Dielectric Materials for Electrical Engineering / Edition 1

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Overview

Part 1 is particularly concerned with physical properties, electrical ageing and modeling with topics such as the physics of charged dielectric materials, conduction mechanisms, dielectric relaxation, space charge, electric ageing and life end models and dielectric experimental characterization. Part 2 concerns some applications specific to dielectric materials: insulating oils for transformers, electrorheological fluids, electrolytic capacitors, ionic membranes, photovoltaic conversion, dielectric thermal control coatings for geostationary satellites, plastics recycling and piezoelectric polymers.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781848211650
  • Publisher: Wiley
  • Publication date: 3/29/2010
  • Series: ISTE Series , #445
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 640
  • Product dimensions: 6.40 (w) x 9.30 (h) x 1.60 (d)

Table of Contents

PART 1. GENERAL PHYSICS PHENOMENA 1

Chapter 1. Physics of Dielectrics 3
Guy BLAISE and Daniel TREHEUX

1.1. Definitions 3

1.2. Different types of polarization 4

1.3. Macroscopic aspects of the polarization 8

1.4. Bibliography 16

Chapter 2. Physics of Charged Dielectrics: Mobility and Charge Trapping 17
Guy BLAISE and Daniel TREHEUX

2.1. Introduction 17

2.2. Localization of a charge in an “ideally perfect” and pure polarizable medium 18

2.3. Localization and trapping of carriers in a real material 26

2.4. Detrapping 33

2.5. Bibliography 35

Chapter 3. Conduction Mechanisms and Numerical Modeling of Transport in Organic Insulators: Trends and Perspectives 37
Fulbert BAUDOIN, Christian LAURENT, Séverine LE ROY and Gilbert TEYSSEDRE

3.1. Introduction 37

3.2. Molecular modeling applied to polymers 40

3.3. Macroscopic models 51

3.4. Trends and perspectives 63

3.5. Conclusions 68

3.6. Bibliography 69

Chapter 4. Dielectric Relaxation in Polymeric Materials 79
Eric DANTRAS, Jérôme MENEGOTTO, Philippe DEMONT and Colette LACABANNE

4.1. Introduction 79

4.2. Dynamics of polarization mechanisms 79

4.3. Orientation polarization in the time domain 81

4.4. Orientation polarization in the frequency domain 83

4.5. Temperature dependence 87

4.6. Relaxation modes of amorphous polymers 92

4.7. Relaxation modes of semi-crystalline polymers 96

4.8. Conclusion 98

4.9. Bibliography 99

Chapter 5. Electrification 101
Gérard TOUCHARD

5.1. Introduction 101

5.2. Electrification of solid bodies by separation/contact 101

5.3. Electrification of solid particles 108

5.4. Conclusion 115

5.5. Bibliography 115

PART 2. PHENOMENA ASSOCIATED WITH ENVIRONMENTAL STRESS – AGEING 117

Chapter 6. Space Charges: Definition, History, Measurement 119
Alain TOUREILLE, Petru NOTINGHER, Jérôme CASTELLON and Serge AGNEL

6.1. Introduction 119

6.2. History 120

6.3. Space charge measurement methods in solid insulators 123

6.4. Trends and perspectives 129

6.5. Bibliography 130

Chapter 7. Dielectric Materials under Electron Irradiation in a Scanning Electron Microscope 135
Omar JBARA, Slim FAKHFAKH, Sébastien RONDOT and Dominique MOUZE

7.1. Introduction 135

7.2. Fundamental aspects of electron irradiation of solids 136

7.3. Physics of insulators 141

7.4. Applications: measurement of the trapped charge or the surface potential 153

7.5. Conclusion 159

7.6. Bibliography 160

Chapter 8. Precursory Phenomena and Dielectric Breakdown of Solids 165
Christian MAYOUX, Nadine LAHOUD, Laurent BOUDOU and Juan MARTINEZ-VEGA

8.1. Introduction 165

8.2. Electrical breakdown 166

8.3. Precursory phenomena 168

8.4. Conclusion 179

8.5. Bibliography 180

Chapter 9. Models for Ageing of Electrical Insulation: Trends and Perspectives 189
Nadine LAHOUD, Laurent BOUDOU, Christian MAYOUX and Juan MARTINEZ-VEGA

9.1. Introduction 189

9.2. Kinetic approach according to Zhurkov 190

9.3. Thermodynamic approach according to Crine 195

9.4. Microscopic approach according to Dissado–Mazzanti–Montanari 200

9.5. Conclusions and perspectives 206

9.6. Bibliography 207

PART 3. CHARACTERIZATION METHODS AND MEASUREMENT 209

Chapter 10. Response of an Insulating Material to an Electric Charge: Measurement and Modeling 211
Philippe MOLINIÉ

10.1. Introduction 211

10.2. Standard experiments 212

10.3. Basic electrostatic equations 213

10.4. Dipolar polarization 215

10.5. Intrinsic conduction 218

10.6. Space charge, injection and charge transport 220

10.7. Which model for which material? 226

10.8. Bibliography 227

Chapter 11. Pulsed Electroacoustic Method: Evolution and Development Perspectives for Space Charge Measurement 229
Virginie GRISERI

11.1. Introduction 229

11.2. Principle of the method 230

11.3. Performance of the method 238

11.4. Diverse measurement systems 239

11.5. Development perspectives and conclusions 246

11.6. Bibliography 246

Chapter 12. FLIMM and FLAMM Methods: Localization of 3-D Space Charges at the Micrometer Scale 251
Anca PETRE, Didier MARTY-DESSUS, Laurent BERQUEZ and Jean-Luc FRANCESCHI

