Developments in Oils and Fats

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781461359142
  • Publisher: Springer US
  • Publication date: 4/30/2013
  • Edition description: Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1995
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 269
  • Product dimensions: 6.14 (w) x 9.21 (h) x 0.60 (d)

Table of Contents

1 Meat lipids.- 1.1 Introduction.- 1.2 Coronary heart disease (CHD).- 1.2.1 Will dietary change decrease CHD?.- 1.2.2 Cholesterol consumption.- 1.2.3 Fat consumption.- 1.2.4 Meat lipids and plasma cholesterol.- 1.2.5 Lean meat.- 1.3 Triacylglycerols.- 1.3.1 Pigs.- 1.3.2 Effect of diet.- 1.3.3 Lean pigs.- 1.3.4 Cattle and sheep.- 1.3.5 Effect of diet.- 1.3.6 Effect of leanness.- 1.4 Lipid consistency.- 1.5 Organoleptic properties.- 1.5.1 Intramuscular triacylglycerols.- 1.5.2 Intramuscular phospholipids.- 1.5.3 Autocatalytic autooxidation.- 1.5.4 Haem iron and non-haem iron.- 1.5.5 Role of phospholipids in rancidity.- 1.6 Cholesterol.- 1.7 Conclusion.- References.- 2 Marine (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids.- 2.1 Introduction.- 2.2 Origins and composition of marine fish oils.- 2.3 Speciality marine oils rich in (n-3) PUFA.- 2.4 Concentration of (n-3) PUFA from marine oils.- 2.5 Concluding remarks.- References.- 3 Confectionery fats.- 3.1 Introduction.- 3.2 Cocoa butter.- 3.3 Confectionary fats.- 3.4 Hard butters.- 3.4.1 Lauric cocoa butter substitutes.- 3.4.2 Non-lauric cocoa butter substitutes.- 3.4.3 Cocoa butter equivalents.- 3.5 Availability of raw materials.- References.- 4 Derivatives or long-chain ratty acids.- 4.1 Introduction.- 4.2 Testing methods.- 4.2.1 Test method for corrosion resistance.- 4.2.2 Surface tension.- 4.2.3 Friction coefficients.- 4.2.4 Welding load.- 4.2.5 Practical tests.- 4.2.6 Microbial activity tests.- 4.3 Results and discussion.- 4.3.1 Additives from higher fatty acids.- 4.3.2 Additives from dibasic acids.- 4.3.3 Additives from aromatic carboxylic acids.- 4.3.4 Fluorine compounds from hydroxyl fatty acids and related compounds.- 4.3.5 Practical tests.- 4.3.6 Antimicrobial properties.- 4.4 Experimental.- 4.4.1 Reaction of undecylenic acid (I) with cycIohexanone (II).- 4.4.2 Reaction of 2-(1-hydroxy-l-cycIohexyl)-10-undecenoic acid (III) with p-toluenesulfonic acid.- 4.4.3 Reaction of undecylenic acid (I) with mecaptoacetic acid.- 4.4.4 10, 11-Dichloromethylene undecanoic acid (VII).- 4.4.5 Reaction of linoleic acid (VIII) with maleic anhydride.- 4.4.6 12-Isovaleroyloxy stearic acid (XI).- 4.4.7 Monoethylester (XIII) of sebacic acid (XII) (1 ,8-octanedicarboxylic acid).- 4.4.8 Aromatic carboxylic acid derivatives.- 4.4.9 Reaction of methyl ricinolate (XIV) with PPDA.- 4.4.10 Reaction of2,3-dibromo-l-propanol (XVII) with PPDA.- 4.4.11 Reaction of glycerol ?-monoallylether (XIX) with PPDA.- 4.4.12 Preparation of adducts of amino alcohols with boric anhydride.- 4.4.13 Preparation of a sample solution for a water-soluble cutting fluid.- Acknowledgements.- References.- Further reading.- 5 Sunflowerseed oil.- 5.1 History.- 5.2 Sunflower breeding.- 5.3 Oil composition.- 5.4 Waxes.- 5.5 Phospholipids.- 5.6 Tocopherols.- 5.7 Food use.- 5.8 Sunflower oil as an alternative fuel.- 5.9 Oleochemicals.- References.- 6 Developments in palm oil.- 6.1 Introduction.- 6.2 Biological aspects.- 6.3 Palm oil quality.- 6.4 Characteristics of palm oil.- 6.4.1 Physical characteristics.- 6.4.2 Chemical characteristics.- 6.5 Characteristics of palm kernel oil and palm oil fractions.- 6.5.1 Palm kernel oils.- 6.5.2 Fraction of palm oil.- 6.6 Production of palm oil and palm oil products.- 6.6.1 Milling.- 6.6.2 Refining and processing.- 6.7 Uses of palm oil and its products.- 6.7.1 Food uses of palm oil.- 6.7.2 Non-food uses.- 6.8 Nutritional aspects of palm oil.- 6.9 Effluent in the palm oil industry.- 6.9.1 Palm oil mill effluent.- 6.9.2 Palm oil refinery waste.- 6.9.3 Waste from the oleochemical industry.- 6.9.4 Future developments.- References.- 7 Lipids and oxygen: is rancidity avoidable in practice?.- 7.1 Introduction.- 7.2 Guidelines.- 7.2.1 Antioxidants.- 7.2.2 Effect of temperature.- 7.2.3 Reduction of access of air.- 7.2.4 Use of metal deactivators and antioxidants.- 8 Crystallisation of fats.- 8.1 Introduction.- 8.2 Basic principles.- 8.3 Supersaturation.- 8.4 Nucleation.- 8.5 Growth.- 8.6 Crystal size, habit and polymorph.- 8.7 Post-growth events: agglomeration, ripening, contraction.- Acknowledgements.- References.- 9 Infrared spectroscopy of lipids.- 9.1 Introduction.- 9.2 Principles.- 9.3 Instrumentation.- 9.3.1 Ratio-recording infrared spectroscopy.- 9.3.2 Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.- 9.4 Quantitative infrared spectroscopy.- 9.5 Sampling methods.- 9.6 Internal reflection spectroscopy.- 9.6.1 Parameters influencing absorbance.- 9.6.2 Internal reflection devices.- 9.6.3 Applications and limitations.- 9.7 Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy.- 9.8 Near infrared spectroscopy.- 9.8.1 Instrumentation in the near infrared.- 9.8.2 Types of instruments.- 9.8.3 Data collection and handling.- 9.8.4 Advantages of NIR reflectance techniques.- 9.9 Raman spectroscopy.- 9.9.1 Instrumentation.- 9.9.2 Sampling procedures.- 9.9.3 Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy.- 9.10 Structure elucidation via vibrational spectroscopy.- 9.10.1 Medium infrared region.- 9.10.2 Near infrared region.- 9.10.3 Raman spectroscopy.- 9.11 Applications of infrared vibrational spectroscopy.- 9.11.1 Introduction.- 9.11.2 Functional group analysis.- 9.12 Review of lipid literature.- 9.13 Quantitative applications.- References.
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