Dialogues: An Argument Rhetoric and Reader / Edition 6

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Overview

This newer concept of argument informs every page of this dramatically revised third edition, now titled Dialogues: An Argument Rhetoric and Reader. Part One of the text demonstrates how students can use the strategies of debate, dialogue, and deliberation to engage meaningfully with people holding diverse viewpoints. In Part Two, Current Dialogues, four major new themes and 17 new subtopics present a multiplicity of viewpoints on various timely topics. New writing assignments after each subtopic ask students to synthesize their understanding of different arguments as they write their own. With 90 percent new readings, this edition of Dialogues represents a substantial revision of argument.

Highlights of Dialogues, Third Edition:

  • Entirely new strategies for debate, dialogue, and deliberation
  • Entirely new Chapter 2, "Reading Arguments: Thinking Like a Critic"
  • Twenty sample arguments for analysis in Part One
  • The latest material on finding and evaluating Internet resources
  • New sample student arguments cited in MLA and APA styles
  • Logical fallacies coverage in Chapter 2 and integrated throughout
  • 90 percent new readings in Part Two
  • Two casebooks on high-interest topics: "Juvenile Crime, Adult Punishment?" and "Teen Parents: Children Having Children?"
  • The Black Freedom Struggle: Arguments That Shaped History": arguments of the civil rights movement on education, nonviolence, equal opportunity, and the effects of the movement today
Read More Show Less

Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780205642762
  • Publisher: Longman
  • Publication date: 8/14/2008
  • Series: Goshgarian Series
  • Edition description: Older Edition
  • Edition number: 6
  • Pages: 816
  • Product dimensions: 6.30 (w) x 9.00 (h) x 1.20 (d)

Read an Excerpt

PREFACE:

Preface

Dialogues: An Argument Rhetoric and Reader (formerly Crossfire) embodies a new approach to reading and writing arguments. It moves students away from the traditional combative model of argument in which writers take opposing stances and attempt to defeat all viewpoints other than their own. Instead, students are encouraged to explore multiple perspectives on a particular topic before forming their own opinions and writing their own arguments. Through a process of debate, dialogue, and deliberation, students learn to investigate diverse opinions, synthesize and respond to the views of others, and carefully evaluate evidence to arrive at an informed position on a particular issue. Students are encouraged to abandon a pro/con, adversarial stance in favor of negotiation and the discovery of shared values among opponents. While we are well aware that not all arguments can be resolved to everyone's satisfaction, we believe that the power of argument can be used most productively when arguers actually listen to the voices of others and respond to them in a thoughtful way. In this book we provide a structure for this dialogue to take place.

Organization of the Book

As the title indicates, the book is divided into two parts. The rhetoric section consists of eight chapters explaining the strategies of reading and writing arguments. The reader section consists of 9 thematic units containing 90 essays— a challenging collection of thought-provoking contemporary and historical arguments.

Part I: Strategies for Reading and Writing Arguments

Our overall goal is to involve students in the process of writingarguments, a multifaceted activity involving careful reading, critical thinking, skillful writing, and thorough research. To this purpose we have organized the first eight chapters to guide students through the stages of argument writing, beginning with an explanation of what an argument is and progressing to the final argument essay. Throughout Part 1 we have included short arguments— 20 essays in all&3151; by professional and student writers to illustrate each chapter's focus and provide opportunities to apply, analyze, and synthesize the major ideas in the chapter. In some chapters, several essays on a particular issue demonstrate diverse ways of writing and thinking about a single topic. Exercises in each chapter reinforce concepts with immediate, hands-on practice.

Chapter 1 offers an overview of argumentation, clarifies key terminology, and introduces the processes of debate, dialogue, and deliberation. Chapter 2 focuses on critical reading, presenting a series of activities designed to help students evaluate arguments and recognize their primary components. An extensive section on testing arguments for logical fallacies ends the chapter. Chapter 3 discusses how to begin writing arguments. It helps students find worthwhile and interesting topics to write about by demonstrating techniques for brainstorming, limiting topics, and formulating claims. Chapter 4 examines the presence of audience, encouraging students to think about the different kinds of readers they may have to address. This chapter suggests ways to evaluate the audience's concerns and strategies to reach different audiences.

