Digital Microwave Communication: Engineering Point-to-Point Microwave Systems / Edition 1

Digital Microwave Communication: Engineering Point-to-Point Microwave Systems / Edition 1

by George Kizer
     
 

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ISBN-10: 0470125349

ISBN-13: 9780470125342

Pub. Date: 06/17/2013

Publisher: Wiley

The first book to cover all engineering aspects of microwave communication path design for the digital age

Fixed point-to-point microwave systems provide moderate-capacity digital transmission between well-defined locations. Most popular in situations where fiber optics or satellite communication is impractical, it is commonly used for cellular or PCS site

Overview

The first book to cover all engineering aspects of microwave communication path design for the digital age

Fixed point-to-point microwave systems provide moderate-capacity digital transmission between well-defined locations. Most popular in situations where fiber optics or satellite communication is impractical, it is commonly used for cellular or PCS site interconnectivity where digital connectivity is needed but not economically available from other sources, and in private networks where reliability is most important.

Until now, no book has adequately treated all engineering aspects of microwave communications in the digital age. This important new work provides readers with the depth of knowledge necessary for all the system engineering details associated with fixed point-to-point microwave radio path design: the why, what, and how of microwave transmission; design objectives; engineering methodologies; and design philosophy (in the bid, design, and acceptance phase of the project).

Written in an easily accessible format, Digital Microwave Communication features an appendix of specialized engineering details and formulas, and offers up chapter coverage of:

  • A Brief History of Microwave Radio
  • Microwave Radio Overview
  • System Components
  • Hypothetical Reference Circuits
  • Multipath Fading
  • Rain Fading
  • Reflections and Obstructions
  • Network Reliability Calculations
  • Regulation of Microwave Radio Networks
  • Radio Network Performance Objectives
  • Designing and Operating Microwave Systems
  • Antennas
  • Radio Diversity
  • Ducting and Obstruction Fading
  • Digital Receiver Interference
  • Path Performance Calculations

Digital Microwave Communication: Engineering Point-to-Point Microwave Systems will be of great interest to engineers and managers who specify, design, or evaluate fixed point-to-point microwave systems associated with communications systems and equipment manufacturers, independent and university research organizations, government agencies, telecommunications services, and other users.

Product Details

ISBN-13:
9780470125342
Publisher:
Wiley
Publication date:
06/17/2013
Pages:
756
Sales rank:
1,178,867
Product dimensions:
7.40(w) x 9.90(h) x 1.70(d)

