Development in Infancy: An Introduction / Edition 3

Development in Infancy: An Introduction / Edition 3

by Marc H. Bornstein
     
 

ISBN-10: 0070065527

ISBN-13: 9780070065529

Pub. Date: 02/01/1992

Publisher: McGraw-Hill Higher Education

This is a revision of our comprehensive text in infant development,intended for infant and child development courses at the junior/senior level. The authors have updated material throughout the text. In addition,they have streamlined the organization by rewriting the introducing and concluding chapters. Organizational changes include: 1) cognitive development

Overview

This is a revision of our comprehensive text in infant development,intended for infant and child development courses at the junior/senior level. The authors have updated material throughout the text. In addition,they have streamlined the organization by rewriting the introducing and concluding chapters. Organizational changes include: 1) cognitive development and intelligence now treated in one chapter,2) new chapter on representation and play,and 3) temperament and emotions now combined in one chapter.

Product Details

ISBN-13:
9780070065529
Publisher:
McGraw-Hill Higher Education
Publication date:
02/01/1992
Edition description:
3rd ed
Pages:
704

Table of Contents

Prefacexiii
About the Authorsxv
1Introduction1
Why We Study Infants1
The Significance of Infancy3
Proponents of the Importance of Early Experience3
Proponents of Discontinuity6
The Transactional View6
Heredity and Experience8
Past, Present, and Future9
Some Specific Mechanisms of Heredity and Experience12
Stability and Continuity15
Individual Variation and Normative Development16
Stages18
Parental Curiosity and Applied Imperatives19
Scientific Infancy Studies22
Systems22
Challenges24
Outline of This Book25
Summary30
2The Social Ecology of Infancy31
Family, Daycare, Class, and Culture31
Infant, Mother, and Father32
Direct Effects--Heritability33
Direct Effects--Parenting33
Indirect Effects35
Infants, Siblings, and Peers38
Sibling Relationships38
Developing Relationships with Other Children42
Nonparental Care of Infants44
Socioeconomic Class and Culture47
Socioeconomic Class and Infancy47
Culture and Infancy49
Summary56
3Methods of Research in Infancy57
Logic, Design, Procedures, Techniques, and Measurement57
Logic and Design in Infancy Research: Status, Process, and Origins58
Longitudinal and Cross-Sectional Designs58
Natural Experiments, Twin, and Adoption Designs61
Specialized Developmental Designs63
Procedures and Techniques in Infancy Research64
Baby Biographies and Case Studies65
Systematic Observations68
Nonobjective Observations72
Structured Test Situations74
Psychophysiological Assessments80
Interpretation and Measurement Issues in Developmental Research85
Correlation and Causality85
Reliability and Validity, Multiple Assessment, and Converging Operations87
Research Issues with Infants89
Context, State, Point of View, Age, and Performance versus Competence in Infancy Research90
Ethics91
Summary92
4Physical Development in Infancy94
Influence Before Birth, Birth, and Growth After Birth94
Genetics and Prenatal Development95
Genetic Endowment95
Early Stages of Development99
Prenatal Experience103
Sexual Differentiation113
Birth and the Neonate117
Birth117
Preterm Birth119
Infant Examinations121
Reflexes122
Physical Growth and Motor Development123
Motor Development128
Summary130
5Nervous System Development in Infancy132
Cycle, State, Cell, and Brain132
Autonomic Nervous System Development133
Cycles and States133
Heart Rate140
Central Nervous System Development144
The Cellular Level144
Brain Structure149
Electrical Activity in the Brain150
Single-Cell Brain Activity157
Brain Plasticity157
Development of the Sensory Systems160
The "Lower" Senses162
Vision163
Audition165
Summary165
6Perceptual Development in Infancy167
Beginning to Sense and Understand the World167
Philosophical Questions and Developmental Research168
A Nativist-Empiricist Debate168
Research Resolutions169
Attention: How Perceptual Questions Are Asked of Infants and How Their Answers Are Interpreted172
Visual Perception175
Pattern, Shape, and Form176
Orientation180
Location183
Perception of Movement184
Color187
Object Perception189
Auditory Perception190
Basic Auditory Processes190