Chapter 5 focuses on the organization of the argument essay by analyzing two basic types of arguments— positions and proposals. Outlining is reviewed as a tool to ensure effective organization. Chapter 6 considers the importance of evidence. We demonstrate that the effectiveness of a writer's argument largely depends on how well evidence— facts, testimony, statistics, and observations— is employed to support the writer's ideas. Chapter 7 introduces the socially constructed Toulmin model of logic as a way of testing the premises of the writer's argument. Chapter 8 discusses research strategies, including locating and evaluating print and electronic sources, note-taking tips, and drafting and revising argument essays. The Documentation Guide provides documentation formats for both MLA and APA styles, and two annotated sample student research papers, one in MLA style and the other in APA style.

Part 2: Dialogues

The 90 contemporary and historical essays in the reader offer a wide range of provocative and stimulating selections to get students thinking about controversies that affect their lives, and make them aware of the diversity and complexity of argument. We expect that these readings will generate lively class discussion through shared debate and dialogue.

Seventy-eight of the essays are organized into seven broad thematic chapters: "Gender Matters," "Race and Ethnicity," "Freedom of Expression," "Media Influence," "Individual Rights," "Regulating Relationships," and "The Black Freedom Struggle." Each of these chapters is divided into three or four specific topics whose readings demonstrate both different viewpoints and shared concerns. While most of the readings deal with current controversies, Chapter 17 on the civil rights movement, "The Black Freedom Struggle," presents historical arguments that substantially altered twentieth century American history. In three sections, the chapter examines the controversies surrounding education, violence and nonviolence, and equal opportunity during the civil rights era; a fourth section reflects back from contemporary points of view on the gains and losses of the struggle for African American rights. From the formality of the Supreme Court decision in Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka to the eloquence of James Baldwin to the riveting passion of Malcolm X, the arguments here should inspire students' interest and challenge their assumptions about this important period of American political history.

Twelve readings comprise our casebooks on juvenile crime and teen parents, two subjects of particular interest to college students. Each casebook provides students with the opportunity to explore the subject in depth through extensive readings, discussion questions, collaborative exercises, writing assignments, and research opportunities. Many suggestions for using Web resources help ensure that students have access to the most current information about these rapidly evolving issues.

Study Apparatus

To help students become actively engaged with the readings and the issues, we have included a variety of apparatus throughout the text. Each chapter in Part 2 opens with an introduction explaining the chapter theme and underscoring the importance of the essays and the rationale behind their selection. An introduction to each essay provides a context for the reading and pertinent biographical information about the writer. "Before You Read" and "As You Read" questions guide students before and during the actual reading process. Following each essay are "For Analysis and Discussion" questions designed to stimulate thinking about the content, logic, and organization of the essay and the strategies of the writer. At the end of each section of readings, several writing assignments encourage students to synthesize their ideas about the essays, deliberate about their own ideas, and undertake further research and writing. In the casebooks on juvenile crime and teen parenting, each reading is also followed by more extensive opportunities to explore the topic by conducting interviews and surveys, visiting both Web sites and community facilities, and investigating additional reference sources. Finally, the Glossary of Rhetorical Terms defines terminology used throughout the text.

New to This Edition

While the second edition of Crossfire was a successful text, we knew that it was time for a change if we wanted our book to reflect the most current research being done in composition studies. To do this, we invited a new author on board, Janet Barnett Minc, a professor of English at The University of Akron-Wayne College, who brought her extensive teaching experience and research in the fields of composition and argument to the task of revision. As a result of her work, Crossfire shifted its emphasis away from a pro/con model to a new paradigm that acknowledges more effectively the complexity of argument. The revisions were so dramatic that the former title was no longer relevant to the text. Dialogues tells the story of our new focus on finding common ground, listening and responding to those who hold different views, and carefully deliberating about these multiple perspectives before arriving at a position.

