Developing Critical Reading Skills / Edition 6

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Overview

Designed for reading courses at the intermediate and advanced level, Developing Critical Reading Skills uses practice prose similar to the kind that students will encounter in the classroom, encouraging them to analyze, interpret, question, and even challenge the words of the writer. The seventh edition continues to feature a wide range of interesting and diverse selections, excellent coverage of critical reading skills, and a concluding section on reading short stories. It now also includes coverage of reading textbooks and interpreting visuals.
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780072491326
  • Publisher: McGraw-Hill Companies, The
  • Publication date: 7/15/2002
  • Edition description: Older Edition
  • Edition number: 6
  • Pages: 568
  • Product dimensions: 7.30 (w) x 9.00 (h) x 0.93 (d)

Meet the Author

McGraw-Hill authors represent the leading experts in their fields and are dedicated to improving the lives, careers, and interests of readers worldwide
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Table of Contents

Preface

Preface to the Student

An Overview of the Text

The Characteristics of Good Readers

Online Learning Centers

Becoming a First-Rate Reader

College Reading Assignments

How to Read This Textbook (and other Textbooks)

Getting the Most out of This Text
Part I reading for Understanding: Practice in Basic Comprehension Skills

Chapter 1 Building a Foundation: Vocabulary, Annotating, Paraphrasing, and

Summarizing

Improving Your Vocabulary

Vocabulary in Perspective

Daily Reading and Vocabulary Improvement- A Personal Sidenote

Further Suggestions for Vocabulary Improvement

Using the Dictionary

Using Context Clues

Annotating- Reading with a Pencil in Your Hand

Writing Paraphrases

Chapter Exercises

Selection 1: Mark Stevens, “Chief Joseph’s Revenge”

Selection 2: Michele Simon, from Appetite for Profit

Selection 3: Sandra Mackey, from The Saudis: Inside the Desert Kingdom

Practice Essay: Laura Hillendbrand, from Seabiscuit: An American Legend

Writing Summaries

How to Write a Summary

Chapter 2 Reading for the Main Idea and Author’s Purpose

Main Idea in Paragraphs

Main Idea and Controlling Idea

Placement of the Main Idea

Implied Main Ideas

Levels of Support—Major and Minor Supporting Details

The Author’s Purpose and Modes of Discourse

Narration

Description

Exposition

Persuasion

Mixed Modes of Discourse

Chapter Exercises

Selection 1: Eric Schlosser, Fast Food Nation: The Dark Side of the All-American

Meal

Selection 2: David Orr, “Verbicide”

Selection 3: Jonathon Franzen, “Sifting the Ashes”

Practice Essay: Bill Buford “Among the Thugs”

On the Web

In the Video Store

Chapter 3 Reading Between the Lines: Making Accurate Inferences

Facts and Inferences

Definition of Inferences

Problems with Inferences

Using Evidence to Make Inferences

Making Open-Ended Inferences

Making Inferences in Textbook Material

Making Inferences in Literature

Making Inference with Visual Material

Cartoons

Graphs and Charts

Chapter Exercises

Selection 1: “Good Idea” Utne

Selection 2: Jan Yoors, The Gypsies

Selection 3: Diane Ackerman, The Natural History of the Senses

Practice Essay: Henry Petroski, “Design Rising”

Practice Short Story: Edward P. Jones, “The First Day”
Part 2 Discovering Meaning: The Importance of Form

Chapter 4 Methods of Paragraph Development

Modes of Discourse and Methods of Development Compared

Methods of Paragraph Development—The First Group

Facts and Statistics

Examples and Illustration

Illustration in Textbooks

Process

Comparison and Contrast

Contrast in Textbooks

Methods of Paragraph Development—The Second Group

Cause and Effect

Cause and Effect Relationships in Visual Material

Analysis and Classification

Analysis in Textbooks

Definition

Definition in Textbooks

Analogy

Combination of Methods

Chapter Exercises

Selection 1: Sam Harris, The End of Faith

Selection 2: Daniel Duane, Caught Inside: A Surfer’s year on the California Coast

