Deviant Behavior / Edition 9

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Overview

This widely-adopted text seeks to understand deviance from the key sociological perspectives and theories. Real-world examples of deviance are provided throughout to encourage critical thinking about deviant behavior and its impact.

The book contains black-and-white illustrations.

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Editorial Reviews

John S. Lyons
Appearing nearly 20 years after the first edition, this fifth edition is a survey text on the topic of deviant behavior. Within this broadly defined area, the author includes crime, drug and alcohol use, heterosexual and homosexual behavior, violence, and mental illness. "This book is primarily designed for use in teaching a class on deviance. It has a distinctly sociological perspective to it and is therefore ideal for deviance classes taught within sociology departments. However, it could also be a useful text to present the sociological perspective on deviance in related fields such as psychology or criminal justice. "Consistent with its purpose, the audience for this text is students. The ideal audience would be upper-level undergraduates. "This text has many features that make it a more appealing read for students. There are many photographs, particularly starting out each new chapter. There are also interesting and illustrative insets that provide specific stories or data that expand the topics discussed in the text. The book is very well referenced. There are subject and author indexes in the back, both of which are very thorough. "This well-written text would be a very good choice as a primary text for a class on deviance taught within a sociology department. It could also be a good supplemental text for classes taught in related disciplines. Students will enjoy this book. The material, which is naturally interesting, is presented in a manner that holds the reader's attention and provides useful information from multiple conceptual and theoretical perspectives.
Booknews
Textbook for undergraduate students looks at lying, cheating, stealing, murder, corruption, harming others, drug use, and "immoral" sexual practices. Annotation c. Book News, Inc., Portland, OR booknews.com
Doody's Review Service
Reviewer: John S. Lyons, PhD (Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine)
Description: Appearing nearly 20 years after the first edition, this fifth edition is a survey text on the topic of deviant behavior. Within this broadly defined area, the author includes crime, drug and alcohol use, heterosexual and homosexual behavior, violence, and mental illness.
Purpose: This book is primarily designed for use in teaching a class on deviance. It has a distinctly sociological perspective to it and is therefore ideal for deviance classes taught within sociology departments. However, it could also be a useful text to present the sociological perspective on deviance in related fields such as psychology or criminal justice.
Audience: Consistent with its purpose, the audience for this text is students. The ideal audience would be upper-level undergraduates.
Features: This text has many features that make it a more appealing read for students. There are many photographs, particularly starting out each new chapter. There are also interesting and illustrative insets that provide specific stories or data that expand the topics discussed in the text. The book is very well referenced. There are subject and author indexes in the back, both of which are very thorough.
Assessment: This well-written text would be a very good choice as a primary text for a class on deviance taught within a sociology department. It could also be a good supplemental text for classes taught in related disciplines. Students will enjoy this book. The material, which is naturally interesting, is presented in a manner that holds the reader's attention and provides useful information from multiple conceptual and theoretical perspectives.

3 Stars from Doody
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Product Details

Meet the Author

Erich Goode is Sociology Professor Emeritus at Stony Brook University and Visiting Scholar at New York University; he also taught at the University of Maryland, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, and the University of North Carolina. Professor Goode received his PhD in Sociology from Columbia. He is the author of ten books, including Deviance in Everyday Life (2002, Waveland Press), Moral Panics (with Nachman Ben-Yehuda, 2nd edition, 2009, Wiley-Blackwell), and Drugs in American Society (7th edition, 2008, McGraw-Hill), as well as the editor of seven anthologies of collected or original writings. During his career, he received a Guggenheim Fellowship, the Lady Davis Teaching Fellowship, the President's Award for Excellence in Teaching, and the SUNY-wide Chancellor's Award for Excellence in Teaching. Goode has published articles in a wide range of venues, including academic journals (Social Problems, Deviant Behavior, The American Journal of Sociology), newspapers (The Washington Post, Newsday), literary journals (Raritan, The Palo Alto Review), and magazines (The Skeptical Inquirer, The Evergreen Review). Professor Goode is married and lives in New York City.