This third edition also reflects the insights and suggestions of many of the instructors and students who used the second edition of Crossfire. We have left those features that people found most useful unchanged, and we have tried to make careful revisions where improvement was needed. Here are some of the major changes in this new edition:

The Rhetoric

  • "Debate, dialogue, and deliberation" is presented as a process for evaluating and building arguments through comparing and synthesizing diverse viewpoints. This approach emphasizes listening and responding to the arguments of others and investigating multiple perspectives on an issue to arrive at an informed position.
  • New Chapter 2, "Reading Arguments: Thinking like a Critic," takes students step by step through the process of critical reading and reflection, from previewing and skimming a reading, through annotating and summarizing, to analyzing, evaluating, and arguing with a reading.
  • The coverage of logical fallacies has been expanded, making it an essential part of Chapter 2 on critical reading and integrating it throughout the rest of the rhetoric. The number of readings in the rhetoric has doubled. Twenty sample arguments— 18 of them new— provide examples of important strategies in argument writing and give students practice in analyzing arguments. In addition, thematically connected essays allow students to compare different strategies and approaches to the same topic.
  • Chapter 7, "Establishing Claims: Thinking like a Skeptic" has been revised to clarify the Toulmin model and to provide more effective examples for class discussion and analysis.
  • New sections on using Internet sources in Chapter 8, "Researching Arguments: Thinking like an Investigator," detail specific information and examples of searching for, locating, and evaluating relevant electronic sources. Three Web sites are analyzed and compared to demonstrate how to determine the research value of information found on the Web.
  • Examples of documentation using electronic sources have been updated and expanded in the "Documentation Guide: MLA and APA," which follows Chapter 8. The "Documentation Guide" now includes new sample student research papers in MLA and APA styles, annotated to highlight important documentation issues.
The Reader
  • Part Two now includes 90 readings (increased from 69 in our second edition) with 81 essays new to this edition.
  • Four new major themes include topics of current national interest as well as examples of classic arguments:

    "Media Influence" includes subthemes on the persuasive language of advertising (including three sample advertisements), the credibility of TV news, and movie and TV violence.
    "Individual Rights" examines physician-assisted suicide, the right to privacy, and drug testing of students.
    "Regulating Relationships" discusses same-sex marriage, sexual harassment, and adoption.
    "The Black Freedom Struggle" includes arguments on four themes: education, violence and nonviolence, equal opportunity, and contemporary reflections on the civil rights movement.

  • Two new casebooks— "Juvenile Crime, Adult Punishment?" and "Teen Parents: Children Having Children?"— provide students with the opportunity to explore the issues in depth through research, class activities, and writing assignments.
  • Suggestions for writing assignments follow each section of essays, helping students synthesize their own and the authors' ideas and directing them toward further research, including sources on the Internet.
Read More Show Less

Table of Contents

Preface.

I. STRATEGIES FOR READING AND WRITING ARGUMENTS.

1. Understanding Persuasion: Thinking Like a Negotiator.
Argument.
What Makes an Argument.
The Uses of Argument.
Debate.
Moving from Debate to Dialogue.
Dialogue.
Deliberation.
"Taking a 'War of Words' Too Literally," by Deborah Tannen.
Sample Arguments for Analysis.
“The Case Against Tipping,” by Michael Lewis.
“The Consequences of 'Carnage as Entertainment,'” by John Ellis
Exercises.

2. Reading Arguments: Thinking Like a Critic.
Why Read Critically?
Preview the Reading.
Skim the Reading.
Sample Argument for Analysis.
“Binge Drinking Must Be Stopped,” by Henry Wechsler.
Consider Your Own Experience.
Annotate the Reading.
Summarize the Reading.
Analyze and Evaluate the Reading.
Argue with the Reading.
Create a Debate and Dialogue Between Two or More Readings.
Sample Argument for Analysis.
“Child Care for College Students,” by Froma Harrop.
Construct a Debate.
Sample Arguments for Analysis.
“Letter to the Editor” from the Washington Post, by Kathryn Stewart and Corina Sole.
“Letter to the Editor” from the Times-Picayune, James C. Carter, S.J.
Deliberate about the Readings.
Look for Logical Fallacies.
Exercises.

