Differentiated Instructional Strategies for Science, Grades K-8

Differentiated Instructional Strategies for Science, Grades K-8

by Gayle H. Gregory, Elizabeth Hammerman

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ISBN-10: 141291650X

ISBN-13: 9781412916509

Pub. Date: 02/19/2008

Publisher: SAGE Publications

Aligned with national science curriculum standards, this resource provides tools for differentiating science instruction, including sample lessons, assessment methods, rubrics, and a CD-ROM with reproducibles.


Aligned with national science curriculum standards, this resource provides tools for differentiating science instruction, including sample lessons, assessment methods, rubrics, and a CD-ROM with reproducibles.

Product Details

SAGE Publications
Publication date:
Product dimensions:
7.00(w) x 10.00(h) x 0.77(d)
Age Range:
5 - 13 Years

Table of Contents

Acknowledgments     xi
About the Authors     xiii
Introduction     xv
Differentiated Instruction     xvi
Teaching Matters     xvi
Clarifying Instructional Goals     xvii
Differentiated Instruction in Action     xviii
Effective Science Education     1
Creating a Climate for Differentiated Instruction     3
A Climate for Learning     3
A Safe and Enriched Environment     4
Internet Resources Related to Health and Safety     4
Natural Learning Systems     5
Emotional Learning System     6
Social Learning System     6
Physical Learning System     7
Cognitive Learning System     7
Reflective Learning System     7
Learning Systems With Links to National Standards     8
A Planning Guide for Differentiated Instruction     9
Phases of the Planning Guide     9
Scientific and Technological Literacy for the Twenty-First Century     13
Scientific Literacy     13
Science Education Standards     14
Unifying Concepts and Processes     15
Process and Thinking Skills in K-8 Science     17
Dispositions That Underlie Science     17
Dimensions of Learning     17
Technological Literacy     21
Views of Technology     21
Integration of Information and Communication Technology (ICT)     22
Knowing the Learner     25
Multicultural Education     25
Multicultural Education in Science     26
Gender Equity     27
Gender Equity in Science     28
Learning Modalities     29
Learning and Thinking Styles     29
Kolb's Learning Styles     30
McCarthy's 4MAT System     32
Gregorc's Thinking Styles     32
Gardner's Theory of Multiple Intelligences     32
Eight Intelligences Linked to Science     33
Sternberg's View of Intelligence     41
Learning Activities Linked to Intelligences     41
Strategies for Preassessment     43
Assessing Prior Knowledge     43
Addressing Misconceptions     45
Pretest of Concepts     46
Pretest of Skills     46
Designing Differentiated Instruction     49
Methods and Effective Practices for Increasing Student Achievement     51
Methods for Teaching and Learning Science     52
The Roles of Teachers and Students in Methods     55
Research-Based Effective Practices     55
Strategies Linked to Brain Research and Classroom Practices     58
Science Notebooks as Tools for Learning     58
Lab Reports     61
Grouping     61
Cooperative Learning     64
Adjustable Assignments     65
Curriculum Compacting     69
Strategies for Activating and Engaging     73
Strategies for Engagement     73
K-W-L Charts     74
Discrepant Events     74
School Site Investigations     76
Informal Learning Environments     76
Video Clips     77
Guest Speakers     79
Displays     79
Literature in Science     80
Case Studies     80
Strategies for Acquiring and Exploring     83
Inquiry Defined     83
Traditional Versus Inquiry-Based Classrooms     84
Factors That Support Inquiry and Differentiated Instruction in Science     85
Environments That Support Inquiry-Based Teaching and Learning     85
Classroom Features     87
Equipment and Supplies     88
Management Strategies     88
Problem-Based Learning     91
Examples of PBL Topics     91
Projects     92
Models     93
Booklets, Posters, and Brochures     94
Projects at the Primary, Intermediate, and Middle Grade Levels     94
Science Fair Projects     95
Product Testing and Survey Research     96
Science and Technological Design     97
Presentations     97
Stations     97
Examples of Stations at the Primary Grade Level     98
Example of Stations at the Intermediate Grade Level     99
Example of Stations at the Middle Grade Level     99
Centers     100
Structured Centers     100
Exploratory Centers     101
Relearning Centers     101
Assessment for Stations and Centers     102
Choice Boards     104
Choice Boards for a Primary Level Study of Animals     105
Contracts     105
Contract for Rocks and Minerals     105
Choice Board for Activities     110
Computer-Based Technologies as Tools for Learning     111
Strategies for Explaining, Applying, and Creating Meaning     115
Group Discussion     115
Questions for Thinking and Problem Solving     116
Discussion Starters     117
Nonlinguistic Representations for K-8 Science     118
Charts     118
Data Tables and Graphs     118
Creating Graphs     123
Bar Graphs     123
Line Graphs     123
Circle Graphs     123
Six Types of Graphic Organizers     126
Four-Corner Organizer     130
Strategies for Elaborating and Extending Learning     133
Beyond the Basics     133
Games That Enhance Learning     134
Cubing     134
Cubing With Questions About the Moon     135
Jigsaw     135
Analogies and Similes     138
Analogies     138
Similes     138
Similes for a Middle Grade Unit on Cells     139
Strategies for Assessing and Evaluating Learning     141
Assessment and Evaluation     141
Assessment Strategies in the Science Classroom     142
Performance Tasks for Learning and Assessment     142
Creating Rubrics for Teacher Assessment and Self-Assessment      152
Holistic Rubrics     153
Generalized Rubrics     153
Analytic Rubrics     155
Planning Differentiated Instruction: The Key to Success     158
Considerations, Resources, and Strategies for Differentiating Instruction in Science     158
References     163
Index     171

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