Differentiated Instructional Strategies for Science, Grades K-8

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Aligned with national science curriculum standards, this resource provides tools for differentiating science instruction, including sample lessons, assessment methods, rubrics, and a CD-ROM with reproducibles.

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Editorial Reviews

Jennifer Linrud Sinsel
"Teachers will find techniques to apply in the classroom immediately. The examples are user friendly andeasy to understand. Thereis little doubtthat using these strategies will enhance any science classroom."
Susan Koba
"This book addresses a real area of need and contains an abundant set of strategies."
Phyllis Milne
"This is an excellent sourcebook for science teachers who are looking for strategies to engage diverse learners. The reader can look for a specific topic and find not only support for the strategies but also specific examples of the teaching tools. The charts, strategies, graphics, and rubrics are reader-friendly!"
Marcia Le Compte
"The book containsa lot of information about national science standards and multiple learning styles, plusgoodsample units in science and good suggestions for Web sites. The authorsaregreat science teachers who believe wholly in engaging students in the wonder of the natural world."
Mandy Frantti
"The book provides very useful information for implementing differentiated instruction. Its research base plus concrete and useable examples mixes the theory with the practical. Teachers will find this book valuable."
Teacher Education Materials (TE-MAT) Project
“An impressively comprehensive collection of student-centered, research-based classroom practices in one slim, well-organized volume. This book would be a valuable resource to teachers in any setting. Preservice teachers are likely to keep it long after the class has ended to revisit management topics such as organizing a science notebook and creating cooperative groups, as well as to use or adapt the science-interest inventory and organizers for explaining and creating meaning. Districts will benefit from the book’s focus on process skills and pedagogy as well as the integration of 21st-century literacy standards with the science content standards. Science specialists, gifted and talented resource teachers, and special educators will all appreciate the book’s approach to high expectations for students, thinking and problem solving, and authentic assessment. The book would also be an excellent book study as part of the development of professional learning communities.”
Marcia LeCompte
"The book containsa lot of information about national science standards and multiple learning styles, plusgoodsample units in science and good suggestions for Web sites. The authorsaregreat science teachers who believe wholly in engaging students in the wonder of the natural world."
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781412916509
  • Publisher: SAGE Publications
  • Publication date: 2/19/2008
  • Pages: 200
  • Product dimensions: 7.00 (w) x 10.00 (h) x 0.77 (d)

Meet the Author

Gayle Gregory is an internationally known consultant who has specialized in brain compatible learning and differentiated instruction and assessment.

She presents practical teacher/student-friendly strategies grounded in sound research that educators find easy to use in the classroom or schoolhouse tomorrow. Her interactive style and modeling of strategies help teachers and administrators transfer new ideas with ease.

She has had extensive experience in elementary, middle and secondary schools, community colleges and universities. Gayle has also had district leadership roles including curriculum coordinator and staff development director. She has worked with Instructional Leadership Teams in many schools and district throughout the country focusing on data analysis, using assessment, both formative and summative, and differentiating instruction based on readiness, learning profiles and interests.

Her areas of expertise include brain-compatible learning, block scheduling, emotional intelligence, instructional and assessment practices, differentiated instructional strategies, using data to differentiate, literacy, presentation skills, renewal of secondary schools, enhancing teacher quality, coaching and mentoring, managing change and building professional learning communities.

She is the author and co-author of numerous publications for teachers and administrators.

Gayle believes in life long learning for herself and others.

Elizabeth Hammerman is a dedicated science educator and consultant. Her professional background includes teaching science at the middle school and high school levels and over 20 years of experience teaching university science education courses and co-directing funded grant projects. She has done extensive professional development with teachers in the field, specializing in curriculum development and implementation, performance assessment, and effective teaching and learning. The need for high-quality professional development programs and materials in science education became apparent throughout the many projects and professional relationships with teachers who were eager to increase their knowledge base, skills, and confidence for teaching science more effectively.

Hammerman has co-authored a book on performance assessment in science and authored a database of science assessment tasks. She has published articles, presented programs at national conferences, consulted nationally, and developed curriculum and assessments for cutting-edge school districts and commercial products.

Since relocating to North Carolina in 1999, Hammerman has been a math/science consultant for a consortium of seven county school systems, has taught undergraduate and graduate courses in teacher education and science education, served as director of education and professional development for Virtual Learning Systems, and worked as a consultant for the North Carolina Department of Public Instruction. She is actively involved in professional development and continues to work on a series of professional development books for science education for Corwin Press.