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Read an Excerpt

PREFACE:

PREFACE

I have made a substantial number of revisions in this edition of Deviant Behavior. Aside from the usual updating, I have added several entirely new chapters, compressed others, expanded still others, and deleted or added many sections. I agree with Adler and Adler (2000, p. 8): The subject matter of the field is the "ABCs" of deviance. What the concept of the sociology of deviance encompasses is Attitudes (or beliefs), Behavior, and Characteristics (or traits), including those that are strictly physical. I disagree with Polsky (1998, pp. 202-203), who argues that the study of behavior or conditions that are "not an individual's fault" is off-limits, that is, that we are confined to studying behavior that is regarded as immoral and more or less freely chosen, for which the person designated as deviant can be "blamed" for engaging in. As I show, the social consequences of possessing involuntarily acquired characteristics are often very similar to those that flow from "immoral" behavior.

Hence, in this edition, I have added a chapter on physical deviance, or what Goffman (1963, p. 4) referred to as "abominations of the body—the various physical deformities," which includes violations of aesthetic norms and disability. In that chapter, I forcefully argue that we sociologists should regard non-normative physical characteristics as a form of deviance.

In addition (again, taking my cue from the Adlers' "ABCs of deviance"), I have added a chapter on deviant belief systems, including religious, political, and paranormal beliefs. While the line between beliefs and behavior is not alwaysconceptually or theoretically easy to draw, we sociologists should reserve a place for deviant beliefs in our thinking. It is possible that, in the history of the world, more people have been punished for unconventional beliefs than for deviant behavior.

I have also compressed what were the three chapters on crime—violent crime, property crime, and white-collar crime—in the previous edition into one chapter. I have taken seriously the argument of several recent critics (Bader, Becker, and Desmond, 1996; Kunkel, 1999) that courses on deviance spend too much time discussing issues and especially topics that are covered in a criminology course. Insofar as it is possible, I have avoided engaging in such repetition and have kept my discussion of criminal behavior to a minimum. Of course, where concepts and theories overlap, there is no avoiding duplication.

During the months prior to completing this revision, I sent out a request for a copy of a course syllabus on deviance to all the persons listed in the American Sociological Association's Biographical Directory of Members for 1997-1998 who designated themselves as having a specialty in Section 4, Crime, Law, and Deviance. Slightly over 1,000 persons were so listed, although not all, and very possibly a minority, regard deviance as their specialty and/or teach or have taught courses on deviance. I also sent the same request to all authors and editors of books designed to be used in deviance courses and to all instructors of deviance in the sociology department at Stony Brook. I did not expect a substantial response rate; in fact, I received only 100 usable syllabi. (Some responded, but did not enclose—or even have in their possession—syllabi.) I was surprised, however, that most editors and textbook authors did not reply to my request. In any case, clearly, the 100 replies do not represent or reflect the approach or content of all deviance courses taught in American universities. Still, in this edition I tally some of the results of this little inquiry. It gave me a clearer idea of the topics deviance instructors discuss.

I have added a discussion of the use of tobacco as a form of deviance in Chapter 8 on legal drugs. I have simplified the chapter on heterosexual deviances by regarding "sex work" as a conceptual category that encompasses prostitution, pornography, and other sex-for-pay enterprises. I have retained but simplified my distinction between constructionism and positivism, incorporating into Chapter 3 some concepts that are common to each approach. I have retained deviance accounts as a vivid pedagogical device for illuminating key ideas in each chapter. Most of the personal accounts that appear in this edition are new, and at least one account appears at the end of each chapter.

Each time I encounter or simply think about the argument that the sociological study of deviance is "dead," that it was necessary to write "an obituary" for the field (Sumner, 1994), 1 marvel at the sheer stultifying stupidity of the argument. No more alive field has ever existed, in sociology or any other discipline.

