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The Devil and Mr. Casement: One Man's Battle for Human Rights in South America's Heart of Darkness / Edition 1

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Overview

In September 1910, the activist Roger Casement arrived in the Amazon jungle on a mission for the British government: to investigate reports of widespread human-rights abuses in the forests along the Putumayo River. Casement was outraged by what he uncovered: nearly thirty thousand Indians had died to produce four thousand tons of rubber for Peruvian and British commercial interests, under the brutal rubber baron Julio César Arana. In 1912, Casement’s seven-hundred-page report of the Putumayo violence set off reverberations throughout the world. Drawing on a wealth of original research, The Devil and Mr. Casement is a haunting story of modern capitalism with enormous contemporary political resonance.

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Editorial Reviews

From the Publisher
“Written with detail and care…The Devil and Mr. Casement tells an important story….A valuable addition to the histories of Western exploitation at the beginning of the twentieth century.” —The Boston Globe

“A fine and meticulous book…adds to Casement’s reputation as a pioneer of the human rights movement’s tactics, including the on-the-spot investigation, and the leveraging of public outrage to spur reform.” Greg Grandin, The New York Times Book Review

“With vivid touches of imagination and humor, Goodman captures the drama and paradox of Casement’s varied life.” The New Yorker

“Goodman motors the pace and stokes suspense with cliff-hanger chapter endings and a dramatic courtroom trial….The Devil and Mr. Casement is delicately presented less as a tale of atrocities than as one of all-too-familiar corporate greed, diplomatic red tape, conflicting politics, and the shifting influence of the West in South America.” The Miami Herald

“A fast-paced account of [a] groundbreaking effort to hold corporations accountable for their misdeeds, as well as a detailed portrait of Casement.” Mother Jones

“Goodman’s journalistic narrative is a reminder of the devastation that greed can cause and the good work that can be done by a few good men.” Shepherd Express (Milwaukee)

Greg Grandin
Goodman's book adds to Casement's reputation as a pioneer of the human rights movement's tactics, including the on-the-spot investigation, the gathering of victims' testimony and the leveraging of public outrage to spur reform…a fine and meticulous book…
—The New York Times
The New Yorker
With vivid touches of imagination and humor, Goodman captures the drama and paradox of Casement's varied life.
Publishers Weekly
Goodman (The Rattlesnake), an honorary research associate at London's Wellcome Trust Centre for the History of Medicine, chronicles the dangerous 1910s quest of British activist Roger Casement to publicize the human rights abuses against local Indians by brutal Peruvian rubber baron Julio César Arana's Peruvian Amazon Company. British envoy Casement's 700-plus–page report on the mass violence and deaths of 30,000 natives to produce an international rubber surplus was published by the House of Commons, and Arana's empire was eventually dismantled, but not before economic and political pressures were used to threaten Casement and Britain's global colonial policy as well. The book is most fascinating when detailing Arana's bold skirmishes with Casement in the media and in the courts. Well researched and exquisitely told, Goodman's account of one brave man bringing down a cruel business empire is worthy of attention. 8 pages of b&w illus.(Feb.)
Kirkus Reviews
Thorough account of a major human-rights atrocity of the early 20th century and the man who exposed it. In 1909, at the request of Parliament, British consul and activist Roger Casement began investigating rubber trader Julio Cesar Arana's operations along the Putumayo River in Peru's Amazon Basin. Already an international hero for an earlier report on King Leopold's mistreatment of indigenous people in the Congo Free State, Casement now revealed that Arana's Peruvian Amazon Company, a British firm, had enslaved and committed horrible acts of violence against Peruvians Indians, who were forced to extract latex from trees for the lucrative rubber market. Some 30,000 Indians died in what Casement called a "crime against humanity." In an unusually thorough investigation, Casement twice visited rubber stations on the Putumayo, interviewing British citizens recruited to work with the indigenous population, and viewing the stocks used to punish Indians who did not meet quotas. In this brightly written book, historian Goodman (The Rattlesnake: A Voyage of Discovery to the Coral Sea, 2005, etc.), re-creates every aspect of the "abysmal horror of the Putumayo," showing how Casement, a great believer in "a gentler humanity," worked with the help of the House of Commons, the British newspaper Truth, a courageous Westminster Abbey preacher and human-rights activists to expose Arana's exploitations. Arana expressed astonishment at the charges, liquidated his company and continued business as usual for some years. No one was ever held accountable for the forced-labor operation, and Parliament could find no way to legislate against the same thing happening in the future. Peru and the United States,with its vested interest in the region, took no action. Knighted for his Peru report, Casement then began pursuing his fervor for Irish independence, even urging Germany in 1914 to support the cause in the event of its victory in World War I. He was tried and hanged for treason in 1916. An incisive rendering of an important episode in the ongoing battle for the rights of individuals. Agent: Will Francis/Janklow & Nesbit
The Barnes & Noble Review

