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Developing Adaptation Policy and Practice in Europe: Multi-level Governance of Climate Change

Overview

Mitigation will not be sufficient for us to avoid climate change and we will need to adapt to its consequences. This book targets the development of adaptation policy in European countries with different relations between central and regional/local government.

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Overview

Mitigation will not be sufficient for us to avoid climate change and we will need to adapt to its consequences. This book targets the development of adaptation policy in European countries with different relations between central and regional/local government.

Read More Show Less

Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9789048193240
  • Publisher: Springer Netherlands
  • Publication date: 8/11/2010
  • Edition description: 2010
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 376
  • Product dimensions: 6.10 (w) x 9.20 (h) x 1.00 (d)

Table of Contents

1 Introduction - Adaptation to Climate Change in Europe: Theoretical Framework and Study Design E. Carina H. Keskitalo 1

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Theoretical Background 4

1.2.1 Multi-Level Governance and the Capacity to Act on Adaptation 4

1.2.2 Adaptive Capacity 7

1.2.3 Governance and Adaptive Capacity on Different Levels 11

1.2.4 Attempts to Bridge Sectors and Levels: Connecting Governance and Adaptive Capacity 22

1.3 Method 28

1.3.1 National Case Study Selection 28

1.3.2 Nested Regional and Local Studies in the Four Main Cases 30

1.3.3 Research Material 31

1.4 Outline of the Volume 32

References 34

2 Addressing Adaptation in the EU Policy Framework David Ellison 39

2.1 Introduction 40

2.2 From the ECCP to the Green and White Papers on Adaptation 42

2.2.1 EU-Funded Research and Resources 45

2.2.2 The ECCP and the Development of National Adaptation Strategies 47

2.2.3 Potential Consequences of the National Level Approach 49

2.2.4 Sectoral Policies and Early Warning Systems in the EU 51

2.3 From Policy Linkage to Ecosystem Preservation 56

2.3.1 Water and Policy Linkage 56

2.3.2 The Water Management Policy Framework 64

2.3.3 Biodiversity and Ecosystem Preservation 73

2.3.4 Permanence vs. Flexibility 76

2.3.5 The Biodiversity Policy Framework 80

2.4 From the Water Towers of Europe to Ecosystem Preservation 82

2.5 On the Governance of Adaptation: Goal Conflict and Institutional Confusion 85

2.6 Conclusions 90

References 91

3 Climate Change Adaptation in the United Kingdom: England and South-East England E. Carina H. Keskitalo 97

3.1 Introduction 97

3.2 National Level 97

3.2.1 Environmental Policy in the UK and the Establishment of Adaptation as a Priority 99

3.2.2 National Legislative, Policy and Planning Frameworks on Adaptation 103

3.2.3 Creating Multi-Level Linkages: The UK Climate Impacts Programme (UKCIP) 110

3.3 Regional Level 113

3.3.1 Regional Climate Change Partnerships: Climate South East 114

3.3.2 Regional Planning and Administration 116

3.4 Local Level 119

3.4.1 Adaptation and the Structure of Local Government 119

3.4.2 Actions at Selected Local Authorities in the South East 121

3.5 The Role of the EU 130

3.6 The Participation of Voluntary and NGO Networks 132

3.7 Adaptation as an Issue: Shifts in Thinking, Policy Transfer and Integration across Levels 133

3.7.1 Policy Transfer Between Contexts? 133

3.7.2 Adaptation as a Shift in Thinking 138

3.8 Conclusion 140

References 143

4 Mainstreaming Climate Change Adaptation: The Case of Multi-Level Governance in Finland Sirkku Juhola 149

4.1 Introduction 149

4.2 Background 150

4.2.1 Environmental Policy in Finland 152

4.3 National Climate Policy 153

4.3.1 National Climate and Energy Strategy 2001 154

4.3.2 Revised National Climate and Energy Strategy 2005 155

4.3.3 Revised National Climate and Energy Strategy 2008 156

4.4 National Adaptation Policy 157

4.4.1 Preparation of the National Strategy 157

4.4.2 Key Projected Impacts of Climate Change 158

4.4.3 The National Adaptation Strategy 159

4.4.4 Implementation of the NAS 160

4.4.5 Evaluating the Implementation of the NAS 162

4.4.6 Role of Research in Climate Change Adaptation 166

4.5 The Role of the European Union in Climate Policy 168

4.6 Other Actors in Climate Change Adaptation 169

4.7 Sub-national Level Adaptation Work 170

4.7.1 Uusimaa Regional Council Climate Strategy 172

4.7.2 Climate Strategy for Helsinki Metropolitan Area Council 2030 174

4.7.3 Climate Strategy for the KUUMA-partnership 175

4.7.4 Espoo Preparedness Strategy 176

4.7.5 Integration of Adaptation into Policy-Making 178

4.8 Challenges and Opportunities of Multi-Scale Adaptation 179

4.9 Conclusions 183

References 183

5 Adapting to Climate Change in Sweden: National Policy Development and Adaptation Measures in Västra Götaland E. Carina H. Keskitalo 189

