Digital Microwave Communication: Engineering Point-to-Point Microwave Systems / Edition 1

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Overview

The first book to cover all engineering aspects of microwave communication path design for the digital age

Fixed point-to-point microwave systems provide moderate-capacity digital transmission between well-defined locations. Most popular in situations where fiber optics or satellite communication is impractical, it is commonly used for cellular or PCS site interconnectivity where digital connectivity is needed but not economically available from other sources, and in private networks where reliability is most important.

Until now, no book has adequately treated all engineering aspects of microwave communications in the digital age. This important new work provides readers with the depth of knowledge necessary for all the system engineering details associated with fixed point-to-point microwave radio path design: the why, what, and how of microwave transmission; design objectives; engineering methodologies; and design philosophy (in the bid, design, and acceptance phase of the project).

Written in an easily accessible format, Digital Microwave Communication features an appendix of specialized engineering details and formulas, and offers up chapter coverage of:

  • A Brief History of Microwave Radio
  • Microwave Radio Overview
  • System Components
  • Hypothetical Reference Circuits
  • Multipath Fading
  • Rain Fading
  • Reflections and Obstructions
  • Network Reliability Calculations
  • Regulation of Microwave Radio Networks
  • Radio Network Performance Objectives
  • Designing and Operating Microwave Systems
  • Antennas
  • Radio Diversity
  • Ducting and Obstruction Fading
  • Digital Receiver Interference
  • Path Performance Calculations

Digital Microwave Communication: Engineering Point-to-Point Microwave Systems will be of great interest to engineers and managers who specify, design, or evaluate fixed point-to-point microwave systems associated with communications systems and equipment manufacturers, independent and university research organizations, government agencies, telecommunications services, and other users.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780470125342
  • Publisher: Wiley
  • Publication date: 6/17/2013
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 756
  • Sales rank: 805,521
  • Product dimensions: 7.40 (w) x 9.90 (h) x 1.70 (d)

Meet the Author

GEORGE KIZER is a telecomm consultant specializing in microwave radio engineering and training. Before retiring from Alcatel North America's Wireless Transmission Division in 2001, he worked at Collins Radio and Rockwell International's Microwave Division of the Collins Radio Group. Mr. Kizer also served as chairman of the TIA's Fixed Microwave Section from 1991 to 1996.