It is a comforting custom to believe all grand-scale human atrocities are in the past. The Nazi-perpetrated Holocaust could never happen now; the tortured deaths of three million Congolese under Belgian rule occurred in some quaint nether-time. Likewise, the story at the center of The Devil and Mr. Casement, the historian Jordan Goodman's detailed account of how the chief whistle-blower of the Congo crimes shortly thereafter uncovered similar butchery in Peru's Amazon, is hardly imaginable in our time. Hardly, indeed.

Goodman's first need in telling his tale of "South America's heart of darkness" is to set the larger scene for the dark horrors that ended in the enslavement and deaths of thirty thousand Indians in exchange for the production of 4,000 tons of rubber, and this he does by charting the blazing ascendance of the automobile in the first decade of the last century. In 1900, fewer than 5,000 cars were built in the U.S.; by 1910, some 458,500 motor vehicles of various types were registered here. All of them, as well as much of the multiplying machinery that was transforming society, had vast appetites for rubber. What more desirable way (from the robber barons' point of view) to fill that need than to force a voiceless and practically invisible indigenous population to produce the commodity? A brilliant idea; with no need to pay a workforce, western-controlled interests such as the Peruvian Amazon Company could rake in pure profit. Of course, it dripped with blood. But with no oversight -- these were "savages," after all, their homeland so deep in a treacherous territory that the civilized whites (or even the natives' own newly formed governments) preferred notto venture there -- capitalist Don't Ask, Don't Tell policies could successfully perfume any stink with the glorious smell of wealth.

What they did not take into account was one man fired with determination to find the truth. One Roger Casement, "the most experienced and most universally lauded investigator of human rights abuses of his day," who as the British Foreign Office's consul in the Congo Free State had single-handedly torn the veil from King Leopold's systematic brutalities in Africa, causing an international furor that led to the relinquishment of the monarch's private holdings. Casement was the de facto captain of the nascent human-rights movement, and the South American Indians were in need of an army.

In 1908 the Peruvian Amazon Company was formed by Julio Cesar Arana, already the country's largest rubber exporter. The new enterprise, however, expressed his desire to be a sort of emperor of commerce, and so it was registered in London -- his first mistake -- and incorporated with capital of one million pounds. Arana's second mistake was to employ natives of Barbados, a British colony; now he was fully open to legal scrutiny by England. When by happenstance an American youth working in Peru brought to a newspaper tales of what he had seen in some jungle outposts of Arana's company -- unimaginable torture of natives who had been captured and forced to collect insupportable weights of rubber from wild trees; children brutalized; women raped; all starved and worked to death, flogged and put in stocks if they did not meet their quotas -- the ultimate downfall of this devil was put into motion. Slow motion, for it took years of investigation and predictable resistance by bureaucrats, politicians, and businessmen; but with a man as driven as Casement was by the need to expose what he termed "brigandage" and "a system of armed extortion," the end was assured.

The path to that end was cleared by the machete bearers of the press, the story first brought to light by news organs in South America, then by a publication enticingly entitled Truth (one wishes such naïve aspiration could fly in today's world of the commercially entangled Fourth Estate).

Goodman tells the tale without embroidery -- it needs none, because the facts are already beyond imagining -- and largely without commentary. He allows it to simply unfold, revealing that which we would do well to remember: without courageous outsiders to keep ripping down the curtains, all manner of criminality can be hidden in plain sight by mercantile enterprises that are highly motivated to employ relentlessly clever tactics (in this instance, using pre-existing tribal rivalries to the company's advantage by arming one hostile tribe and allowing them to do the subduing of their enemies; given the means of power, those bent on brutality toward others will become great students of method).

Around the midpoint of the book, the backstory is finally dispatched, all of it necessary to comprehend the complex international situations that could give encouragement to these horrific possibilities. From here, Casement's investigation, and its subsequent presentation to the authorities in London, attains a propulsive narrative force. And that is when the reader finds that one amazing story has been enfolded by another: the incredibly sickening chronicle of a population's enslavement and murder for the purposes of financial gain is wrapped around the personal story of a vaunted, moral crusader for human rights who bizarrely falls so far from grace that he himself is put to death by his own government.