12.1. Introduction 251

12.2. The FLIMM method 252

12.3. The FLAMM method 254

12.4. Modeling of the thermal gradient 255

12.5. Mathematical deconvolution 255

12.6. Results 258

12.7. Conclusion 267

12.8. Bibliography 267

Chapter 13. Space Charge Measurement by the Laser-Induced Pressure Pulse Technique 271
David MALEC

13.1. Introduction 271

13.2. History 272

13.3. Establishment of fundamental equations for the determination of space charge distribution 272

13.4. Experimental setup 276

13.5. Performances and limitations 282

13.6. Examples of use of the method 283

13.7. Use of the LIPP method for surface charge measurement 285

13.8. Perspectives 285

13.9. Bibliography 285

Chapter 14. The Thermal Step Method for Space Charge Measurements 289
Alain TOUREILLE, Serge AGNEL, Petru NOTINGHER and Jérôme CASTELLON

14.1. Introduction 289

14.2. Principle of the thermal step method (TSM) 290

14.3. Numerical resolution methods 297

14.4. Experimental set-up 299

14.5. Applications 306

14.6. Conclusion 321

14.7. Bibliography 322

Chapter 15. Physico-Chemical Characterization Techniques of Dielectrics 325
Christine MAYOUX and Christian MAYOUX

15.1. Introduction 325

15.2. Domains of application 326

15.3. The materials themselves 333

15.4. Conclusion 340

15.5. Bibliography 341

Chapter 16. Insulating Oils for Transformers 347
Abderrahmane BEROUAL, Christophe PERRIER, Jean-Luc BESSEDE

16.1. Introduction 347

16.2. Generalities 348

16.3. Mineral oils 352

16.4. Synthetic esters or pentaerythritol ester 357

16.5. Silicone oils or PDMS 363

16.6. Halogenated hydrocarbons or PCB 366

16.7. Natural esters or vegetable oils 367

16.8. Security of employment of insulating oils 370

16.9. Conclusion and perspectives 373

16.10. Bibliography 374

Chapter 17. Electrorheological Fluids 379
Jean-Numa FOULC

17.1. Introduction 379

17.2. Electrorheology 381

17.3. Mechanisms and modeling of the electrorheological effect 387

17.4. The conduction model 392

17.5. Giant electrorheological effect 396

17.6. Conclusion 397

17.7. Bibliography 397

Chapter 18. Electrolytic Capacitors 403
Pascal VENET

18.1. Introduction 403

18.2. Generalities 404

18.3. Electrolytic capacitors 410

18.4. Aluminum liquid electrolytic capacitors 411

18.5. (Solid electrolyte) tantalum electrolytic capacitors 414

18.6. Models and characteristics 417

18.7. Failures of electrolytic capacitors 426

18.8. Conclusion and perspectives 431

18.9. Bibliography 432

Chapter 19. Ion Exchange Membranes for Low Temperature Fuel Cells 435
Vicente COMPAÑ MORENO and Evaristo RIANDE GARCIA

19.1. Introduction 435

19.2. Homogenous cation-exchange membranes 438

19.3. Heterogenous ion exchange membranes 439

19.4. Polymer/acid membranes 441

19.5. Characterization of membranes 442

19.6. Experimental characterization of ion exchange membranes 457

19.7. Determination of membrane morphology using the SEM technique 469

19.8. Thermal stability 470

19.9. Acknowledgements 471

19.10. Bibliography 472

Chapter 20. Semiconducting Organic Materials for Electroluminescent Devices and Photovoltaic Conversion 477
Pascale JOLINAT and Isabelle SEGUY

20.1. Brief history 477

20.2. Origin of conduction in organic semiconductors 479

20.3. Electrical and optical characteristics of organic semiconductors 480

20.4. Application to electroluminescent devices 482

20.5. Application to photovoltaic conversion 486

20.6. The processing of organic semiconductors 489

20.7. Conclusion 491

20.8. Bibliography 491

Chapter 21. Dielectric Coatings for the Thermal Control of Geostationary Satellites: Trends and Problems 495
Stéphanie REMAURY

21.1. Introduction 495

21.2. Space environment 496

21.3. The thermal control of space vehicles 501

21.4. Electrostatic phenomena in materials 503

21.5. Conclusion 512

21.6. Bibliography 513

Chapter 22. Recycling of Plastic Materials 515
Pilar MARTINEZ and Eva VERDEJO

22.1. Introduction 515

22.2. Plastic materials 516

22.3. Plastic residues 519

22.4. Bibliography 529

Chapter 23. Piezoelectric Polymers and their Applications 531
Alain BERNES

23.1. Introduction 531

23.2. Piezoelectric polymeric materials 532

23.3. Electro-active properties of piezoelectric polymers 538

23.4. Piezoelectricity applications 549

23.5. Transducers 551

23.6. Conclusion 556

23.7. Bibliography 556

Chapter 24. Polymeric Insulators in the Electrical Engineering Industry: Examples of Applications, Constraints and Perspectives 559
Jean-Luc BESSEDE

24.1. Introduction 559

24.2. Equipment 560

24.3. Power transformer insulation 565

24.4. Perspectives 567

24.5. Conclusion 570

24.6. Bibliography 570

List of Authors 573

Index 577

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