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Table of Contents

Preface xv

Acknowledgments xvii

About the Author xix

1 A Brief History of Microwave Radio Fixed Point-to-Point (Relay) Communication Systems 1

1.1 In the Beginning, 1

1.2 Microwave Telecommunications Companies, 7

1.3 Practical Applications, 10

1.4 The Beat Goes On, 14

References, 16

2 Regulation of Microwave Radio Transmissions 20

2.1 Radio Frequency Management, 21

2.2 Testing for Interference, 28

2.3 Radio Paths by FCC Frequency Band in the United States, 29

2.4 Influences in Frequency Allocation and Utilization Policy within the Western Hemisphere, 30

2.5 FCC Fixed Radio Services, 36

2.6 Site Data Accuracy Requirements, 41

2.7 FCC Antenna Registration System (ASR) Registration Requirements, 42

2.8 Engineering Microwave Paths Near Airports and Heliports, 44

References, 47

3 Microwave Radio Overview 48

3.1 Introduction, 48

3.2 Digital Signaling, 50

3.3 Noise Figure, Noise Factor, Noise Temperature, and Front End Noise, 50

3.4 Digital Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM), 53

3.5 Radio Transmitters and Receivers, 58

3.6 Modulation Format, 60

3.7 QAM Digital Radios, 65

3.8 Channel Equalization, 68

3.9 Channel Coding, 70

3.10 Trellis Coded Modulation (TCM), 72

3.11 Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM), 75

3.12 Radio Configurations, 76

3.13 Frequency Diversity and Multiline Considerations, 82

3.14 Transmission Latency, 85

3.15 Automatic Transmitter Power Control (ATPC), 87

3.16 Current Trends, 87

References, 90

4 Radio Network Performance Objectives 96

4.1 Customer Service Objectives, 96

4.2 Maintenance Objectives, 96

4.3 Commissioning Objectives, 98

4.4 Design Objectives, 98

4.5 Differences Between North American and European Radio System Objectives, 99

4.6 North American Telecommunications System Design Objectives, 100

4.7 International Telecommunications System Design Objectives, 100

4.8 Engineering Microwave Paths to Design Objectives, 102

4.9 Accuracy of Path Availability Calculations, 106

4.10 Impact of Flat Multipath Variability, 108

4.11 Impact of Outage Measurement Methodology, 108

4.12 Impact of External Interference, 109

4.13 Conclusion, 109

References, 110

5 Radio System Components 114

5.1 Microwave Signal Transmission Lines, 115

5.2 Antenna Support Structures, 121

5.3 Tower Rigidity and Integrity, 127

5.4 Transmission Line Management, 127

5.5 Antennas, 127

5.6 Near Field, 137

5.7 Fundamental Antenna Limitations, 143

5.8 Propagation, 143

5.9 Radio System Performance as a Function of Radio Path Propagation, 145

5.10 Radio System Performance as a Function of Radio Path Terrain, 149

5.11 Antenna Placement, 153

5.12 Frequency Band Characteristics, 155

5.13 Path Distances, 157

5.A Appendix, 159

References, 172

6 Designing and Operating Microwave Systems 175

6.1 Why Microwave Radio? 175

6.2 Radio System Design, 175

6.3 Designing Low Frequency Radio Networks, 179

6.4 Designing High Frequency Radio Networks, 182

6.5 Field Measurements, 185

6.6 User Data Interfaces, 185

6.7 Operations and Maintenance, 202

6.8 Maintaining the Network, 210

References, 217

7 Hypothetical Reference Circuits 220

7.1 North American (NA) Availability Objectives, 220

7.2 North American Quality Objectives, 225

7.3 International Objectives, 225

7.4 International Telecommunication Union Quality Objectives, 236

7.5 Error-Performance Relationship Among BER, BBER, and SESs, 245

References, 247

8 Microwave Antenna Theory 249

8.1 Common Parameters, 251

8.2 Passive Reflectors, 252

8.3 Circular (Parabolic) Antennas, 256

8.4 Square Flat Panel Antennas, 274

8.5 Regulatory Near Field Power Density Limits, 290

8.6 Practical Near Field Power Calculations, 290

8.7 Near Field Antenna Coupling Loss, 296

8.A Appendix, 307

References, 318

9 Multipath Fading 320

9.1 Flat and Dispersive Fading, 329

9.A Appendix, 338

References, 344

10 Microwave Radio Diversity 348

10.1 Space Diversity, 350

10.2 Dual-Frequency Diversity, 354

10.3 Quad (Space and Frequency) Diversity, 357

10.4 Hybrid Diversity, 358

10.5 Multiline Frequency Diversity, 358

10.6 Crossband Multiline, 365

10.7 Angle Diversity, 366

10.A Appendix, 372

References, 380

11 Rain Fading 384

11.1 Point (Single-Location) Rain Loss (Fade) Estimation, 386

11.2 Path Rain-Fade Estimation, 390

11.3 Point-to-Path Length Conversion Factor, 398

11.4 Single-Location Rain Rate R, 398

11.5 City Rain Rate Data for North America, 407

11.6 New Rain Zones, 430

11.7 Worst-Month Rain Rates, 430

11.8 Point Rain Rate Variability, 439

11.9 Examples of Rain-Loss-Dominated Path Designs, 441

11.10 Conclusions, 444

11.A Appendix, 446

References, 458

12 Ducting and Obstruction Fading 461

12.1 Introduction, 461

12.2 Superrefraction (Ducting), 465

12.3 Subrefraction (Earth Bulge or Obstruction), 469

12.4 Minimizing Obstruction Fading, 471

12.5 Obstruction Fading Model, 477

12.6 Obstruction Fading Estimation, 479