That is because Roger Casement, a man who received the gratitude of Great Britain in the form of a knighthood, was an Irishman, and, being too well versed in the cost of "crimes against humanity," a phrase he coined, he could hardly be insensitive to the sufferings of his own countrymen. Five years after he became Sir Roger, he was sentenced to be hanged. His crime was high treason (exacerbated by the crime of homosexuality), for running arms to the Ulster Volunteers. He himself needed a Roger Casement to come to his aid.

As did the people of the Amazon once more, when in 1963 Texaco arrived in the same area of the Putumayo that had already suffered so much, this time to take the land itself. "Although Texaco had moved on by the 1970s, the pollution remained," Goodman writes in the epilogue, "ruining the rivers as sources of food and water. The Indians are still victims of pollution, deforestation, and the drug trade."

As this necessary and plainspoken book shows, the happy consumers of the early twentieth century, motoring about to their picnics and parties, silk scarves flying, rolled on death. The implications are obvious for the early twenty-first century's happy consumers of cheap t-shirts at Walmart, cheap meat at the grocery, cheap gas at the pump. We want what we want, so long as the suffering stays hidden. And, mirabile dictu, it usually does.

--Melissa Holbrook Pierson

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780312680589
  • Publisher: Picador
  • Publication date: 2/1/2011
  • Edition description: First Edition
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 336
  • Sales rank: 848,257
  • Product dimensions: 5.60 (w) x 8.50 (h) x 1.00 (d)

Meet the Author

JORDAN GOODMAN has been a professional historian for thirty years and is Honorary Research Associate at the Wellcome Trust Centre for the History of Medicine at University College, London. His last book was The Rattlesnake (Faber, 2005).

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Read an Excerpt

PART ONE

1

ACROSS THE ANDES

On October 1, 1907, twenty-one-year-old Walter Hardenburg, who was working on the construction of the Colombian Pacific Railroad, and his fellow American workmate, Walter Perkins, three years his elder, set out from the construction site at Buenaventura on the Pacific coast of Colombia for the adventure of a lifetime.

Hardenburg and Perkins had been offered better positions to work on the Madeira-Mamoré Railway, an ambitious project designed to bypass the unnavigable Madeira River in the western part of the Brazilian Amazon in order to transport rubber from northern Bolivia to the Amazonian port of Manaus.

Rather than getting to the site by the normal sea and river route, Hardenburg and Perkins decided to make an adventure of their relocation by going overland across the Andes and into Amazonia. Those few Europeans who had made this journey recommended that the best way to get to the Amazon from Colombia was to travel south to Quito in Ecuador, cross the Andes there, and, once on the eastern slopes of the Andes, join the Napo River and follow its course until it met the Amazon northeast of the Peruvian town of Iquitos. Hardenburg and Perkins started to follow this recommendation, but at some point on their way south through Colombia, for reasons that have gone un-recorded, they changed their minds and opted for the much-less-frequented route of crossing the Andes in southern Colombia and following the Putumayo River from its source high in the Colombian Andes to its confluence with the Amazon more than a thousand miles to the southeast.

It was a foolhardy and dangerous decision. The map they had with them was large-scale and showed only the general course of the country’s main rivers, and all the advice they got should have put them off their chosen route. In the southern Colombian town of Pasto, the last sizable settlement in that part of the country, from where the pair would make their final crossing of the Andes and begin their descent into Amazonia, no one they met in their first days there could even tell them where the Putumayo was; and the one person they found who did know the river warned them not to go, for "if by chance [they] escaped the cannibal Indians who inhabit its banks, [they] would certainly fall victims to the deadly fevers which reign there continuously." To make matters worse, Hardenburg and Perkins also learned from General Pablo Monroy, a senior military officer who had been there himself, that about halfway down the river’s course, where the Caraparaná, a major tributary, flowed into the Putumayo, they would be entering a kind of no-man’s-land, an area whose ownership was disputed by both Colombia and Peru. After more than fifty years of argument and protest, General Monroy told the pair, the two countries had recently agreed to a modus vivendi, to withdraw their garrisons and military authorities from the region to their respective lines while negotiations about the future of the region continued. Still, the general didn’t think the Peruvians were abiding by the agreement.

But it was not all bad news, for Hardenburg and Perkins also learned from another source that they would not need to paddle all the way to the Amazon. About five hundred miles downriver, at a place called El Encanto, where the Caraparaná met the Putumayo, they would be able to catch a launch to Iquitos, from where they could continue their journey to the railroad construction site in Brazil. It would save them weeks of effort.

