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Surface contamination is of cardinal importance in a host of technologies and industries, ranging from microelectronics to optics to automotive to biomedical. Thus, the need to understand the causes of surface contamination and their removal is very patent. Generally speaking, there are two broad categories of surface contaminants: film-type and particulates. In the world of shrinking dimensions, such as the ever-decreasing size of microelectronic devices, there is an intensified need to understand the behavior of nanoscale particles and to devise ways to remove them to an acceptable level. Particles which were functionally innocuous a few years ago are "killer defects&" today, with serious implications for yield and reliability of the components. This book addresses the sources, detection, characterization and removal of both kinds of contaminants, as well as ways to prevent surfaces from being contaminated. A number of techniques to monitor the level of cleanliness are also discussed. Special emphasis is placed on the behaviour of nanoscale particles. The book is amply referenced and profusely illustrated.
• Excellent reference for a host of technologies and industries ranging from microelectronics to optics to automotive to biomedical.
• A single source document addressing everything from the sources of contamination to their removal and prevention.
• Amply referenced and profusely illustrated.
Part 1: Fundamentals
The Physical Nature of Very, Very Small Particles and its Impact on their Behavior
Elucidating the Nature of Very Small Particles
Transport and Deposition of Aerosol Particles
Relevance of Particle Transport in Surface Deposition and Cleaning
Tribological Implications of Particles
Airborne Molecular Contamination
Engineering Aspects of Particle Adhesion and Removal
ESD Controls in Cleanroom Environments: Relevance to Particle Deposition
Part 2: Characterization of Surface Contaminants
Electron Microscopy Techniques for Imaging and Analysis of Nanoparticles
Surface Analysis Methods for Contaminant Identification
Ionic Contamination and Analytical Techniques for Ionic Contamination
Relevance of Colorimetric Interferometry for Thin Surface Film Contaminants
Wettability Techniques to Monitor the Cleanliness of Surfaces
Part 3: Methods for Removal of Surface Contamination
The Use of Surfactants to Enhance Particle Removal from Surfaces
Cleaning with Solvents
Removal of Particles by Chemical Cleaning
Cleaning Using High-Speed Impinging Jet
Microabrasive Precision Cleaning and Processing Technology
Precision Cleaning Using Microdroplet Beams
Cleaning Using Argon/Nitrogen Cryogenic Aerosols
Carbon Dioxide Snow Cleaning
Coatings for Preventing or Deactivation of Biological Contaminants
Detailed Study of Semiconductor Wafer Drying