3. Finding Arguments: Thinking Like a Writer.
The Writing Process.
Finding Topics to Argue.
Developing ArgumentativeTopics.
Refining Topics.
Exercises.

4. Addressing Audiences: Thinking Like a Reader.
The Target Audience.
The General Audience.
Guidelines for Knowing Your Audience.
Adapting to Your Readers'Attitudes.
Sample Arguments for Analysis.
“Don't Forget the Smokers,” by C. Everett Koop.
“What the Antismoking Zealots Really Crave,” by Jeff Jacoby.
“Media Have Fallen for Misguided Antismoking Campaign,” by Robert J. Samuelson.
Choosing Your Words.
Exercises.

5. Shaping Arguments: Thinking Like an Architect.
Components of an Argument.
Sample Argument for Analysis.
“Indian Bones,” by Clara Spotted Elk.
Analyzing the Structure.
Sample Argument for Analysis.
“I Am the Enemy,” by Ron Karpati.
Analyzing the Structure.
Two Basic Shapes for Arguments.
Sample Arguments for Analysis.
“Should We Cut This Out? Human Cloning Is Not as Scary as It Sounds,” by Robert Wachbroit.
Analysis of a Position Argument.
Sample Argument for Analysis.
“Schools Can Help to Prevent Teen Pregnancy,” by Martha Balash (student essay).
Questions for Analysis and Discussion.

6. Using Evidence: Thinking Like an Advocate.
How Much Evidence Is Enough?
Why Arguments Need Supporting Evidence.
Forms of Evidence.
Some Tips about Supporting Evidence.
Sample Argument for Analysis.
“Violent Culture: The Media, the Internet, and Placing Blame,” by Darren Beals (student essay).

7. Establishing Claims: Thinking Like a Skeptic.
The Toulmin Model.
Toulmin's Terms.
Field Work: Excavating Warrants.
Sample Arguments for Analysis.
“Why They Kill Their Newborns,” by Steven Pinker.
An Analysis Based on the Toulmin Model.
“Arguing for Infanticide,” by Michael Kelley.
Sample Argument for Analysis.
“Did I Miss Something?” by Lowell Putnam (student essay).

8. Visual Arguments: Thinking Like an Illustrator.
Common Forms of Visual Arguments.
Analyzing Visual Arguments.
Art.
Ancillary Graphics: Tables, Charts, and Graphs.

9. Researching Arguments: Thinking Like an Investigator.
Sources of Information.
A Search Strategy.
Sample Entries for an Annotated Bibliography.
Locating Sources.
Evaluating Sources.
Taking Notes.
Drafting Your Paper.
Revising and Editing Your Paper.
Preparing and Proofreading Your Final Manuscript.
Plagiarism.
Documentation Guide: MLA and APA Styles.
Where Does the Documentation Go?
Documentation Style.
A Brief Guide to MLA and APA Styles.
Sample Arguments for Analysis.
“Censorship: A Threat to Public Education,” by Jenny Benson (MLA - student essay).
“Television Desensitizes Children to Violence,” by Amber Sifritt (APA-student essay).

II. DIALOGUES.

10. Advertising and Consumerism.
Hooking the Consumer.
“Targeting a New World,” by Joseph Turow.
“Buy This 24-Year Old and Get All His Friends Absolutely Free” by Jean Kilburne.
“Friendly Persuasion: The Growing Ubiquity of Advertising,” by John Fraim.
“Hey Kids, Buy This!” by David Leonhardt and Kathleen Kerwin.
The Quest For Stuff.
“Two Cheers For Consumerism,” by James Twitchell.
“Manufacturing Desire,” by Harry Flood.
“The Stuff of Life,” by Scott Russell Sanders.
“The $100 Dollar Christmas,” by Bil Mckibben.
The Language of Advertising.
“With These Words, I Can Sell You Anything,” by William Lutz.
“The Language of Advertising,” by Charles A. O'neill.
“The Selling of Rebellion,” by John Leo.