With this piece of encouragement, despite the warnings to the contrary, the intrepid pair pressed on with their decision and spent three days in Pasto buying supplies, both for themselves and to trade, that would last them two months. It was a bewildering collection of material, from hats to knives, brightly colored shirts, harmonicas, fish-hooks, and food. As Hardenburg himself put it, "When we finally got all our purchases together, we found that we had goods enough to set up a shop and our room was so crowded with them that we had hardly space enough to turn in."

Crossing the most easterly of the Andean peaks proved to be much more difficult than the whole journey until that point, and the 150 miles they traveled until they reached the first navigable point on the Putumayo River took them as long as it had taken them to get from Buenaventura to Pasto. Still, they had made it so far without mishap, and on December 1, 1907, Hardenburg and Perkins, together with their provisions and now accompanied by two local boatmen, one of whom steered from the stern and the other who stood watch in the bow, set off downriver in their newly purchased canoe.

The Putumayo is navigable for most of its length—from the Colombian Andes until it meets the Amazon at Santo Antônio do Içá in the western part of Brazil at about three degrees south. The river has no waterfalls or rapids. It moves along placidly, meandering in long, winding curves. As the current switches from one bank to the other, the river becomes very wide in places and relatively shallow. This same action creates sand islands in the middle and on both sides. The forest teems with wildlife, both large and small—tapirs, peccaries (wild pigs), and capybaras (large rodents resembling guinea pigs) are especially numerous and provide excellent game—while the river is abundantly stocked with fish.

For the first few days every thing went splendidly. Hardenburg and Perkins must have congratulated themselves on their decision to venture onto the Putumayo River. "What a pleasant sensation it was," wrote Hardenburg, "to sit calmly in the canoe, while the swift current bore us steadily onwards, and to watch the thick, tropical vegetation, which lined the banks of the stream, swiftly recede until hidden from view by a bend of the river! How different it was from the monotonous climbing and descending of the Andes that had caused us so much toil!"

The banks of the river were alive with wild turkeys, ducks, and monkeys; flocks of parrots flew by at great speed while the forest resounded with the squeals and howls of invisible creatures. There was no shortage of fresh provisions—wild turkeys and monkeys in particular. The only problem was getting a good shot from the canoe, which wasn’t easy.

But then, no more than four days into the journey downriver, the two boatmen decided that they would go no farther, and they ran away. Bad people, they warned, lived beyond.

Hardenburg and Perkins had no choice but to go it alone. So, on December 7—Perkins in the stern, perched on his high seat, and Hardenburg, eyes peeled in the bow—the two adventurers set off downriver. The next day, crossing the equator, the pair celebrated with a good stiff glass of aguardiente. Later the same day they stopped at a tiny settlement ("eight or ten little bamboo huts"), where the chief told them they were very brave to make the trip alone.

For the next two weeks Hardenburg and Perkins worked their way toward the Putumayo’s confluence with the Caraparaná, and they experienced every thing the tropics could throw at them: "suffocating heat, and not a breath of air—our thirst was astounding." They battled outbreaks of fever, ran out of fresh food, and suffered unexpected risings and fallings of river levels, which on more than one occasion left them stranded on a sandbank with nothing to do but wait for the river to rise again. They were attacked by gnats and mosquitoes whenever they weren’t attempting to find shelter from bouts of torrential rain. Apart from one occasion when they ran into a band of Indians returning from a hunt, and another when they were startled by a three-man detachment of Colombian police returning to Pasto from the Caraparaná, they never saw another human being in the jungle.

On the afternoon of December 22 they spotted a house, which turned out to belong to a Colombian rubber trader, Jesús López. López alerted them to what lay ahead and told them more about the political situation.

Hardenburg and Perkins already knew, from what General Monroy had told them in Pasto, that the ownership of the area around the Caraparaná was disputed by Colombia and Peru, and that a modus vivendi was officially in place between the two countries. López warned them that the Peruvians, in clear contravention of the agreement, were harassing and violently expelling Colombian settlers. These acts, López added, were being carried out by the Peruvian military, but behind the scenes a firm calling itself the Peruvian Amazon Rubber Company was calling the shots. It was the company’s intention, maintained López, to get hold of all the Colombian concessions, by whatever means possible.