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Table of Contents

Acknowledgments     xi
About the Authors     xiii
Introduction     xv
Differentiated Instruction     xvi
Teaching Matters     xvi
Clarifying Instructional Goals     xvii
Differentiated Instruction in Action     xviii
Effective Science Education     1
Creating a Climate for Differentiated Instruction     3
A Climate for Learning     3
A Safe and Enriched Environment     4
Internet Resources Related to Health and Safety     4
Natural Learning Systems     5
Emotional Learning System     6
Social Learning System     6
Physical Learning System     7
Cognitive Learning System     7
Reflective Learning System     7
Learning Systems With Links to National Standards     8
A Planning Guide for Differentiated Instruction     9
Phases of the Planning Guide     9
Scientific and Technological Literacy for the Twenty-First Century     13
Scientific Literacy     13
Science Education Standards     14
Unifying Concepts and Processes     15
Process and Thinking Skills in K-8 Science     17
Dispositions That Underlie Science     17
Dimensions of Learning     17
Technological Literacy     21
Views of Technology     21
Integration of Information and Communication Technology (ICT)     22
Knowing the Learner     25
Multicultural Education     25
Multicultural Education in Science     26
Gender Equity     27
Gender Equity in Science     28
Learning Modalities     29
Learning and Thinking Styles     29
Kolb's Learning Styles     30
McCarthy's 4MAT System     32
Gregorc's Thinking Styles     32
Gardner's Theory of Multiple Intelligences     32
Eight Intelligences Linked to Science     33
Sternberg's View of Intelligence     41
Learning Activities Linked to Intelligences     41
Strategies for Preassessment     43
Assessing Prior Knowledge     43
Addressing Misconceptions     45
Pretest of Concepts     46
Pretest of Skills     46
Designing Differentiated Instruction     49
Methods and Effective Practices for Increasing Student Achievement     51
Methods for Teaching and Learning Science     52
The Roles of Teachers and Students in Methods     55
Research-Based Effective Practices     55
Strategies Linked to Brain Research and Classroom Practices     58
Science Notebooks as Tools for Learning     58
Lab Reports     61
Grouping     61
Cooperative Learning     64
Adjustable Assignments     65
Curriculum Compacting     69
Strategies for Activating and Engaging     73
Strategies for Engagement     73
K-W-L Charts     74
Discrepant Events     74
School Site Investigations     76
Informal Learning Environments     76
Video Clips     77
Guest Speakers     79
Displays     79
Literature in Science     80
Case Studies     80
Strategies for Acquiring and Exploring     83
Inquiry Defined     83
Traditional Versus Inquiry-Based Classrooms     84
Factors That Support Inquiry and Differentiated Instruction in Science     85
Environments That Support Inquiry-Based Teaching and Learning     85
Classroom Features     87
Equipment and Supplies     88
Management Strategies     88
Problem-Based Learning     91
Examples of PBL Topics     91
Projects     92
Models     93
Booklets, Posters, and Brochures     94
Projects at the Primary, Intermediate, and Middle Grade Levels     94
Science Fair Projects     95
Product Testing and Survey Research     96
Science and Technological Design     97
Presentations     97
Stations     97
Examples of Stations at the Primary Grade Level     98
Example of Stations at the Intermediate Grade Level     99
Example of Stations at the Middle Grade Level     99
Centers     100
Structured Centers     100
Exploratory Centers     101
Relearning Centers     101
Assessment for Stations and Centers     102
Choice Boards     104
Choice Boards for a Primary Level Study of Animals     105
Contracts     105
Contract for Rocks and Minerals     105
Choice Board for Activities     110
Computer-Based Technologies as Tools for Learning     111
Strategies for Explaining, Applying, and Creating Meaning     115
Group Discussion     115
Questions for Thinking and Problem Solving     116
Discussion Starters     117
Nonlinguistic Representations for K-8 Science     118
Charts     118
Data Tables and Graphs     118
Creating Graphs     123
Bar Graphs     123
Line Graphs     123
Circle Graphs     123
Six Types of Graphic Organizers     126
Four-Corner Organizer     130
Strategies for Elaborating and Extending Learning     133
Beyond the Basics     133
Games That Enhance Learning     134
Cubing     134
Cubing With Questions About the Moon     135
Jigsaw     135
Analogies and Similes     138
Analogies     138
Similes     138
Similes for a Middle Grade Unit on Cells     139
Strategies for Assessing and Evaluating Learning     141
Assessment and Evaluation     141
Assessment Strategies in the Science Classroom     142
Performance Tasks for Learning and Assessment     142
Creating Rubrics for Teacher Assessment and Self-Assessment      152
Holistic Rubrics     153
Generalized Rubrics     153
Analytic Rubrics     155
Planning Differentiated Instruction: The Key to Success     158
Considerations, Resources, and Strategies for Differentiating Instruction in Science     158
References     163
Index     171

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