11. Gender Issues.
Gender and Self-Perception.
“Saplings In the Storm,” by Mary Pipher.
“Will Boys Be Boys?” by John Leo.
“Bump and Grind: Little Girls Strut Their Stuff,” by Susanna Rodell
“The Bully In the Mirror,” by Stephen S. Hall.
Graphic: Men's and Women's Restroom Symbols.
Gender Communications.
“Women Have More To Say On Everything,” by Tony Kornheiser.
“I'm Sorry, I Won't Apologize,” by Deborah Tannen.
“In Each Other's Company,” by Herbert Gold.
“The Comfort of Friends,” by Anna Quindlen.
Graphic: Cartoon: Why Men Won't Stop For Directions.
Feminism In The 21st Century.
“The Independent Woman and Other Lies,” by Kate Roiphe.
“In The Combat Zone,” by Leslie Marmon Silko.
“Revisionist Feminism” by Susan Faludi And Karen Lehrman.

12. New September 11, 2001.
A Day Of Infamy.
“This Is What a Day Means,” by Andrew Sullivan.
“A Letter From Ground Zero,” by Jonathan Schell.
“We Chose Honor,” by Elie Wiesel.
Graphic: Editorial Cartoon: Jeff Danziger-Uncle Sam, September 11, 2001.
Patriotism and The Flag.
“The True Test of Patriotism Is Harder Than Just Waving a Flag,” by Eugene Kane.
“The Way We Live Now; Recapturing The Flag,” by George Packer.
“Rally Round The Flag,” by King Kaufman.
Graphic: Photo: Flags For Sale.
Reacting To Terrorism.
“Americans Don't Understand That Their Heritage Is Itself a Threat,” by Caleb Carr.
“The Algebra of Infinite Justice,” by Arundhati Roy.
“Understanding Terrorism: A Harvard Roundtable Discussion,” by Harvard University.

13. Race and Ethnicity.
Stereotypes: How They Hurt.
“Familiar Strangers,” by Ray Suarez.
“The Myth of the Latina Woman,” by Judith Ortiz Coffer.
“One of The Bad Guys?” by Ray Hanania.
“Who Is a Whiz-Kid?” by Ted Gup.
Graphic: Disney's Pocahontas.
Assimilation.
“The Return of The Melting Pot,” By Arthur Schlesinger, Jr.
“Forging a New Vision of America's Melting Pot,” by Gregory Rodriguez.
“Diversity and Its Discontents,” by Arturo Madrid.
“Please ask Me Who, Not 'What,' I Am” by Jordan Lite.
Racial Profiling.
“You Can't Judge a Crook By His Color,” by Randall Kennedy.
“In Defense of Racial Profiling,” by John Derbyshire
“The Bill of Rights For Black Men: Walking While Black,” by Bryonn Bain.
Graphic: Cartoon: Racial Profiling.
“Hailing While Black,” by Shelby Steele.

14. What Makes a Family.
Rethinking The Nuclear Family.
“The New Nostalgia,” by Rosalind Barnet & Caryl Rivers.
Graphic: Photo: “Leave It To Beaver” and “Everybody Loves Raymond.”
“What's Happening To Marriage?” by The National Marriage Project.
“Working Dads, Unite!” by Joel Achenbach.
“Single Mothers: A Menace To Society?” by Stephanie Coontz.
“Why I Think I'm Still Right,” by Dan Quayle.
Gay Marriage and Partnering.
“Virtually Normal,” by Andrew Sullivan.
“Who Says Banning Gay Marriage Is Immoral?” by Jeff Jacoby.
Graphic: Cartoon: Wasserman's View-Family Values.
“Same Sex Marriage,” by Laurie Essig.
“What's Love Got To Do With It?” by E.G. Graff.