Colombian rubber traders had been working their way down the Putumayo since the 1890s, and by the turn of the century they had reached the area bounded by the Igaraparaná River on the east and the Caraparaná River on the west. The farther they came downriver, the farther they found themselves from the nearest Colombian town, at the same time getting closer to Iquitos, the nearest Peruvian town, which had vastly more resources than its Colombian counterpart. At one time, there had been dozens of Colombian rubber stations in this area, but by the time Hardenburg and Perkins were on the Putumayo, only three remained, the rest having been taken over by the Peruvian Amazon Rubber Company.

López told them not to take the launch from El Encanto to Iquitos and suggested a safer, alternative route. He recommended that they aim for Remolino, five days farther down the river and the site of another Colombian post. From there they could travel overland to the Napo River farther to the south, which would take them to a point where it flowed into the Amazon just above Iquitos. There was regular traffic on the Amazon where the Napo joined it, and they would find it easy to get to Iquitos this way, which would also avoid the trouble between the Peruvian and Colombian factions on the Caraparaná.

Hardenburg and Perkins saw the sense in López’s advice, and the combination of incessant rain and persistent attacks by gnats had brought to an end their initial romance with the Putumayo. At Remolino they would be able to sell their canoe, which, López promised, would be easy—Antonio Ordoñez, a Colombian who collected rubber at a place called La Unión on the Caraparaná and who used Remolino as his shipping post for Iquitos, would certainly buy it.

On December 30 Hardenburg and Perkins reached Remolino, intending to bid the Putumayo farewell and be in Iquitos shortly. But Ordoñez was away on a rubber-collecting excursion. Hardenburg left Perkins to wait with the canoe and traveled alone to La Unión, hoping to find Ordoñez. When he got there, he could not locate Ordoñez and instead pressed on to another rubber station, a place called La Reserva, where, he was told, there was another rubber trader who could help him out. This time Hardenburg was more fortunate. At La Reserva, a Colombian, David Serrano, a "short, middle-aged, coffee-coloured gentleman," agreed to help Hardenburg and Perkins by buying their canoe and any other goods they were willing to sell. Serrano sent three local guides to find Perkins and bring him and the sale goods back to La Reserva. Serrano instructed the guides to tell Perkins to make his way first to a place called Josa, Serrano’s landing stage on the Putumayo near the mouth of the Caraparaná River, where he could leave the canoe and their personal baggage. The idea was a good one, for the onward route, overland to the Napo River and thence Iquitos, would pass by Josa. Luckily, Serrano needed to go to Iquitos, and he agreed to accompany the Americans to their destination. Things could not have worked out better.

While the guides were away fetching Perkins, Serrano showed Hardenburg around and also told him a harrowing story about his treatment at the hands of the Peruvian Amazon Rubber Company, which had become so powerful recently. About a month earlier, he told Hardenburg, a number of the company’s employees had turned up at his place. They chained him to a tree and, before his appalled eyes, raped his wife, whom they had dragged from the house. These men then helped themselves to his stock of goods and, their business done, returned to their launch, carrying away his wife and their small son. He had not seen either since, though he had learned that his wife had been forced to be a concubine of Miguel Loayza, the manager of the Peruvian Amazon Rubber Company’s station at El Encanto, and that his son was made Loayza’s personal servant.

The outrage against Serrano had come to the attention of Colombian authorities, and one of them, Jesús Orjuela, the newly appointed police inspector for the region, was expected any day. Indeed, no sooner had Serrano’s local guides set off to fetch Perkins than Orjuela, in company with another Colombian, arrived at Serrano’s place. Orjuela expressed confidence that he could come to some agreement with the Peruvian Amazon Rubber Company, and with Miguel Loayza in particular, to make an accommodation with the Colombians in the spirit of the modus vivendi supposedly operating between the two nations.

On January 4, 1908, Perkins and the guides, carrying the sale goods, arrived at Serrano’s. While Perkins dealt with the terms of the sale, Hardenburg decided to accompany Orjuela to El Dorado, another Colombian rubber station downriver, to which Loayza was to be invited for a conference concerning the future relationship between the Peruvians and the Colombians in the region.

A day later the negotiating party set off downriver for El Dorado. While Hardenburg was away, Serrano surprised Perkins by offering to sell him a "half-interest in his establishment at a very low figure—because of his fear of the Peruvians." "I accepted that offer, thinking I would be able to become friends with the authorities and that no objection could be raised. It was my intention," Perkins recalled a few months later, "to settle this matter with Serrano when we reached Iquitos. His business was in gathering wild rubber for which purpose he had about forty Indians." That business concluded, Perkins settled back to wait for Hardenburg’s return.

