQLSTATEs (Diagnostic messages)
Evaluating SQLCA return codes
Creating executable applications
Running, testing, and debugging CLI applications
Advantages and disadvantages of using CLI function calls
Summary

6. Writing DB2 for Common Servers API applications
Overview
The basic structure of an API source code file
Types of API function calls
Database Manager Control APIs
Database Manager Configuration APIs
Database Control APIs
Database Configuration APIs
Database Directory Management APIs
DCS Directory Management APIs
Node Directory Management APIs
Novell NetWare Support APIs
Backup/Recovery APIs
Operational Utility APIs
Database Monitoring APIs
Data Utility APIs
General Application Programming APIs
Application Preparation APIs
Remote Server Connection APIs
Table Space Management APIs
Transaction APIs
Miscellaneous APIs
API naming conventions
API data structures
Error handling
Evaluating return codes
Evaluating SQLCA return codes
Evaluating SQLSTATES
Creating executable applications
Running, testing, and debugging API applications
Summary

7. Improving DB2 for Common Servers application performance
Overview
Tuning embedded SQL queries
Queries containing SELECT SQL statements
Queries that access two or more tables
Compound Queries
Index management
Guidelines for creating indexes
Optimizing index performance
Table Space management
Utilizing the precompiler optimization feature
Specifying the optimization class
Determining which optimization class to use
Row blocking
Locks and application performance
Code Page Selection
Summary

PART THREE - DB2 for Common Servers Structured Query Language (SQL) Statements

8. Application Programming Language Construct Statements
Overview
SQL Precompiler directives
Dynamic SQL Support
Dynamic SQL and Parameter Markers
Caching
BEGIN DECLARE SECTION
END DECLARE SECTION
INCLUDE
WHENEVER
BEGIN COMPOUND
END COMPOUND
PREPARE
DESCRIBE
EXECUTE
EXECUTE IMMEDIATE
SET CURRENT QUERY OPTIMIZATION
SET CURRENT PACKAGESET
SET CURRENT EXPLAIN SNAPSHOT

9. Data Control Statements
Overview
Connection Management
States of an application
States of a connection
SQL Precompiler options that affect connection management
DB2's SQL Authorization Facility
CONNECT
SET CONNECTION
RELEASE
DISCONNECT
COMMIT
ROLLBACK
LOCK TABLE
GRANT (Database Privileges)
GRANT (Index Privileges)
GRANT (Package Privileges)
GRANT (Table/View Privileges)
REVOKE (Database Privileges)
REVOKE (Index Privileges)
REVOKE (Package Privileges)
REVOKE (Table/View Privileges)

10. Data Definition Statements
Overview
Creating Table Spaces
Creating Tables
Creating Indexes
Creating Views
Creating Aliases
Creating Distinct Types
Creating User Defined Functions
CREATE TABLESPACE
ALTER TABLESPACE
CREATE TABLE
ALTER TABLE
CREATE INDEX
CREATE VIEW
CREATE ALIAS
CREATE DISTINCT TYPE
SET CONSTRAINTS
COMMENT ON
DROP
CREATE FUNCTION
SET CURRENT FUNCTION PATH

11. Data Manipulation Statements
Overview
Adding Data
Changing Data
Deleting Data
Retrieving Data
The Basic SELECT
Ordering Output Rows
Grouping and Summarizing Output Rows
Joins
Subqueries
Retrieving Multiple Rows Using a Cursor
Types of Cursors
INSERT
UPDATE
DELETE
DECLARE CURSOR
OPEN
FETCH
CLOSE
SELECT INTO
VALUES INTO
FREE LOCATOR

12. Event Monitor, Trigger, And Stored Procedure Processing Statements
Overview
Using Event Monitors
Event Counting
Event Monitor Data Stream Format
IBM's Event Monitor Productivity Tool
Defining and Using Triggers
Trigger Activation Time
Transition Variables
Transition Tables
Triggered Actions
Using Functions Within Triggered Events
Trigger Cascading
Ordering of Multiple Triggers
Using Stored Procedures
Writing Stored Procedures
Invoking Stored Procedures
CREATE EVENT MONITOR
SET EVENT MONITOR STATE
CREATE TRIGGER
SET
SIGNAL SQLSTATE
CALL