15. Law and Order.
Juvenile Crime.
“Adult Crime, Adult Time: Outdated Juvenile Laws Thwart Justice,” by Linda J. Collier.
“Young and Arrestless: The Case Against Expunging Juvenile Arrest Records,” by T. Marcus Funk.
“The Maximum Security Adolescent,” by Margaret Talbot.
“Crackdown On Kids,” by Annette Fuentes.
Graphic: Photo: Kids Behind Bars.
Gun Control.
“The Right To Bear Arms,” by Warren Burger.
“Zero Tolerance For Slaughter,” by Sallie Tisdale.
“An Army of Gun Lies,” by David Kopel.
Graphic: Photo: Empty Shoes (Protest).
“Gun Control Needs a Middle Ground,” by Jack Levin.
Capital Punishment and Retribution.
“A Death In Texas,” by Steve Earle.
“A Reckoning on Death Row,” by Jonathan Alter.
“Alter Falters,” by Robert Panbianco.
Graphic: Cartoon: Dna and The Electric Chair.
“The Place For Vengeance,” by Shannon Brownlee, Dan McGraw, and Jason Vest.

16. New Ethical Issues In Medicine.
Stem Cell Research.
“Brave New World,” by James Trefil.
“Remarks By The President on Stem Cell Research,” by George W. Bush.
“A Question of Life or Death,” by Kenneth L. Woodward.
“Reason, Faith, and Stem Cells,” by Michael Kingsley.
Abortion.
“Abortion In American History,” by Katha Pollitt.
“Abortion Is Not The Answer-Ever,” by Fred Minnick.
“The Myth Of The 'Pro-Choice' Woman, by Kathleen Howly.
Graphic: Advertisement: Ru-486.
“Some Thoughts About Abortion,” by Anna Quindlen.
Physician-Assisted Suicide and End of Life Choices.
“The Supreme Court and Physician-Assisted Suicide—The Ultimate Right,” by Marcia Angell.
“Death And Dignity—A Case of Individualized Decision Making,” by Timothy E. Quill.
Graphic: Photo: Aged Hands.
“Suicide, Assisted Suicide, and Medical Illness,” by Herbert Hendin.
“Final Right,” by Carrie Carmichael.

17. New Casebook: The Cloning Debate.
Graphic: Cartoon: Embryos R Us.
“Baby, It's You and You And You . . . ,” by Nancy Ross.
“Cloning and The Human Self,” by Chet Raymo.
“Human Cloning: Don't Just Say No,” by Ruth Macklin.
“Creepy and Inevitable: Cloning Us” by Adam Perlman.
“Should Human Cloning Be Permitted?” by Patricia A. Baird, M.D.
“Yes, Human Cloning Should Be Permitted,” by Chris Macdonald.

Index of Authors and Titles.

Credits.

Read More Show Less

Preface

PREFACE:

Preface

Dialogues: An Argument Rhetoric and Reader (formerly Crossfire) embodies a new approach to reading and writing arguments. It moves students away from the traditional combative model of argument in which writers take opposing stances and attempt to defeat all viewpoints other than their own. Instead, students are encouraged to explore multiple perspectives on a particular topic before forming their own opinions and writing their own arguments. Through a process of debate, dialogue, and deliberation, students learn to investigate diverse opinions, synthesize and respond to the views of others, and carefully evaluate evidence to arrive at an informed position on a particular issue. Students are encouraged to abandon a pro/con, adversarial stance in favor of negotiation and the discovery of shared values among opponents. While we are well aware that not all arguments can be resolved to everyone's satisfaction, we believe that the power of argument can be used most productively when arguers actually listen to the voices of others and respond to them in a thoughtful way. In this book we provide a structure for this dialogue to take place.

Organization of the Book

As the title indicates, the book is divided into two parts. The rhetoric section consists of eight chapters explaining the strategies of reading and writing arguments. The reader section consists of 9 thematic units containing 90 essays— a challenging collection of thought-provoking contemporary and historical arguments.

