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This book focuses on both the technical aspects of digital crime as well as behavioral aspects of computer hackers, virus writers, terrorists and other offenders. Using real life examples and case studies, the book examines the history, development, extent and types of digital crime and digital terrorism as well as current legislation and law enforcement practices designed to prevent, investigate and prosecute these crimes. For professionals in the technical field as well as forensic investigators and other criminal justice professionals.
SECTION I: THE ETIOLOGY OF DIGITAL CRIME AND DIGITAL TERRORISM.
1. Introduction and Overview of Digital Crime.
New Threats to the Information Age.
Purpose and Scope of this Book.
Digital Crime and Digital Terrorism.
A Developmental Perspective of the Growing Problem.
Increases in Cyber Victimization.
The Changing Character of Cyber Victimization
Types of Computer Crime.
The Computer as Target.
The Computer as an Instrument of a Crime.
The Computer as Incidental to a Crime.
Crimes Associated with the Prevalence of Computers.
2. Digital Terrorism.
Defining the Concepts.
Buzzwords: Information Warfare and Cyber-Terrorism.
Risk and Critical Infrastructure Attacks.
Cyberplagues—Viruses and Worms.
Distributed Denial of Service Attacks.
Cyber and Technological Facilitation.
Facilitation of Attack.
Propaganda and Promotion.
Cyber-Terrorism as an Adjunct Attack.
Al-Qaeda and Information Technology.
China and Information Warfare.
3. The Criminology of Computer Crime.
Moral Development and Crime.
Pedophiles and Psychological Theory.
Social Structure Theories.
White-Collar Crime and Strain Theory.
Hackers and Social Structure Theories.
Social Process Theories.
Social Control Theory.
Virus Writers and Social Process Theories.
Terrorism and Political Theory.
4. Digital Criminals and Hackers.
What is a Hacker?
The Original Meaning of “Hacker”.
What did Hackers Become?
Retaking the word: Hacker.
What do Hackers Do?
The Hacker Subculture.
The Hacker Ethic.
Old School Hackers.
The Merger of Phone Phreaks and Hackers.
Larval Hackers (Newbies).
A Hacker by Any Other Name...
Computer Criminals vs. Hackers.
White Hat versus Black Hat.
Hackers and the Media.
Fear, Uncertainty, and Doubt - FUD.
SECTION II: DIGITAL CRIME: TYPES, NATURE, AND EXTENT.
5. White Collar Crimes.
A Computer-Assisted Crime.
E-Commerce and the Internet.
Internet Fraud Schemes.
6. Viruses and Malicious Code.
Viruses and Malicious Code.
History and Development.
Adware and Spyware.
Denial of Service Attacks.
Extent of Viruses and Malicious Codes.
Malicious Code Trends.
Virus Writers and Virus Experts.
7. Exploitation, Stalking and Obscenity on the WWW.
Nature of Exploitation on the Internet.
Incidence and Prevalence of Victimization Online.
Stalking via the WWW.
Dynamics and Nature of Stalking and Cyber Stalking.
Characteristics of Stalkers and Their Victims.
Law Enforcement and Legislation Targeting Stalking.
Obscenity on the WWW.
Laws and Legislation Protecting Children Online.
The “New” Child Pornographers.
The Process of Moving from Pornography to Molestation.
The Problem of Child Sexual Abuse.
The Process of Sex Tourism.
Issues in the Investigation of Internet Exploitation, Cyber-Stalking, and Obscenity.
Law Enforcement Initiatives.
Overlapping Jurisdiction and Duplication of Effort.
Identification of Suspects.
Issues with Evidence and Detection.
8. Anarchy and Hate on the World Wide Web.
White Supremacy, Hate and the Internet.
Terrorist Extremists from the Left.
ELF and ALF.
Domestic Terrorists in Cyberspace.
Dehumanize, Desensitize and Demonize.
Storage and Dissemination of Information.
Publishing Information on Potential Victims.
Terrorism, Intelligence Gathering and the USA PATRIOT Act.
A Short History of Intelligence in the United States.
Domestic Intelligence and Policing.
U.S. Intelligence Weaknesses.
The USA PATRIOT Act.
Constitutional Rights and the USA PATRIOT Act.
SECTION III: CONTROLLING DIGITAL CRIME: LEGISLATION, LAW ENFORCEMENT, AND INVESTIGATION.
9. Digital Laws and Legislation.
Search and Seizure Law for Digital Evidence.
Searches With Warrants.
Searches Without Warrants.
The Pen/Trap Statute 18 U.S.C. §3121-27.
The Wiretap Statute (“Title III”) 18 U.S.C. §2510-22.
Electronic Communications Privacy Act “ECPA” 18 U.S.C. §2701-11.
USA PATRIOT Act.
Communication Assistance for Law Enforcement Act.
Federal Criminal Statutes.
Admitting Evidence at Trial.
The Best Evidence Rule.
Significant Court Cases.
10. Law Enforcement Roles and Responses.
Federal Roles and Responses.
The Secret Service.
The Department of Justice.
The Federal Bureau of Investigation.
The National Security Agency.
The Federal Trade Commission.
The Postal Service.
The Bureau of Customs and Border Protection.
The Department of Energy.
State and Local Roles.
Critical Needs as the State and Local Levels of Enforcement.
Interagency Cooperation and Collaboration.
11. The Investigation of Computer-Related Crime.
Investigator Roles and Responsibilities.
Subject Matter Experts.
Single Location Crime Scenes.
Search Warrants and Electronic Evidence.
External Storage Media.
Personal Data Devices (PDA’s).
Other Electronic Devises.
Executing the Search Warrant.
Examining of the Crime Scene.
Multiple Location and Network Crime Scenes.
Identifying Network Architectures.
Modeling Network Transactions.
Key Information for Locating Network Trace Evidence.
Presenting Digital Evidence at Trial.
The Hearsay Rule.
Using Notes on the Witness Stand.
Presenting Best Evidence.
Chain of Custody.
12. Digital Forensics.
The Basic Process of Storage Forensics.
Preparation for Forensic Analysis.
Acquisition of Data.
Authentication of Data.
Imaging of the Evidence Drive.
Wiping the Analysis Drive.
The Forensic Analyst as Expert Witness.
Computer Storage Systems.
Volatile Storage Systems.
Non-Volatile Storage Systems.
FAT: File Allocation Table.
NTFS: New Technology File System.
Encrypting File Systems — EFS.
Evidence Recovering from Slack Space.
Application: Defragmenting a Disk.
Commercial Forensic Packages.
Extended Analysis and Searching.
Centralized Report Writing and Auditing.
Validation and Support.
SECTION IV: THE FUTURE OF DIGITAL CRIME AND DIGITAL TERRORISM: PREVENTION AND TRENDS.
13. Information Security and Infrastructure Protection.
Mastering the Technology and the Environment.
Personal Computers and Intruders.
The Internet Explosion.
Principles of Risk Analysis.
Assessment and Evaluation.
Limitations of Firewalls.
Security Vendor Technologies.
14. Digital Crime and Terrorism: A Forecast of Trends and Policy Implications. Adapted from David L. Carter and Andra J. Katz-Bannister.
The Impact of Computer Crime: The Future Is Now.
Predicting the Future: Surveying the Experts.
Limitations to Data Collection.
The Future of Digital Crime and Digital Terrorism: Forecasts.
Overarching Factors Contributing to these Forecasts.