PART FOUR - DB2 for Common Servers Call Level Interface (CLI) Functions

13. CLI / ODBC Data Source Connection Control Functions
Overview
Data Sources
Environment and Connection Handles
Connecting to a data source
SQLAllocEnv
SQLAllocConnect
SQLConnect
SQLDriverConnect
SQLSetConnection
SQLDisconnect
SQLFreeConnect
SQLFreeEnv

14. CLI / ODBC Driver and Data Source Options Control Functions
Overview
Obtaining information about a data source
Environment, Connection, and SQL Statement Options
SQLDataSources
SQLGetInfo
SQLGetFunctions
SQLGetTypeInfo
SQLGetEnvAttr
SQLSetEnvAttr
SQLGetConnectOption
SQLSetConnectOption
SQLGetStmtOption
SQLSetStmtOption

15. SQL Statement Processing Functions
Overview
Allocating an SQL statement handle
Setting parameter values
Executing SQL statements
Data-at-execution values
Completing transactions
SQLAllocStmt
SQLPrepare
SQLBindParameter
SQLBindFileToParam
SQLSetParam
SQLParamOptions
SQLGetCursorName
SQLSetCursorName
SQLExecute
SQLExecDirect
SQLNativeSql
SQLNumParams
SQLParamData
SQLPutData
SQLCancel
SQLTransact
SQLFreeStmt

16. SQL Statement Results Retrieval Functions
Overview
Result data sets
Assigning application storage areas to result data set columns (Binding)
Determining the characteristics of a result data set
Assigning application storage areas for rowsets (Binding)
Column-wise binding
Row-wise binding
Fetching result data set data
Retrieving data from unbound columns
Retrieving status, warning, and error information
SQLRowCount
SQLNumResultCols
SQLDescribeCol
SQLColAttributes
SQLSetColAttributes
SQLBindCol
SQLBindFileToCol
SQLFetch
SQLExtendedFetch
SQLGetData
SQLMoreResults
SQLError
SQLGetSQLCA
SQLGetLength
SQLGetPosition
SQLGetSubString

17. CLI / ODBC Data Source System Catalog Query Functions
Overview
Obtaining system catalog information
Controlling catalog function results with parameter values
Obtaining information about existing stored procedures
Stored procedures catalog table
SQLTables
SQLTablePrivileges
SQLColumns
SQLColumnPrivileges
SQLSpecialColumns
SQLStatistics
SQLPrimaryKeys
SQLForeignKeys
SQLProcedures
SQLProcedureColumns

PART FIVE - DB2 for Common Servers Application Programming Interface (API) Functions

18. Program Preparation and General Application Programming APIs
Overview
Embedded SQL application preparation
Exception, Signal, and Interrupt handers
Pointer manipulation and memory copy functions
Evaluating SQLCA return codes and SQLSTATE values
PRECOMPILE PROGRAM
BIND
REBIND
GET INSTANCE
INSTALL SIGNAL HANDLER
INTERRUPT
GET ADDRESS
COPY MEMORY
DEREFERENCE ADDRESS
GET ERROR MESSAGE
GET SQLSTATE MESSAGE
GET AUTHORIZATIONS

19. DB2 Database Manager Control and Database Control APIs
Overview
The DB2 Database Manager Server Processes
Creating, deleting, and restarting DB2 databases
Specifying connection accounting strings
Retrieving and setting other connection setting values
Controlling DB2 database manager connection instances
START DATABASE MANAGER
STOP DATABASE MANAGER
CREATE DATABASE
RESTART DATABASE
DROP DATABASE
ATTACH
DETACH
SET ACCOUNTING STRING
QUERY CLIENT
SET CLIENT
FORCE APPLICATION