Part I: Strategies for Reading and Writing Arguments

Our overall goal is to involve students in the process ofwritingarguments, a multifaceted activity involving careful reading, critical thinking, skillful writing, and thorough research. To this purpose we have organized the first eight chapters to guide students through the stages of argument writing, beginning with an explanation of what an argument is and progressing to the final argument essay. Throughout Part 1 we have included short arguments— 20 essays in all&3151; by professional and student writers to illustrate each chapter's focus and provide opportunities to apply, analyze, and synthesize the major ideas in the chapter. In some chapters, several essays on a particular issue demonstrate diverse ways of writing and thinking about a single topic. Exercises in each chapter reinforce concepts with immediate, hands-on practice.

Chapter 1 offers an overview of argumentation, clarifies key terminology, and introduces the processes of debate, dialogue, and deliberation. Chapter 2 focuses on critical reading, presenting a series of activities designed to help students evaluate arguments and recognize their primary components. An extensive section on testing arguments for logical fallacies ends the chapter. Chapter 3 discusses how to begin writing arguments. It helps students find worthwhile and interesting topics to write about by demonstrating techniques for brainstorming, limiting topics, and formulating claims. Chapter 4 examines the presence of audience, encouraging students to think about the different kinds of readers they may have to address. This chapter suggests ways to evaluate the audience's concerns and strategies to reach different audiences.

Chapter 5 focuses on the organization of the argument essay by analyzing two basic types of arguments— positions and proposals. Outlining is reviewed as a tool to ensure effective organization. Chapter 6 considers the importance of evidence. We demonstrate that the effectiveness of a writer's argument largely depends on how well evidence— facts, testimony, statistics, and observations— is employed to support the writer's ideas. Chapter 7 introduces the socially constructed Toulmin model of logic as a way of testing the premises of the writer's argument. Chapter 8 discusses research strategies, including locating and evaluating print and electronic sources, note-taking tips, and drafting and revising argument essays. The Documentation Guide provides documentation formats for both MLA and APA styles, and two annotated sample student research papers, one in MLA style and the other in APA style.

Part 2: Dialogues

The 90 contemporary and historical essays in the reader offer a wide range of provocative and stimulating selections to get students thinking about controversies that affect their lives, and make them aware of the diversity and complexity of argument. We expect that these readings will generate lively class discussion through shared debate and dialogue.

Seventy-eight of the essays are organized into seven broad thematic chapters: "Gender Matters," "Race and Ethnicity," "Freedom of Expression," "Media Influence," "Individual Rights," "Regulating Relationships," and "The Black Freedom Struggle." Each of these chapters is divided into three or four specific topics whose readings demonstrate both different viewpoints and shared concerns. While most of the readings deal with current controversies, Chapter 17 on the civil rights movement, "The Black Freedom Struggle," presents historical arguments that substantially altered twentieth century American history. In three sections, the chapter examines the controversies surrounding education, violence and nonviolence, and equal opportunity during the civil rights era; a fourth section reflects back from contemporary points of view on the gains and losses of the struggle for African American rights. From the formality of the Supreme Court decision in Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka to the eloquence of James Baldwin to the riveting passion of Malcolm X, the arguments here should inspire students' interest and challenge their assumptions about this important period of American political history.

Twelve readings comprise our casebooks on juvenile crime and teen parents, two subjects of particular interest to college students. Each casebook provides students with the opportunity to explore the subject in depth through extensive readings, discussion questions, collaborative exercises, writing assignments, and research opportunities. Many suggestions for using Web resources help ensure that students have access to the most current information about these rapidly evolving issues.