Speech Perception192
Chemical and Tactile Perception194
Taste and Smell194
Touch196
Multimodal and Cross-Modal Perception198
Experience and Early Perceptual Development202
Summary204
7Mental Life in Infancy205
Cognition, Learning, and Intelligence205
The Piagetian View of Cognitive Development in Infancy207
Piaget's Theory of Knowledge207
Action as the Basis of Knowledge209
Stage Theory: The Decline of Egocentrism210
Challenges to Piaget's Theory214
Early Learning and Information Processing223
Classical and Operant Learning and Imitation224
Information Processing: Habituation and Novelty Responsiveness227
Individual Variation and Reliability229
Developmental Changes in Learning and Information Processing231
Infant Mental Life and the Question of Validity233
Traditional Tests of Infant Intelligence233
Traditional Infant Tests and Their Predictive Validity236
The Information-Processing Orientation to the Assessment of Cognitive Competencies in Infancy238
Mental Development in Its Social Context240
Parental Interaction and Teaching242
The Joint Contribution of Parent and Infant to Infant Mental Development244
Summary245
8Representation in Infancy246
Categories and Concepts, Memory, and Pretense246
Categories and Concepts248
Categorization248
Methods of Studying Categorization in Infancy249
Issues in the Study of Categorization253
Memory255
Techniques Used to Study Infant Memory257
Influences on Infant Memory260
Play263
The Development of Play264
Play Development and Social Interaction270
Culture, Social Context, and Play273
Representation Reconsidered274
Summary277
9Origins of Language in Infancy279
The Building Blocks of Communication279
Language Norms and Methods of Study280
Comprehension and Production281
Individual Variation282
A Note on Methods of Language Study285
Synchrony in Speech288
Infant-Directed Speech288
Turn Taking293
Gesture294
Dynamic Sensitivity295
Making and Understanding Speech296
Sound Perception297
Sound Production301
Semantics308
Reference and First Words308
The Problem of Word Learning310
Individual Differences in Vocabulary Learning313
Syntax317
The Sources of Language in Language Learning325
Summary326
10Emotions and Temperament in Infancy328
Individual Sensitivity and Style328
Toward a Definition of Emotions329
Methodological Issues in the Study of Emotions in Infancy333
Development of Emotional Expressions337
Development of Sensitivity to Emotional Signals344
Theorizing About Emotions in Infancy345
Learning Theories346
Psychoanalytic Theories346
Cognitive Theories348
Ethological Theories349
Summary350
Temperamental Individuality351
Conceptualizing Infant Temperament354
The New York Longitudinal Study355
Buss and Plomin356
Rothbart and Derryberry357
Conclusion358
Origins and Consequences of Temperamental Individuality359
Psychobiological Correlates359
Culture and Temperament362
Gender Differences364
Temperament and Thought364
Difficultness365
Conclusion366
The Measurement of Infant Temperament367
Reliability368
Validity368
Summary369
11Social Development in Infancy371
Attachments and Interactions371
Basic Phases of Social Development372
Phase 1Newborn Indiscriminate Social Responsiveness (1 to 2 Months of Age)372
Phase 2Discriminating Sociability (2 to 7 Months of Age)375
Phase 3Attachments (7 to 24 Months of Age)376
Phase 4Goal-Corrected Partnerships (Year 3 Onward)377
Some Features of Attachment Bonds378
How Do Attachments Form?378
To Whom Do Infants Become Attached?379
Behavior Systems Relevant to Infant Attachment382
Four Behavior Systems382
Interdependencies Among the Behavior Systems384
The Security of Infant-Parent Attachments385
The "Strange Situation"385
A Typology of Attachments385
Determinants of Strange Situation Behavior387
Stability of Infant Attachment389
Predictive Validity of Attachment Classifications390
Cross-Cultural Research on the Attachment Typology391
Parental Behavior and Interaction with Infants393
Origins of Parenting Characteristics393
Correspondence in Infant-Mother Interaction401
Sex Differences in Social Development402
Summary404
12Conclusions: What We Have Learned From and About Infants406
The Shared Mind: Fitting the Pieces Together406
Summary413
References415
Name Index475
Subject Index487

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