Development of Sustainable Bioprocesses: Modeling and Assessment / Edition 1

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Overview

This book provides a framework for the development of sustainable bioprocesses. It includes methods for modeling and assessing both the economic and environmental aspects of biotechnological processes and illustrates their application in a series of case studies covering a broad range of products. The book: provides, in four chapters, an introduction to bioproducts and bioprocesses and the unit operations involved in manufacturing, as well as bioprocess modeling in combination with economic and environmental assessment methods; cuts across multiple process industries, including pharmaceutical, biochemicals, chemicals and food production; addresses risk and uncertainty analysis which are particularly important in early process and product development; presents a unique set of case examples from various parts of biotechnology that improve the understanding of this technology and provide a starting point for developing a specific model.

The CD-ROM included contains the process models described in the text. All process model examples are implemented into SuperPro Designer[Trademark]. The models are selected as characteristic examples of major bioprocess applications including bulk bio-chemicals, fine chemicals, enzymes, low and high molecular weight pharmaceuticals. Topics covered are: Citric Acid, Pyruvic Acid, L-Lysine, Riboflavin - Vitamin B2, [Alpha]-Cyclodextrin, Penicillin V, Recombinant Human Serum Albumin, Recombinant Human Insulin; Monoclonal Antibodies, and Plasmid DNA production. These examples provide a hands-on approach, which will be useful to both students and professionals already working in bioprocess industries. This book provides an integrating framework for thestudent in chemical and biochemical engineering and the scientist and engineer engaged in process development working in the biochemical, chemical and process industries, as well as biologists, chemists, environmental managers and business economists.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780470015599
  • Publisher: Wiley
  • Publication date: 1/22/2007
  • Edition description: BK&CD-ROM
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 316
  • Product dimensions: 6.57 (w) x 9.90 (h) x 0.94 (d)

Table of Contents


Preface     xiii
Acknowledgments     xvii
List of Contributors     xix
Theoretical Introduction
Introduction     3
Bioprocesses     3
History of Biotechnology and Today's Situation     3
Future Perspectives     6
Modeling and Assessment in Process Development     7
Development of Bioprocesses     11
Types of Bioprocess and Bioproduct     11
Biocatalysts and Process Types     11
Raw Materials     17
Bioproducts     20
Bioreaction Stoichiometry, Thermodynamics, and Kinetics     23
Stoichiometry     23
Thermodynamics     28
Kinetics     29
Elements of Bioprocesses (Unit Operations and Unit Procedures)     32
Upstream Processing     33
Bioreactor     36
Downstream Processing     40
Waste Treatment, Reduction and Recycling     50
The Development Process     52
Introduction     52
Development Steps and Participants     53
Modeling and Simulation of Bioprocesses     61
Problem Structuring, Process Analysis, and Process Scheme     62
Model Boundariesand General Structure     62
Modeling Steps     63
Implementation and Simulation     66
Spreadsheet Model     66
Modeling using a Process Simulator     66
Uncertainty Analysis     71
Scenario Analysis     72
Sensitivity Analysis     73
Monte Carlo Simulation     75
Sustainability Assessment     81
Sustainability     81
Economic Assessment     82
Capital-Cost Estimation     83
Operating-Cost Estimation     88
Profitability Assessment     94
Environmental Assessment     95
Introduction     95
Structure of the Method     96
Impact Categories and Groups     99
Calculation of Environmental Factors     103
Calculation of Indices     105
Example Cleavage of Penicillin G     105
Assessing Social Aspects     107
Introduction     107
Indicators for Social Assessment     108
Interactions between the Different Sustainability Dimensions     112
Bioprocess Case Studies
Introduction to Case Studies     121
Citric Acid - Alternative Process using Starch      125
Introduction     125
Fermentation Model     125
Process Model     128
Inventory Analysis     130
Environmental Assessment     132
Economic Assessment     134
Conclusions     135
Pyruvic Acid - Fermentation with Alternative Downstream Processes     137
Introduction     137
Fermentation Model     137
Process Model     138
Bioreaction and Upstream     138
Downstream Processing     141
Inventory Analysis     142
Environmental Assessment     144
Economic Assessment     145
Conclusions     145
L-Lysine - Coupling of Bioreaction and Process Model   Arnd Knoll   Jochen Buechs     155
Introduction     155
Basic Strategy     156
Bioreaction Model     156
Process Model     159
Coupling of Bioreaction and Process Model     162
Assumptions     163
Results and Discussion     164
Riboflavin - Vitamin B[subscript 2]   Wilfried Storhas   Rolf Metz     169
Introduction     169
Biosynthesis and Fermentation     170
Production Process and Process Model     171
Upstream Processing     172
Fermentation     174
Downstream Processing     174
Inventory Analysis     174
Ecological Assessment     175
Economic Assessment     176
Discussion and Concluding Remarks     177
[Alpha]Cyclodextrin     181
Introduction     181
Reaction Model     182
Process Model     182
Solvent Process     182
Non-solvent Process     184
Inventory Analysis     185
Environmental Assessment     186
Economic Assessment     186
Conclusions     189
Penicillin V     193
Introduction     193
Modeling Base Case     193
Fermentation Model     193
Process Model     194
Inventory Analysis     196
Environmental Assessment     197
Economic Assessment     197
Monte Carlo Simulations     198
Objective Functions, Variables, and Probability Distributions     198
Results     201
Conclusions      206
Recombinant Human Serum Albumin   M. Abdul Kholiq   Elmar Heinzle     211
Introduction     211
Bioreaction Model     212
Stoichiometry     212
Multi-stage Fermentation and Feeding Plan     213
Total Broth Volume in Production Scale and Raw Material Consumption     214
Process Model     215
Bioreaction     215
Downstream Processing     215
Economic Assessment     218
Ecological Assessment     219
Conclusions     221
Recombinant Human Insulin   Demetri Petrides     225
Introduction     225
Two-chain Method     226
Proinsulin Method     226
Market Analysis and Design Basis     226
Process Description     227
Inventory Analysis and Environmental Assessment     233
Production Scheduling     234
Economic Assessment     235
Throughput-Increase Options     237
Conclusions     238
Monoclonal Antibodies     241
Introduction     241
Process Model     241
Inventory Analysis     243
Economic Assessment      245
Environmental Assessment     246
Uncertainty Analysis     247
Scenarios     247
Sensitivity Analysis     248
Monte Carlo Simulations     249
Conclusions     255
[Alpha]-1-Antitrypsin from Transgenic Plant Cell Suspension Cultures   Elizabeth Zapalac   Karen McDonald     261
Introduction     261
Process Description     263
Model Description     263
Discussion     265
Conclusions     268
Plasmid DNA   Sindelia S. Freitas   Jose A. L. Santos   D. Miguel F. Prazeres     271
Introduction     271
General     271
Case Introduction     272
Process Description     272
Model Description     275
Bioreaction Section     275
Downstream Sections     276
Inventory Analysis     277
Economic Assessment     278
Environmental Assessment     281
Discussion     282
Conclusions     283
Index     287
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