I would like to thank all the contributors of the personal accounts that appear at the end of each chapter; the instructors of deviance courses who sent me one or more copies of their syllabi; Gary Marker for helping me with the section on the Old Believers; Mary Ann Chaisson for commenting on the section on AIDS; Nachman Ben-Yehuda for his all-around help; and Gerald Davison, John Neale, Alphonse Sallett, Marvin Scott, William J. Goode, Barbara Weinstein, and Ron Weitzer. I would also like to thank the following reviewers: William R. Faulkner, Western Illinois University; Vickie Jensen, California State University-Northridge; Nick Larsen, Chapman University; and Victor N. Shaw, California State University-Northridge. Most of all, I'd like to thank the researchers who investigate and the authors who write about this lively and fascinating topic of deviance. Take my word for it: This field is not going to expire any time soon.

Erich Goode

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Table of Contents

IN THIS SECTION:

1.) BRIEF

2.) COMPREHENSIVE

BRIEF TABLE OF CONTENTS:

Chapter 1 Introduction

Chapter 2 Explaining Deviant Behavior: Positivist Theories

Chapter 3 Constructionist Perspectives of Deviance

Chapter 4 Studying Deviance: Research Methods

Chapter 5 Criminal Behavior: An Introduction

Chapter 6 Violence

Chapter 7 Alcohol Abuse

Chapter 8 Illicit Drug Use

Chapter 9 Sexual Deviance

Chapter 10 Deviant Organizational Behavior

Chapter 11 Cognitive Deviance: Unconventional Beliefs

Chapter 12 Mental Disorder

Chapter 13 Physical Characteristics as Deviance

COMPREHENSIVE TABLE OF CONTENTS:


Chapter1 Introduction

Deviance in Everyday Life

So, What Is Deviance?

Societal and Situational Deviance

The ABCs of Deviance

Deviant Behavior

Deviant Attitudes and Beliefs

Physical Characteristics

Tribe, Race, Religion and Nation

Chart 1.1 Goffman’s Typology of Stigma/Deviance

Relativity

Deviance: Essentialism and Constructionism

Summary

Account: Clinical Depression

Questions

Chapter 2 Explaining Deviant Behavior: Positivist Theories

Deviant Behavior: Why Do They Do It?

Free Will, Rational Calculation, and Routine Activities Theory

Social Disorganization and the Chicago School

Anomie or Strain Theory

Anomie Theory into the 1990s and Beyond

Differential Association and Learning Theory

The General Theory of Crime: Social Control Theory

Summary

Account: A Computer Pirate Tells His Story

Questions

Chapter 3 Constructionist Perspectives of Deviance

Constructionist Approaches to Deviance: An Introduction

Deviance and Social Control

Formal and Informal Social Control

Perspectives that Focus on Defining Deviance

Labeling or Interactionist Theory

Conflict Theory

Feminism

Controlology or the New Sociology of Social Control

Summary

Account: Cody, the Identity-Constructing Homosexual

Questions

Chapter 4 Studying Deviance: Research Methods

The Use of Official Data

Survey Research

Participant Observation

Narratives, Autobiographies, Life Histories, and Personal Accounts

Ethical Issues in the Study of Deviance: Tearoom Sex, a Case Study

Summary

Account: Field Experiment: Two Guys Holding Hands in Public, Steven Clayton

Questions

Chapter 5 Criminal Behavior: An Introduction

Crime and Deviance: A Conceptual Distinction

Common Law and Statutory Law

What Is Our Mission? Construction versus Positivism

The Uniform Crime Reports

Violent Crime

Table 5.1 The FBI’s Index Crimes, 1991-2007

Property Crime

Property Crime as Deviance

Shoplifting and Employee Theft

Discrepancies

Summary

Account: Omar’s Story

Questions

Chapter 6 Violence

Murder

Forcible Rape

Robbery

Summary

Account: Having a Deviant Father

Questions

Chapter 7 Alcohol Abuse

Alcohol: An Introduction

Who Drinks? Who Doesn’t?