Selection 3: James E. Rosenbaum, “It’s Time to Tell the Kids: If Youd Don’t Do

Well in High School, You Won’t Do Well in College (or on the Job)”

Practice Essay: Richard Selzer, “The Pen and the Scalpel”

In the Library

Chapter 5 Patterns of Paragraph Organization

Patterns of Organization Defined

Chronological Order

Spatial Order

Deductive Order

Inductive Order

Coherence in Paragraphs

Achieving Coherence: Transitions

Achieving Coherence: repetition of Key Words and Phrases

Achieving Coherence: Pronouns

Chapter Exercises

Selection 1: Greg Critser, Fat Land: How Americans Became the Fattest People in

the World

Selection 2: Sandra Mackey, The Saudis: Inside the Desert Kingdom

Selection 3: Edward O. Wilson, “The Power of Story”

Practice Essay: Conrad Phillip Kottak, “Potlatching”

On the Web
Part 3 Discovering Meaning: The Importance of Language

Chapter 6 Language and Its Effects on the Reader

Denotation and Connotation

Connotation and Synonyms

Connotative Restrictions and the Importance of Context

Connotation and Levels of Language

Connotation in Reading

How Denotation and Connotation Work Together

Connotation in Fiction

Figurative Language

Metaphors and Similes

Figurative Language and the Imagination

Figurative Language and Inferences

Uses of Metaphors and Similes

Personification

Connotation and Our Perception of the Issues

How Word Choice Influences Our Perceptions—The Media

Language Misused and Abused

Clichés

Code Words

Jargon

Euphemisms

Politically-Correct Language

Sneer Words

Doublespeak

Obfuscating Language

Chapter Exercises

Selection 1: Nick Paumgarten, “Dangerous Game”

Selection 2: H.G. Bissinger, “Sisters” Friday Night Lights

Selection 3: Margaret Atwood, “The View from the Backyard”

Practice Essay: Brian Doyle, “Joyas Voladoras”

On the Web

Practice Short Story: Kate Chopin, “The Story of an Hour”

Chapter 7 Tone, Point of View, and Allusions

Point of View

An Overview of Tone

Common Varieties of Tone

Tone in Textbooks

Tone in Nonfiction Prose

A Special Case: Sentimentality

Tone and Mood in Fiction

Tone Continue: More Difficult Varieties

Wit

Irony

Sarcasm

Cynicism

Satire

Allusion

Special Stylistic Effects

Understatement

Hyperbole

Alliteration

Repetition for Effect

Chapter Exercises

Selection 1: Sissela Bok, Secrets: On the Ethics of Concealment and Revelation

Selection 2: Gerald Durrell, “The Life and Death of Cholmondeley”

Selection 3: Peter Coyote, “Celebrity Nation”

Practice Essay: Kurt Wiesenfeld, “Making the Grade”
Part 4 Reading Critically

Chapter 8 Elements of Critical Reading- Analyzing Arguments

A Definition of Critical Reading

The Reader’s Responsibilities

Developing a Worldview

Two World Maps—Two Worldviews

Analyzing the Structure of Arguments

The test of a Good Argument

Taking Arguments Apart

The Question of Authority

Identifying Claims

Identifying Claims in Editorials

Unstated Assumptions

The Importance of Definition in Arguments

Evaluating Evidence

The Refutation

Analyzing Visual Images

Charts and Graphs

Photographs

Chapter Exercises: Evaluating Editorials

Selection 1: Arthur Levine, “College—More Than Serving Time”

Selection 2: Jeff Jacoby, “Fishing for Sport is Cruel, Inhumane”

Selection 3: Silvio Laccetti, “Colleges Cranking out Illiterate Masses”

