Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc

Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc

by Panel on Micronutrients, Subcommittees on Upper Reference Levels of Nutrients and of Interpretation and Use of Dietary Reference Intakes, Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes
     
 

ISBN-10: 0309072794

ISBN-13: 9780309072793

Pub. Date: 06/18/2002

Publisher: National Academies Press

This volume is the newest release in the authoritative series issued by the National Academy of Sciences on dietary reference intakes (DRIs). This series provides recommended intakes, such as Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs), for use in planning nutritionally adequate diets for individuals based on age and gender. In addition, a new reference intake, the

Overview

This volume is the newest release in the authoritative series issued by the National Academy of Sciences on dietary reference intakes (DRIs). This series provides recommended intakes, such as Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs), for use in planning nutritionally adequate diets for individuals based on age and gender. In addition, a new reference intake, the Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL), has also been established to assist an individual in knowing how much is "too much" of a nutrient.

Based on the Institute of Medicine's review of the scientific literature regarding dietary micronutrients, recommendations have been formulated regarding vitamins A and K, iron, iodine, chromium, copper, manganese, molybdenum, zinc, and other potentially beneficial trace elements such as boron to determine the roles, if any, they play in health. The book also:

  • Reviews selected components of food that may influence the bioavailability of these compounds.
  • Develops estimates of dietary intake of these compounds that are compatible with good nutrition throughout the life span and that may decrease risk of chronic disease where data indicate they play a role.
  • Determines Tolerable Upper Intake levels for each nutrient reviewed where adequate scientific data are available in specific population subgroups.
  • Identifies research needed to improve knowledge of the role of these micronutrients in human health.

This book will be important to professionals in nutrition research and education.

Product Details

ISBN-13:
9780309072793
Publisher:
National Academies Press
Publication date:
06/18/2002
Edition description:
New Edition
Pages:
800
Product dimensions:
6.00(w) x 9.00(h) x 1.80(d)

Table of Contents

Summary1
What Are Dietary Reference Intakes?2
Approach for Setting Dietary Reference Intakes7
Nutrient Functions and the Indicators Used to Estimate Requirements10
Criteria and Proposed Values for Tolerable Upper Intake Levels16
Using Dietary Reference Intakes to Assess Nutrient Intakes of Groups19
Consideration of the Risk of Chronic Degenerative Disease22
Research Recommendations26
1Introduction to Dietary Reference Intakes29
What Are Dietary Reference Intakes?29
Categories of Dietary Reference Intakes30
Parameters for Dietary Reference Intakes36
Summary42
References42
2Overview and Methods44
Methodological Considerations45
Estimates of Nutrient Intake54
Dietary Intakes in the United States and Canada55
Summary58
References58
3A Model for the Development of Tolerable Upper Intake Levels60
Background60
A Model for the Derivation of Tolerable Upper Intake Levels62
Risk Assessment and Food Safety62
Application of the Risk Assessment Model to Nutrients67
Steps in the Development of the Tolerable Upper Intake Level71
Intake Assessment79
Risk Characterization79
References80
4Vitamin A82
Summary82
Background Information83
Selection of Indicators for Estimating the Requirement for Vitamin A97
Factors Affecting the Vitamin A Requirement106
Findings by Life Stage and Gender Group110
Intake of Vitamin A122
Tolerable Upper Intake Levels125
Research Recommendations for Vitamin A146
References146
5Vitamin K162
Summary162
Background Information162
Selection of Indicators for Estimating the Requirement for Vitamin K165
Factors Affecting the Vitamin K Requirement173
Findings by Life Stage and Gender Group176
Intake of Vitamin K184
Tolerable Upper Intake Levels187
Research Recommendations for Vitamin K189
References189
6Chromium197
Summary197
Background Information197
Selection of Indicators for Estimating the Requirement for Chromium202
Factors Affecting the Chromium Requirement204
Findings by Life Stage and Gender Group205
Intake of Chromium211
Tolerable Upper Intake Levels213
Research Recommendations for Chromium216
References217
7Copper224
Summary224
Background Information224
Selection of Indicators for Estimating the Requirement for Copper229
Factors Affecting the Copper Requirement233
Findings by Life Stage and Gender Group235
Intake of Copper245
Tolerable Upper Intake Levels246
Research Recommendations for Copper252
References252
8Iodine258
Summary258
Background Information258
Selection of Indicators for Estimating the Requirement for Iodine262
Factors Affecting the Iodine Requirement267
Findings by Life Stage and Gender Group268
Intake of Iodine277
Tolerable Upper Intake Levels278
Research Recommendations for Iodine284
References284
9Iron290
Summary290
Background Information290
Selection of Indicators for Estimating the Requirement for Iron300
Factors Affecting the Iron Requirement311
Findings by Life Stage and Gender Group316
Intake of Iron355
Tolerable Upper Intake Levels356
Research Recommendations for Iron378
References378
10Manganese394
Summary394
Background Information394
Selection of Indicators for Estimating the Requirement for Manganese397
Factors Affecting the Manganese Requirement401
Findings by Life Stage and Gender Group402
Intake of Manganese407
Tolerable Upper Intake Levels408
Research Recommendations for Manganese414
References415
11Molybdenum420
Summary420
Background Information420
Selection of Indicators for Estimating the Requirement for Molybdenum422
Factors Affecting the Molybdenum Requirement424
Findings by Life Stage and Gender Group425
Intake of Molybdenum432
Tolerable Upper Intake Levels433
Research Recommendations for Molybdenum439
References439
12Zinc442
Summary442
Background Information442
Selection of Indicators for Estimating the Requirement for Zinc447
Factors Affecting the Zinc Requirement454
Findings by Life Stage and Gender Group458
Intake of Zinc480
Tolerable Upper Intake Levels481
Research Recommendations for Zinc488
References489
13Arsenic, Boron, Nickel, Silicon, and Vanadium502
Summary502
Arsenic503
Boron510
Nickel521
Silicon529
Vanadium532
References543
14Uses of Dietary Reference Intakes554
Overview554
Assessing Nutrient Intakes of Individuals555
Assessing Nutrient Intakes of Groups558
Planning Nutrient Intakes of Individuals562
Planning Nutrient Intakes of Groups563
Nutrient-Specific Considerations564
Summary576
References578
15A Research Agenda580
Approach580
Major Knowledge Gaps581
The Research Agenda584
Appendixes
AOrigin and Framework of the Development of Dietary Reference Intakes587
BAcknowledgments591
CDietary Intake Data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), 1988-1994594
DDietary Intake Data from the Continuing Survey of Food Intakes By Individuals (CSFII), 1994-1996644
EDietary Intake Data from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration Total Diet Study, 1991-1997654
FCanadian Dietary Intake Data, 1990674
GBiochemical Indicators for Iron, Vitamin A, and Iodine from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), 1988-1994680
HComparison of Vitamin A and Iron Intake and Biochemical Indicators from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), 1988-1994692
IIron Intakes and Estimated Percentiles of the Distribution of Iron Requirements from the Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII), 1994-1996697
JGlossary and Acronyms704
KConversion of Units709
LOptions for Dealing with Uncertainties710
MBiographical Sketches of Panel and Subcommittee Members715
Index729
Summary Table, Dietary Reference Intakes: Recommended Intakes for Individuals, Vitamins770
Summary Table, Dietary Reference Intakes: Recommended Intakes for Individuals, Elements772

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