5.1 Introduction 189

5.2 National Level 192

5.2.1 Swedish Work on Climate Change of Particular Relevance for Adaptation 192

5.2.2 The Commission on Climate and Vulnerability 195

5.2.3 National Legislation, Regulation and Measures Taken on Adaptation 198

5.3 Regional Level 205

5.3.1 Impacts and Authority at the Regional Level 205

5.4 Local Level 209

5.4.1 Municipal Climate Change Networks and Responsibilities 209

5.4.2 Municipal Case Studies 212

5.5 Actors Beyond Government and Administration 218

5.5.1 The Role of the Private Sector 218

5.5.2 Impacts of the EU Level 220

5.6 The Distribution of Responsibility for Adaptation to Climate Change 221

5.6.1 Responsibility for Adaptation Across Governmental Levels 221

5.6.2 Policy Transfer and 'Lesson-Drawing' 225

5.7 Conclusion 226

References 229

6 'Planning for Today': The Nature and Emergence of Adaptation Measures in Italy Lisa Westerhoff 233

6.1 Introduction 233

6.2 Italian Environmental Policy: Evolution and Current Issues 234

6.3 Entry into the Climate Change Arena: Mitigation Policies and Programmes 239

6.4 Adaptation and the Italian State 240

6.4.1 From Impacts to Adaptation: 1995-2007 241

6.4.2 The National Climate Change Conference: 2007 245

6.4.3 National Adaptation to Climate Change: The Present 248

6.5 Adaptation at Sub-national Scales 250

6.5.1 Adaptation in the Region of Emilia-Romagna 252

6.5.2 Adaptation Actions in the Province of Ferrara 258

6.5.3 Adaptation at the Municipal Level: the Municipality of Ferrara 262

6.6 Conclusion: Multi-Level Governance in Italian Adaptation 265

References 268

7 Planned Adaptation Measures in Industrialised Countries: A Comparison of Select Countries Within and Outside the EU Lisa Westerhoff E. Carina H. Keskitalo Heather McKay Johanna Wolf David Ellison Iosif Botetzagias Bertrand Reysset 271

7.1 Introduction 271

7.2 Approach and Methods 272

7.3 Background: Adaptation Actions across Europe 273

7.4 Adaptation Across Scales: Examples from the European Context 275

7.4.1 Austria 277

7.4.2 France 280

7.4.3 Germany 285

7.4.4 Greece 291

7.4.5 Hungary 293

7.4.6 Netherlands 297

7.4.7 Norway 302

7.4.8 Spain 308

7.5 Beyond Europe: Adaptation Actions in Canada and Australia 312

7.5.1 Australia 312

7.5.2 Canada 318

7.6 Discussion: The Emergence of Adaptation 322

7.6.1 Diverging Steering Abilities in Federal and Unitary States 323

7.6.2 Multi-Level Governance: Decentralisation and the Participation of Sub-national Authorities 325

7.6.3 The Relevance of National Environmental Policy Implementation 327

7.6.4 Stakeholder Participation and the Role of NGOs and the EU 329

7.7 Conclusions 331

References 332

8 Conclusion: The Development of Adaptive Capacity and Adaptation Measures in European Countries E. Carina H. Keskitalo 339

8.1 Introduction 339

8.2 National Level and General Political System Features 341

8.2.1 Structure of the Political and Planning System 341

8.2.2 The Role of Environmental Policy Institutionalisation 344

8.2.3 The Role of Focusing Events and Other Contextual Features 347

8.3 Regional Level 350

8.4 Local Level 352

8.5 The Role of the EU 354

8.6 Actors Beyond Government and Administration 356

8.7 Types of Adaptation 358

8.8 Lessons for Current and Future Adaptation 361

8.9 Conclusion: Does Adaptation Require a Change in Thinking? 363

References 365

Index 367

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