Chapter 9 Problems in Critical Reading—Evaluating Arguments

Inductive and Deductive Reasoning

Inductive Reasoning

Deductive Reasoning

The Toulmin Method

Analyzing an Op-Ed Piece with the Toulmin Method

Problems with Arguments

Hasty or Unqualified Generalizations and Stereotyping

Incorrect Sampling

Appeals in Arguments

Emotional Appeals

Appeal to Authority

Appeal to Fear

Appeal to Patriotism

Appeal to Pity or Sympathy

Appeal to Prejudice

Appeal to Tradition

Other Manipulative Appeals

Bandwagon Appeal

Flattery

Just Plain Folks

Name Calling

Ridicule

Testimonial

Transfer

Legitimate Appeals in Arguments

Logical Fallacies: Part I

Ad Hominem Argument

Begging the Question

Cause-Effect Fallacies

Either Or Fallacy

Evasion

Logical Fallacies: Part 2

False Analogy

Non Sequitur

Oversimplification

Rationalization

Red Herring

Slippery Slope

Two Wrongs Make a Right

Summary of Emotional Appeals and Logical Fallacies

Detecting Bias

Acceptable vs. Unacceptable Bias

An Example of Liberal Bias

An Example of Conservative Bias

Political Blogs: A Special Case

Chapter Exercises—Evaluating Editorials

Selection 1: Peter R. Kann, “The Media is in Need of Some Mending”

The Failed War on Drugs: Two Perspectives

Selection 2: Norm Stamper, “Let Those Dopers Be”

Selection 3: Mary Anastasia O’Grady, “Canada’s Shooting Gallery”

Chapter 10 Practical Applications in Evaluating Arguments

Analyzing Advertisement and Public Service Announcements

Political Cartoons

Evaluating Political Speeches

George W. Bush’s 2001 Stem Cell Speech

Richard Nixon’s “Checkers” Speech

Evaluating Websites

Reading Online Versus Reading Print

Chapter Exercises: Evaluating Editorials

The Immigration Debate

Selection 1: George F. Will, “A Vote for English”

Selection 2: Michelle Malkin “Sanctuary Nation or Sovereign Nation: It’s Your

Choice”

Selection 3: Anna Quindlen, “Newcomers by Numbers”

Selection 4: Bryan Welch, “Putting a Stop to Slave Labor: A Moral Solution to

Illegal Immigration”

Selection 5: Political cartoon by J. B. Handelsman, The New Yorker
Part 5 Reading Essays and Articles

Introduction to Reading Essays

Why Read Essays in the First Place

The Characteristics of an Essay

The Parts of an Essay

How to Read an Essay

Analyzing Essay: Questions to Ask

Thirteen Essays and Articles for Further Practice

Selection 1: Luis Alberto Urrea, “Uno: They,” from Borderland Blues: Six

Impressions

Selection 2: Barack Obama, “Race” from The Audacity of Hope

Selection 3: Orhan Pamuk, “The View, and the Dog in the Road”

Selection 4: Isak Dinesen, “The Iguana”

Selection 5: Andrei Codrescu, “Faux Chicken & Phony Furniture: Notes of an Alien

Son”

Selection 6: Judith Ortiz Cofer, “Primary Lessons”

Selection 7: Marco Visscher, “Reading, Writing and Video Gaming”

Selection 8: Wendell Berry, “In Defense of Literacy”

Selection 9: Samuel H. Scudder, “In the Laboratory with Agassiz”

Selection 10: Joseph Epstein, “The Culture of Celebrity: Let us Now Praise Famous

Airheads”

Selection 11: Rebecca Mead, “One Perfect Day: The Selling of the American

Wedding”

Selection 12: John McPhee, “Los Angeles Against the Mountains”

Selection 13: An Interview with Alan Weisman, “An Earth without People”
Part 6 Reading and Studying Textbook Material

The Structure of Modern Textbooks

Making Efficient Use of Study Time

The SQ3R Study Method

Applying the SQ3R Method to a Textbook Selection

Sample Textbook Selection: Benjamin B. Lahey, “Memory,” Psychology: An

Introduction
Part 7 Reading Short Stories

Questions about Plot

Questions about Character

Questions about Theme

Selection 1: Geoff Dyer, “White Sands”

Selection 2: Gail Godwin, “A Sorrowful Woman”

Selection 3: Saki (H.H. Munro), “The Open Window”

Selection 4: T.C. Boyle, “Chicxulub”

Permissions Acknowledgments

Index
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