12.7 Bell Labs Seasonal Parameter Charts, 483

12.8 Refractivity Data Limitations, 484

12.9 Reviewing the Bell Labs Seasonal Parameter Charts, 485

12.10 Obstruction Fading Parameter Estimation, 486

12.11 Evaluating Path Clearance Criteria, 487

12.A Appendix: North American Refractivity Index Charts, 490

12.B Appendix: Worldwide Obstruction Fading Data, 491

References, 511

13 Reflections and Obstructions 514

13.1 Theoretical Rough Earth Reflection Coefficient, 514

13.2 Scattering from Earth Terrain, 517

13.3 Practical Earth Reflection Coefficient, 519

13.4 Reflection Location, 519

13.5 Smooth Earth Divergence Factor, 522

13.6 Reflections from Objects Near a Path, 523

13.7 Fresnel Zones, 525

13.8 Antenna Launch Angle (Transmit or Receive Antenna Takeoff Angle), 527

13.9 Grazing Angle, 527

13.10 Additional Path Distance, 528

13.11 Estimating the Effect of a Signal Reflected from the Earth, 528

13.12 Flat Earth Obstruction Path Loss, 529

13.13 Smooth Earth Obstruction Loss, 529

13.14 Knife-Edge Obstruction Path Gain, 530

13.15 Rounded-Edge Obstruction Path Gain, 531

13.16 Complex Terrain Obstruction Losses, 532

13.A Appendix, 536

References, 555

14 Digital Receiver Interference 559

14.1 Composite Interference (T/T ) Criterion, 559

14.2 Carrier-to-Interference Ratio (C/I) Criterion, 560

14.3 Measuring C/I, 560

14.4 Estimating C/I, 561

14.5 Threshold to Interference (T/I) Criterion, 562

14.6 Why Estimate T/I, 563

14.7 T/I Estimation—Method One, 564

14.8 T/I Estimation—Method Two, 565

14.9 Conclusion, 569

14.A Appendix, 569

14.B Appendix: Receiver Parameters, 571

References, 572

15 Network Reliability Calculations 573

15.1 Hardware Reliability, 574

15.2 System Reliability, 577

15.3 Communication Systems, 579

15.4 Application to Radio Configurations, 580

15.5 Spare Unit Requirements, 580

15.6 BER Estimation, 583

References, 585

16 Path Performance Calculations 587

16.1 Path Loss, 588

16.2 Fade Margin, 589

16.3 Path Performance, 589

16.4 Allowance for Interference, 590

16.5 North American (NA) Path Performance Calculations, 590

16.6 International Telecommunication Union—Radiocommunication Sector (ITU-R) Path Performance Calculations, 604

16.7 Rain Fading and Obstruction Fading (NA and ITU-R), 614

16.8 Comparing the North American and the ITU-R Flat-Fading Estimates, 614

16.9 Diffraction and Vegetation Attenuation, 621

16.10 Fog Attenuation, 622

16.11 Air Attenuation, 624

16.A Appendix, 631

References, 649

A Microwave Formulas and Tables 653

A.1 General, 653

Table A.1 General, 653

Table A.2 Scientific and Engineering Notation, 654

Table A.3 Emission Designator, 655

Table A.4 Typical Commercial Parabolic Antenna Gain (dBi), 656

Table A.5 Typical Rectangular Waveguide, 656

Table A.6 Typical Rectangular Waveguide Data, 657

Table A.7 Typical Copper Corrugated Elliptical Waveguide Loss, 657

Table A.8 Typical Copper Circular Waveguide Loss, 658

Table A.9 Rectangular Waveguide Attenuation Factors, 659

Table A.10 CommScope Elliptical Waveguide Attenuation Factors, 659

Table A.11 RFS Elliptical Waveguide Attenuation Factors, 660

Table A.12 Elliptical Waveguide Cutoff Frequencies, 660

Table A.13 Circular Waveguide Cutoff Frequencies, 661

Table A.14 Typical Coaxial Microwave Connectors, 663

Table A.15 Coaxial Cable Velocity Factors, 664

Table A.16 50 Ohm Coaxial Cable Attenuation Factors, 664

Table A.17 Frequency Bands, General Users, 665

Table A.18 Frequency Bands, Fixed Point to Point Operators, 665

Table A.19 Frequency Bands, Radar, Space and Satellite Operators, 666

Table A.20 Frequency Bands, Electronic Warfare Operators, 666

Table A.21 Frequency Bands, Great Britain Operators, 666

Table A.22 Signal-to-Noise Ratio for Demodulator 10−6 BER, 667

A.2 Radio Transmission, 668

A.3 Antennas (Far Field), 675

A.4 Near-Field Power Density, 682

A.5 Antennas (Close Coupled), 683

A.6 Path Geometry, 687

A.7 Obstruction Loss, 693

A.8 Mapping, 698

A.9 Towers, 700

A.10 Interpolation, 702

B Personnel and Equipment Safety Considerations 709

B.1 General Safety Guidelines, 709

B.2 Equipment Protection, 711

B.3 Equipment Considerations, 712

B.4 Personnel Protective Equipment, 713

B.5 Accident Prevention Signs, 713

B.6 Tower Climbing, 713

B.7 Hand Tools, 715

B.8 Electrical Powered Tools, 715

B.9 Soldering Irons, 715

B.10 Ladders, 716

B.11 Hoisting or Moving Equipment, 716

B.12 Batteries, 717

B.13 Laser Safety Guidelines, 717

B.14 Safe Use of Lasers and LED in Optical Fiber Communication Systems, 718

B.15 Optical Fiber Communication System (OFCS) Service Groups (SGs), 718

B.16 Electrostatic Discharge (ESD), 719

B.17 Maximum Permissible Microwave Radio RF Exposure, 720

B.18 Protect Other Radio Users [FCC], 720

B.19 PAUSE (Prevent all Unplanned Service Events) and Ask Yourself (Verizon and AT&T Operations), 721

B.20 Protect Yourself (Bell System Operations), 721

B.21 Parting Comment, 721

Index 723

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