Alcohol: Essentialism versus Constructionism

Acute Effects of Alcohol: A (Mainly) Essentialistic Introduction

Alcohol Consumption: Death on the Highway

Alcohol and Violence: An Introduction

Alcohol and Violence: The International Picture

Table 7-1 Top 20 Countries, Per Capita Alcohol Consumption

Table 7-2 Top 32 Countries, Per Capita Rate of Criminal Homicide

Alcohol and Murder: The Crime Drop in America?

Table 7-3 Homicide Rate by Per Capita Alcohol Consumption, 1950-2007

Alcohol and Murder: Individual Comparisons

Alcohol Consumption and Sexual Victimization

Alcohol and Drug Use

Table 7-4 Illicit Drug Use in Past Month by Alcohol Use in Past Month

Table 7-5 Use of Illicit Drugs in Past Month by Use of Alcohol and Cigarettes in

Past Month

Table 7-6 Alcohol and Illicit Drug Use, 8th, 10th, and 12th Graders

Summary

Boxed Insert: A WHO Report on Alcohol Use and Unsafe Sex

Account: Harry, The Debonair Drinker

Questions

Chapter 8 Illicit Drug Use

Drug Use: The Social Construction of a Social Problem

What is Drug Use?

A Classification of Drugs and Their Effects

Table 8.1 A Classification of Psychoactive Drugs, with Examples

Marijuana Use in the United States, 1960-2007

Marijuana Use as Deviance and Crime

Hallucinogenic Drugs

Cocaine and Crack

Heroin and the Narcotics

Methamphetamine

Summary

Account: Smoking Marijuana

Questions

Chapter 9 Sexual Deviance

What’s Deviant about Sexual Behavior?

Essentialism versus Constructionism

Homosexuality

Table 9.1 Attitudes on Homosexuality, 1982-2008/2009

Sex Work

Extramarital Sex

Gender: The Crucial Ingredient

Summary

Account: Bondage and Discipline Sex

Questions

Chapter 10 Deviant Organizational Behavior

White-Collar and Corporate Crime

Corporate Crime: Correlative Features

Boxed Insert: Four Recent Examples of Corporate Deviance

Was the 2008 Financial Crisis a Form of Deviance at All?

Police Use of Excessive Force

The Sexual Abuse of Children by Roman Catholic Priests

Summary

Account: Employee Pilferage

Questions

Chapter 11 Cognitive Deviance: Unconventional Beliefs

The Social Functions of Belief Systems

Religious Sects and Cults

Creationism, Intelligent Design, and Evolution

Paranormal Beliefs as Deviant

Summary

Account: The Belief That Extraterrestrials Are on Earth

Questions

Chapter 12 Mental Disorder

What Is Mental Disorder?

Models of Mental Disorder

Essentialism Approaches Mental Disorder

Constructionism

Labeling Theory

The Modified Labeling Approach

Boxed Insert: On Being Sane in Insane Places

The Epidemiology of Mental Disorder

Chemical Treatment of Mental Disorder

Boxed Insert: Deinstitutionalization

Deviance and Mental Disorder: An Overview

Summary

Account: Interview with Anna-Maria, a Manic-Depressive

Questions

Chapter 13 Physical Characteristics as Deviance

Abominations of the Body: An Introduction

Physical Disability

Conformity to and Violations of Esthetic Standards

Body Modification as Physical Deviance

Obesity

Freaks

Disability and Tertiary Deviance

Summary

Account: Jan, the Transitioning Transsexual

Questions

References

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Preface

PREFACE:

PREFACE

I have made a substantial number of revisions in this edition of Deviant Behavior. Aside from the usual updating, I have added several entirely new chapters, compressed others, expanded still others, and deleted or added many sections. I agree with Adler and Adler (2000, p. 8): The subject matter of the field is the "ABCs" of deviance. What the concept of the sociology of deviance encompasses is Attitudes (or beliefs), Behavior, and Characteristics (or traits), including those that are strictly physical. I disagree with Polsky (1998, pp. 202-203), who argues that the study of behavior or conditions that are "not an individual's fault" is off-limits, that is, that we are confined to studying behavior that is regarded as immoral and more or less freely chosen, for which the person designated as deviant can be "blamed" for engaging in. As I show, the social consequences of possessing involuntarily acquired characteristics are often very similar to those that flow from "immoral" behavior.