Study Apparatus

To help students become actively engaged with the readings and the issues, we have included a variety of apparatus throughout the text. Each chapter in Part 2 opens with an introduction explaining the chapter theme and underscoring the importance of the essays and the rationale behind their selection. An introduction to each essay provides a context for the reading and pertinent biographical information about the writer. "Before You Read" and "As You Read" questions guide students before and during the actual reading process. Following each essay are "For Analysis and Discussion" questions designed to stimulate thinking about the content, logic, and organization of the essay and the strategies of the writer. At the end of each section of readings, several writing assignments encourage students to synthesize their ideas about the essays, deliberate about their own ideas, and undertake further research and writing. In the casebooks on juvenile crime and teen parenting, each reading is also followed by more extensive opportunities to explore the topic by conducting interviews and surveys, visiting both Web sites and community facilities, and investigating additional reference sources. Finally, the Glossary of Rhetorical Terms defines terminology used throughout the text.

New to This Edition

While the second edition of Crossfire was a successful text, we knew that it was time for a change if we wanted our book to reflect the most current research being done in composition studies. To do this, we invited a new author on board, Janet Barnett Minc, a professor of English at The University of Akron-Wayne College, who brought her extensive teaching experience and research in the fields of composition and argument to the task of revision. As a result of her work, Crossfire shifted its emphasis away from a pro/con model to a new paradigm that acknowledges more effectively the complexity of argument. The revisions were so dramatic that the former title was no longer relevant to the text. Dialogues tells the story of our new focus on finding common ground, listening and responding to those who hold different views, and carefully deliberating about these multiple perspectives before arriving at a position.

This third edition also reflects the insights and suggestions of many of the instructors and students who used the second edition of Crossfire. We have left those features that people found most useful unchanged, and we have tried to make careful revisions where improvement was needed. Here are some of the major changes in this new edition:

The Rhetoric

  • "Debate, dialogue, and deliberation" is presented as a process for evaluating and building arguments through comparing and synthesizing diverse viewpoints. This approach emphasizes listening and responding to the arguments of others and investigating multiple perspectives on an issue to arrive at an informed position.
  • New Chapter 2, "Reading Arguments: Thinking like a Critic," takes students step by step through the process of critical reading and reflection, from previewing and skimming a reading, through annotating and summarizing, to analyzing, evaluating, and arguing with a reading.
  • The coverage of logical fallacies has been expanded, making it an essential part of Chapter 2 on critical reading and integrating it throughout the rest of the rhetoric. The number of readings in the rhetoric has doubled. Twenty sample arguments— 18 of them new— provide examples of important strategies in argument writing and give students practice in analyzing arguments. In addition, thematically connected essays allow students to compare different strategies and approaches to the same topic.
  • Chapter 7, "Establishing Claims: Thinking like a Skeptic" has been revised to clarify the Toulmin model and to provide more effective examples for class discussion and analysis.
  • New sections on using Internet sources in Chapter 8, "Researching Arguments: Thinking like an Investigator," detail specific information and examples of searching for, locating, and evaluating relevant electronic sources. Three Web sites are analyzed and compared to demonstrate how to determine the research value of information found on the Web.
  • Examples of documentation using electronic sources have been updated and expanded in the "Documentation Guide: MLA and APA," which follows Chapter 8. The "Documentation Guide" now includes new sample student research papers in MLA and APA styles, annotated to highlight important documentation issues.
The Reader
  • Part Two now includes 90 readings (increased from 69 in our second edition) with 81 essays new to this edition.
  • Four new major themes include topics of current national interest as well as examples of classic arguments:

    "Media Influence" includes subthemes on the persuasive language of advertising (including three sample advertisements), the credibility of TV news, and movie and TV violence.
    "Individual Rights" examines physician-assisted suicide, the right to privacy, and drug testing of students.
    "Regulating Relationships" discusses same-sex marriage, sexual harassment, and adoption.
    "The Black Freedom Struggle" includes arguments on four themes: education, violence and nonviolence, equal opportunity, and contemporary reflections on the civil rights movement.

  • Two new casebooks— "Juvenile Crime, Adult Punishment?" and "Teen Parents: Children Having Children?"— provide students with the opportunity to explore the issues in depth through research, class activities, and writing assignments.
  • Suggestions for writing assignments follow each section of essays, helping students synthesize their own and the authors' ideas and directing them toward further research, including sources on the Internet.
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