20. DB2 Database Manager and Database Configuration APIs
Overview
Configuring DB2
DB2 Database Manager configuration parameters
DB2 Database configuration parameters
GET DATABASE MANAGER CONFIGURATION
GET DATABASE MANAGER CONFIGURATION DEFAULTS
UPDATE DATABASE MANAGER CONFIGURATION
RESET DATABASE MANAGER CONFIGURATION
GET DATABASE CONFIGURATION
GET DATABASE CONFIGURATION DEFAULTS
UPDATE DATABASE CONFIGURATION
RESET DATABASE CONFIGURATION

21. Database, Node, and DCS Directory Management APIs
Overview
DB2 Directories
The system database directory
Volume directories
The workstation (node) directory
The Database Connection Services (DCS) directory
Registering and deregistering DB2 database servers with Novell
NetWare servers
CATALOG DATABASE
UNCATALOG DATABASE
CHANGE DATABASE COMMENT
OPEN DATABASE DIRECTORY SCAN
GET NEXT DATABASE DIRECTORY ENTRY
CLOSE DATABASE DIRECTORY SCAN
CATALOG NODE
UNCATALOG NODE
OPEN NODE DIRECTORY SCAN
GET NEXT NODE DIRECTORY ENTRY
CLOSE NODE DIRECTORY SCAN
CATALOG DCS DATABASE
UNCATALOG DCS DATABASE
OPEN DCS DIRECTORY SCAN
GET DCS DIRECTORY ENTRIES
GET DCS DIRECTORY ENTRY FOR DATABASE
CLOSE DCS DIRECTORY SCAN
REGISTER
DEREGISTER

22. Table and Table Space Management APIs
Overview
Table Spaces and Table Space Containers
Reorganizing table data
Updating table statistics
OPEN TABLESPACE QUERY
FETCH TABLESPACE QUERY
CLOSE TABLESPACE QUERY
TABLESPACE QUERY
SINGLE TABLESPACE QUERY
GET TABLESPACE STATISTICS
OPEN TABLESPACE CONTAINER QUERY
FETCH TABLESPACE CONTAINER QUERY
CLOSE TABLESPACE CONTAINER QUERY
TABLESPACE CONTAINER QUERY
FREE MEMORY
REORGANIZE TABLE
RUN STATISTICS

23. Database Migration and Recovery APIs
Overview
Database Migration
Creating backup images
Restoring from backup images
Roll-forward recovery
Recovery history files
MIGRATE DATABASE
BACKUP DATABASE
RESTORE DATABASE
SET TABLESPACE CONTAINERS
ROLLFORWARD DATABASE
OPEN RECOVERY HISTORY FILE SCAN
GET NEXT RECOVERY HISTORY FILE ENTRY
CLOSE RECOVERY HISTORY FILE SCAN
UPDATE RECOVERY HISTORY FILE
PRUNE RECOVERY HISTORY FILE

24. Data Handling APIs
Overview
Exporting data
Importing data
Loading data
Supported Export, Import, and Load file formats
EXPORT
IMPORT
LOAD
LOAD QUERY
QUIESCE TABLESPACES FOR TABLE

25. Database Monitor and Indoubt Transaction Processing APIs
Overview
The DB2 Snapshot Monitor
Snapshot Monitor Switches
When counting starts
Retrieving snapshot monitor data
Working with multiple databases
Understanding the Two-Phase Commit Process
Two-Phase Commit error recovery
Manual recovery of Indoubt Transactions
GET/UPDATE MONITOR SWITCHES
RESET MONITOR
ESTIMATE DATABASE SYSTEM MONITOR BUFFER SIZE
GET SNAPSHOT
LIST INDOUBT TRANSACTIONS
COMMIT AN INDOUBT TRANSACTION
ROLLBACK AN INDOUBT TRANSACTION
FORGET TRANSACTION STATUS

Appendix A. SQL Data Structures
The SQLCA Data Structure
The SQLDA Data Structure
The SQLCHAR Data Structure

Appendix B. SQL Functions

Appendix C. Call Level Interface SQLSTATE Cross Reference

Bibliography

Index

From the Author
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