Related Subjects

Table of Contents

Preface xv

Acknowledgments xvii

About the Author xix

1 A Brief History of Microwave Radio Fixed Point-to-Point (Relay) Communication Systems 1

1.1 In the Beginning 1

1.2 Microwave Telecommunications Companies 7

1.3 Practical Applications 10

1.4 The Beat Goes On 14

References 16

2 Regulation of Microwave Radio Transmissions 20

2.1 Radio Frequency Management 21

2.2 Testing for Interference 28

2.3 Radio Paths by FCC Frequency Band in the United States 29

2.4 Influences in Frequency Allocation and Utilization Policy within the Western Hemisphere 30

2.5 FCC Fixed Radio Services 36

2.6 Site Data Accuracy Requirements 41

2.7 FCC Antenna Registration System (ASR) Registration Requirements 42

2.8 Engineering Microwave Paths Near Airports and Heliports 44

References 47

3 Microwave Radio Overview 48

3.1 Introduction 48

3.2 Digital Signaling 50

3.3 Noise Figure Noise Factor Noise Temperature and Front End Noise 50

3.4 Digital Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM) 53

3.5 Radio Transmitters and Receivers 58

3.6 Modulation Format 60

3.7 QAM Digital Radios 65

3.8 Channel Equalization 68

3.9 Channel Coding 70

3.10 Trellis Coded Modulation (TCM) 72

3.11 Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) 75

3.12 Radio Configurations 76

3.13 Frequency Diversity and Multiline Considerations 82

3.14 Transmission Latency 85

3.15 Automatic Transmitter Power Control (ATPC) 87

3.16 Current Trends 87

References 90

4 Radio Network Performance Objectives 96

4.1 Customer Service Objectives 96

4.2 Maintenance Objectives 96

4.3 Commissioning Objectives 98

4.4 Design Objectives 98

4.5 Differences Between North American and European Radio System Objectives 99

4.6 North American Telecommunications System Design Objectives 100

4.7 International Telecommunications System Design Objectives 100

4.8 Engineering Microwave Paths to Design Objectives 102

4.9 Accuracy of Path Availability Calculations 106

4.10 Impact of Flat Multipath Variability 108

4.11 Impact of Outage Measurement Methodology 108

4.12 Impact of External Interference 109

4.13 Conclusion 109

References 110

5 Radio System Components 114

5.1 Microwave Signal Transmission Lines 115

5.2 Antenna Support Structures 121

5.3 Tower Rigidity and Integrity 127

5.4 Transmission Line Management 127

5.5 Antennas 127

5.6 Near Field 137

5.7 Fundamental Antenna Limitations 143

5.8 Propagation 143

5.9 Radio System Performance as a Function of Radio Path Propagation 145

5.10 Radio System Performance as a Function of Radio Path Terrain 149

5.11 Antenna Placement 153

5.12 Frequency Band Characteristics 155

5.13 Path Distances 157

5.A Appendix 159

References 172

6 Designing and Operating Microwave Systems 175

6.1 Why Microwave Radio? 175

6.2 Radio System Design 175

6.3 Designing Low Frequency Radio Networks 179

6.4 Designing High Frequency Radio Networks 182

6.5 Field Measurements 185

6.6 User Data Interfaces 185

6.7 Operations and Maintenance 202

6.8 Maintaining the Network 210

References 217

7 Hypothetical Reference Circuits 220

7.1 North American (NA) Availability Objectives 220

7.2 North American Quality Objectives 225

7.3 International Objectives 225

7.4 International Telecommunication Union Quality Objectives 236

7.5 Error-Performance Relationship Among BER BBER and SESs 245

References 247

8 Microwave Antenna Theory 249

8.1 Common Parameters 251

8.2 Passive Reflectors 252

8.3 Circular (Parabolic) Antennas 256

8.4 Square Flat Panel Antennas 274

8.5 Regulatory Near Field Power Density Limits 290

8.6 Practical Near Field Power Calculations 290

8.7 Near Field Antenna Coupling Loss 296

8.A Appendix 307

References 318

9 Multipath Fading 320

9.1 Flat and Dispersive Fading 329

9.A Appendix 338

References 344

10 Microwave Radio Diversity 348

10.1 Space Diversity 350

10.2 Dual-Frequency Diversity 354

10.3 Quad (Space and Frequency) Diversity 357

10.4 Hybrid Diversity 358

10.5 Multiline Frequency Diversity 358

10.6 Crossband Multiline 365

10.7 Angle Diversity 366

10.A Appendix 372

References 380

11 Rain Fading 384

11.1 Point (Single-Location) Rain Loss (Fade) Estimation 386

11.2 Path Rain-Fade Estimation 390

11.3 Point-to-Path Length Conversion Factor 398

11.4 Single-Location Rain Rate R 398

11.5 City Rain Rate Data for North America 407

11.6 New Rain Zones 430

11.7 Worst-Month Rain Rates 430

11.8 Point Rain Rate Variability 439

11.9 Examples of Rain-Loss-Dominated Path Designs 441

11.10 Conclusions 444

11.A Appendix 446

References 458

12 Ducting and Obstruction Fading 461

12.1 Introduction 461

12.2 Superrefraction (Ducting) 465

12.3 Subrefraction (Earth Bulge or Obstruction) 469

12.4 Minimizing Obstruction Fading 471

12.5 Obstruction Fading Model 477

12.6 Obstruction Fading Estimation 479

12.7 Bell Labs Seasonal Parameter Charts 483