Hence, in this edition, I have added a chapter on physical deviance, or what Goffman (1963, p. 4) referred to as "abominations of the body—the various physical deformities," which includes violations of aesthetic norms and disability. In that chapter, I forcefully argue that we sociologists should regard non-normative physical characteristics as a form of deviance.

In addition (again, taking my cue from the Adlers' "ABCs of deviance"), I have added a chapter on deviant belief systems, including religious, political, and paranormal beliefs. While the line between beliefs and behavior is notalwaysconceptually or theoretically easy to draw, we sociologists should reserve a place for deviant beliefs in our thinking. It is possible that, in the history of the world, more people have been punished for unconventional beliefs than for deviant behavior.

I have also compressed what were the three chapters on crime—violent crime, property crime, and white-collar crime—in the previous edition into one chapter. I have taken seriously the argument of several recent critics (Bader, Becker, and Desmond, 1996; Kunkel, 1999) that courses on deviance spend too much time discussing issues and especially topics that are covered in a criminology course. Insofar as it is possible, I have avoided engaging in such repetition and have kept my discussion of criminal behavior to a minimum. Of course, where concepts and theories overlap, there is no avoiding duplication.

During the months prior to completing this revision, I sent out a request for a copy of a course syllabus on deviance to all the persons listed in the American Sociological Association's Biographical Directory of Members for 1997-1998 who designated themselves as having a specialty in Section 4, Crime, Law, and Deviance. Slightly over 1,000 persons were so listed, although not all, and very possibly a minority, regard deviance as their specialty and/or teach or have taught courses on deviance. I also sent the same request to all authors and editors of books designed to be used in deviance courses and to all instructors of deviance in the sociology department at Stony Brook. I did not expect a substantial response rate; in fact, I received only 100 usable syllabi. (Some responded, but did not enclose—or even have in their possession—syllabi.) I was surprised, however, that most editors and textbook authors did not reply to my request. In any case, clearly, the 100 replies do not represent or reflect the approach or content of all deviance courses taught in American universities. Still, in this edition I tally some of the results of this little inquiry. It gave me a clearer idea of the topics deviance instructors discuss.

I have added a discussion of the use of tobacco as a form of deviance in Chapter 8 on legal drugs. I have simplified the chapter on heterosexual deviances by regarding "sex work" as a conceptual category that encompasses prostitution, pornography, and other sex-for-pay enterprises. I have retained but simplified my distinction between constructionism and positivism, incorporating into Chapter 3 some concepts that are common to each approach. I have retained deviance accounts as a vivid pedagogical device for illuminating key ideas in each chapter. Most of the personal accounts that appear in this edition are new, and at least one account appears at the end of each chapter.

Each time I encounter or simply think about the argument that the sociological study of deviance is "dead," that it was necessary to write "an obituary" for the field (Sumner, 1994), 1 marvel at the sheer stultifying stupidity of the argument. No more alive field has ever existed, in sociology or any other discipline.

I would like to thank all the contributors of the personal accounts that appear at the end of each chapter; the instructors of deviance courses who sent me one or more copies of their syllabi; Gary Marker for helping me with the section on the Old Believers; Mary Ann Chaisson for commenting on the section on AIDS; Nachman Ben-Yehuda for his all-around help; and Gerald Davison, John Neale, Alphonse Sallett, Marvin Scott, William J. Goode, Barbara Weinstein, and Ron Weitzer. I would also like to thank the following reviewers: William R. Faulkner, Western Illinois University; Vickie Jensen, California State University-Northridge; Nick Larsen, Chapman University; and Victor N. Shaw, California State University-Northridge. Most of all, I'd like to thank the researchers who investigate and the authors who write about this lively and fascinating topic of deviance. Take my word for it: This field is not going to expire any time soon.

Erich Goode

Read More Show Less

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  • Anonymous

    Posted January 15, 2014

    This is a very excellent product.

    This is a very excellent product.

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