But the peace was soon shattered. On January 12 a Peruvian gun-boat, the Iquitos, in company with the Liberal, one of the Peruvian Amazon Rubber Company’s steam launches, docked at La Reserva. There were hundreds of soldiers on board the boats. A party of them landed. They were looking for Serrano, but he had fled into the forest, obviously (and understandably) terrified. They ransacked the place and took away the goods in the storehouse and almost two thousand kilos of rubber. In spite of Perkins’s protests, the soldiers imprisoned him on board the Liberal.

It transpired that Serrano’s station, La Reserva, was in fact the second stop for the military operation. Previously they had stopped at La Unión, where the Peruvians had totally overwhelmed the Colombians, killing many of them. All the rubber was stolen, and La Unión itself was burned to the ground.

The gunboat and the Liberal continued downriver to El Encanto. Later that day, at Argelia, between La Reserva and El Dorado, the two boats intercepted the canoe carrying Orjuela and Hardenburg, who were returning to Serrano’s place after a futile attempt at making peace with the Peruvians: despite several attempts to make contact with him, Loayza never turned up for the appointment in El Dorado. Orjuela and Hardenburg were promptly seized and thrown on board the Liberal.

Hardenburg was astonished to find Perkins already imprisoned on the boat. Perkins explained what had happened. Hardenburg now understood why Loayza had ignored invitations to talk. From Argelia, the Liberal and the Iquitos continued downriver but not before stopping at El Dorado, which was promptly destroyed.

At dusk on January 13 the Liberal and the Iquitos docked at the wharf in El Encanto. Hardenburg and Perkins were forced to spend the night on the floor of a small, unlit room. The next day, Loayza told them that they would be going to Iquitos once the Liberal was ready to sail. As for their baggage, still at Josa, Loayza promised to collect it and have it shipped to Iquitos.

Pretending that they were working for a large American syndicate and that any harm to them would reverberate right back to Washington, Hardenburg and Perkins managed to wrangle a concession out of Loayza. Hardenburg, it was decided, would go to Iquitos as Loayza insisted, while Perkins would remain to make sure that Loayza kept his word as far as the baggage was concerned.

On January 17, 1908, the Liberal was ready to go, and Orjuela and Hardenburg were escorted to the boat. Earlier that day, Hardenburg had learned that Gabriel Martínez, the Colombian corregidor (magistrate) for the Putumayo, had been kidnapped on December 20 farther up the Putumayo and had been a prisoner in El Encanto since then. He, too, would be going to Iquitos.

For the next fortnight the Liberal steamed its way toward Iquitos. After leaving El Encanto, the boat reached the mouth of the Igaraparaná, where the Peruvian Amazon Rubber Company had a number of important rubber stations, including its major settlement, La Chorrera. The boat went a short distance upriver to the shipping port of Santa Julia. There it took on firewood, turned around, and continued downriver until it met the Putumayo.

Excerpted from The Devil and Mr. Casement by Jordan Goodman.

Copyright © 2009 by Jordan Goodman.

Published in 2009 by Farrar, Straus and Giroux.

All rights reserved. This work is protected under copyright laws and reproduction is strictly prohibited. Permission to reproduce the material in any manner or medium must be secured from the Publisher.

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Table of Contents

Map ix

Introduction: La Selva Comes To London 3

Part I

1 Across The Andes 17

2 Iquitos And Rubber 26

3 Arana's World 34

4 Saldana Rocca's World 42

Part II

5 Over To The Foreign Office 51

6 An Officer And A Gentleman 60

7 Our Man In The Putumayo 72

8 Eyes of Another Race 86

Part III

9 The Uttermost Parts Of The Earth 101

10 La Chorrera 110

11 Gooforsaken Hell-Haunted Wilds 129

12 A System Of Armed Extortion 135

13 Deus Ex Machina 143

14 The Veil Over The Putumayo Mystery 156

Part IV

15 Publish And Be Damned 173

16 An International Scandal 185

17 The Old Gang 194

Part V

18 The Canon And The Board 205

19 La Selva Returns To Parliament 214

20 The Peruvian, The American, And The Select Committee 229

21 The Devil And Mr. Casement 250

Epilogue: A Crime Against Humanity 263

Dramatis Personae And Chronology 269

Notes On Sources 271

Notes On Illustrations 287

Bibliography 289

Acknowledgments 303

Index 307

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    Statutes of previous rulers line the hall way including a statue of both Saphra and Thorn at the end of the hall.

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