12.8 Refractivity Data Limitations 484

12.9 Reviewing the Bell Labs Seasonal Parameter Charts 485

12.10 Obstruction Fading Parameter Estimation 486

12.11 Evaluating Path Clearance Criteria 487

12.A Appendix: North American Refractivity Index Charts 490

12.B Appendix: Worldwide Obstruction Fading Data 491

References 511

13 Reflections and Obstructions 514

13.1 Theoretical Rough Earth Reflection Coefficient 514

13.2 Scattering from Earth Terrain 517

13.3 Practical Earth Reflection Coefficient 519

13.4 Reflection Location 519

13.5 Smooth Earth Divergence Factor 522

13.6 Reflections from Objects Near a Path 523

13.7 Fresnel Zones 525

13.8 Antenna Launch Angle (Transmit or Receive Antenna Takeoff Angle) 527

13.9 Grazing Angle 527

13.10 Additional Path Distance 528

13.11 Estimating the Effect of a Signal Reflected from the Earth 528

13.12 Flat Earth Obstruction Path Loss 529

13.13 Smooth Earth Obstruction Loss 529

13.14 Knife-Edge Obstruction Path Gain 530

13.15 Rounded-Edge Obstruction Path Gain 531

13.16 Complex Terrain Obstruction Losses 532

13.A Appendix 536

References 555

14 Digital Receiver Interference 559

14.1 Composite Interference (T/T ) Criterion 559

14.2 Carrier-to-Interference Ratio (C/I) Criterion 560

14.3 Measuring C/I 560

14.4 Estimating C/I 561

14.5 Threshold to Interference (T/I) Criterion 562

14.6 Why Estimate T/I 563

14.7 T/I Estimation—Method One 564

14.8 T/I Estimation—Method Two 565

14.9 Conclusion 569

14.A Appendix 569

14.B Appendix: Receiver Parameters 571

References 572

15 Network Reliability Calculations 573

15.1 Hardware Reliability 574

15.2 System Reliability 577

15.3 Communication Systems 579

15.4 Application to Radio Configurations 580

15.5 Spare Unit Requirements 580

15.6 BER Estimation 583

References 585

16 Path Performance Calculations 587

16.1 Path Loss 588

16.2 Fade Margin 589

16.3 Path Performance 589

16.4 Allowance for Interference 590

16.5 North American (NA) Path Performance Calculations 590

16.6 International Telecommunication Union—Radiocommunication Sector (ITU-R) Path Performance Calculations 604

16.7 Rain Fading and Obstruction Fading (NA and ITU-R) 614

16.8 Comparing the North American and the ITU-R Flat-Fading Estimates 614

16.9 Diffraction and Vegetation Attenuation 621

16.10 Fog Attenuation 622

16.11 Air Attenuation 624

16.A Appendix 631

References 649

A Microwave Formulas and Tables 653

A.1 General 653

Table A.1 General 653

Table A.2 Scientific and Engineering Notation 654

Table A.3 Emission Designator 655

Table A.4 Typical Commercial Parabolic Antenna Gain (dBi) 656

Table A.5 Typical Rectangular Waveguide 656

Table A.6 Typical Rectangular Waveguide Data 657

Table A.7 Typical Copper Corrugated Elliptical Waveguide Loss 657

Table A.8 Typical Copper Circular Waveguide Loss 658

Table A.9 Rectangular Waveguide Attenuation Factors 659

Table A.10 CommScope Elliptical Waveguide Attenuation Factors 659

Table A.11 RFS Elliptical Waveguide Attenuation Factors 660

Table A.12 Elliptical Waveguide Cutoff Frequencies 660

Table A.13 Circular Waveguide Cutoff Frequencies 661

Table A.14 Typical Coaxial Microwave Connectors 663

Table A.15 Coaxial Cable Velocity Factors 664

Table A.16 50 Ohm Coaxial Cable Attenuation Factors 664

Table A.17 Frequency Bands General Users 665

Table A.18 Frequency Bands Fixed Point to Point Operators 665

Table A.19 Frequency Bands Radar Space and Satellite Operators 666

Table A.20 Frequency Bands Electronic Warfare Operators 666

Table A.21 Frequency Bands Great Britain Operators 666

Table A.22 Signal-to-Noise Ratio for Demodulator 10−6 BER 667

A.2 Radio Transmission 668

A.3 Antennas (Far Field) 675

A.4 Near-Field Power Density 682

A.5 Antennas (Close Coupled) 683

A.6 Path Geometry 687

A.7 Obstruction Loss 693

A.8 Mapping 698

A.9 Towers 700

A.10 Interpolation 702

B Personnel and Equipment Safety Considerations 709

B.1 General Safety Guidelines 709

B.2 Equipment Protection 711

B.3 Equipment Considerations 712

B.4 Personnel Protective Equipment 713

B.5 Accident Prevention Signs 713

B.6 Tower Climbing 713

B.7 Hand Tools 715

B.8 Electrical Powered Tools 715

B.9 Soldering Irons 715

B.10 Ladders 716

B.11 Hoisting or Moving Equipment 716

B.12 Batteries 717

B.13 Laser Safety Guidelines 717

B.14 Safe Use of Lasers and LED in Optical Fiber Communication Systems 718

B.15 Optical Fiber Communication System (OFCS) Service Groups (SGs) 718

B.16 Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) 719

B.17 Maximum Permissible Microwave Radio RF Exposure 720

B.18 Protect Other Radio Users [FCC] 720

B.19 PAUSE (Prevent all Unplanned Service Events) and Ask Yourself (Verizon and AT&T Operations) 721

B.20 Protect Yourself (Bell System Operations) 721

B.21 Parting Comment 721

Index 723

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