Digital Signal Processing: Fundamentals and Applications / Edition 1

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Overview

This textbook presents digital signal processing (DSP) principles, applications, and hardware implementation issues, emphasizing achievable results and conclusions through the presentation of numerous worked examples, while reducing the use of mathematics for an easier grasp of the concepts. Features include: Real-time implementation of DSP algorithms using DSP processors, MATLAB programs for simulations and C programs for real-time DSP, Coverage of adaptive filtering with applications to noise reduction and echo cancellation, Applications of DSP to multimedia-such as pulse code application, u-law and adaptive differential pulse code modulation-show the relevance of DSP to a key area in industry, MATLAB programs, student exercises and Real-time C programs available at http://books.elsevier.com/companions/9780123740908. This text gives students in electronics, computer engineering, and bioengineering an understanding of essential DSP principles and implementation, demonstrating how the subject is fundamental to engineering as practiced today.
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780123740908
  • Publisher: Elsevier Science
  • Publication date: 7/26/2007
  • Edition description: Older Edition
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 840
  • Product dimensions: 7.40 (w) x 9.30 (h) x 1.30 (d)

Table of Contents


Preface     xiii
About the Author     xvii
Introduction to Digital Signal Processing     1
Basic Concepts of Digital Signal Processing     1
Basic Digital Signal Processing Examples in Block Diagrams     3
Digital Filtering     3
Signal Frequency (Spectrum) Analysis     4
Overview of Typical Digital Signal Processing in Real-World Applications     6
Digital Crossover Audio System     6
Interference Cancellation in Electrocardiography     7
Speech Coding and Compression     7
Compact-Disc Recording System     9
Digital Photo Image Enhancement     10
Digital Signal Processing Applications     11
Summary     12
Signal Sampling and Quantization     13
Sampling of Continuous Signal     13
Signal Reconstruction     20
Practical Considerations for Signal Sampling: Anti-Aliasing Filtering     25
Practical Considerations for Signal Reconstruction: Anti-Image Filter and Equalizer     29
Analog-to-Digital Conversion, Digital-to-Analog Conversion, and Quantization     35
Summary     49
MATLAB Programs     50
Problems     51
Digital Signalsand Systems     57
Digital Signals     57
Common Digital Sequences     58
Generation of Digital Signals     62
Linear Time-Invariant, Causal Systems     64
Linearity     64
Time Invariance     65
Causality     67
Difference Equations and Impulse Responses     68
Format of Difference Equation     68
System Representation Using Its Impulse Response     69
Bounded-in-and-Bounded-out Stability     72
Digital Convolution     74
Summary     82
Problems     83
Discrete Fourier Transform and Signal Spectrum     87
Discrete Fourier Transform     87
Fourier Series Coefficients of Periodic Digital Signals     88
Discrete Fourier Transform Formulas     92
Amplitude Spectrum and Power Spectrum     98
Spectral Estimation Using Window Functions     110
Application to Speech Spectral Estimation     117
Fast Fourier Transform     120
Method of Decimation-in-Frequency     121
Method of Decimation-in-Time     127
Summary     131
Problems     131
The z-Transform      135
Definition     135
Properties of the z-Transform     139
Inverse z-Transform     142
Partial Fraction Expansion Using MATLAB     148
Solution of Difference Equations Using the z-Transform     151
Summary     155
Problems     156
Digital Signal Processing Systems, Basic Filtering Types, and Digital Filter Realizations     159
The Difference Equation and Digital Filtering     159
Difference Equation and Transfer Function     165
Impulse Response, Step Response, and System Response     169
The z-Plane Pole-Zero Plot and Stability     171
Digital Filter Frequency Response     179
Basic Types of Filtering     188
Realization of Digital Filters     195
Direct-Form I Realization     195
Direct-Form II Realization     196
Cascade (Series) Realization     197
Parallel Realization     198
Application: Speech Enhancement and Filtering     202
Pre-Emphasis of Speech     202
Bandpass Filtering of Speech     205
Summary     208
Problems     209
Finite Impulse Response Filter Design     215
Finite Impulse Response Filter Format     215
Fourier Transform Design     217
Window Method     229
Applications: Noise Reduction and Two-Band Digital Crossover     253
Noise Reduction     253
Speech Noise Reduction     255
Two-Band Digital Crossover     256
Frequency Sampling Design Method     260
Optimal Design Method     268
Realization Structures of Finite Impulse Response Filters     280
Transversal Form     280
Linear Phase Form     282
Coefficient Accuracy Effects on Finite Impulse Response Filters     283
Summary of Finite Impulse Response (FIR) Design Procedures and Selection of FIR Filter Design Methods in Practice     287
Summary     290
MATLAB Programs     291
Problems     294
Infinite Impulse Response Filter Design     303
Infinite Impulse Response Filter Format     303
Bilinear Transformation Design Method     305
Analog Filters Using Lowpass Prototype Transformation     306
Bilinear Transformation and Frequency Warping     310
Bilinear Transformation Design Procedure     317
Digital Butterworth and Chebyshev Filter Designs      322
Lowpass Prototype Function and Its Order     322
Lowpass and Highpass Filter Design Examples     326
Bandpass and Bandstop Filter Design Examples     336
Higher-Order Infinite Impulse Response Filter Design Using the Cascade Method     343
Application: Digital Audio Equalizer     346
Impulse Invariant Design Method     350
Polo-Zero Placement Method for Simple Infinite Impulse Response Filters     358
Second-Order Bandpass Filter Design     359
Second-Order Bandstop (Notch) Filter Design     360
First-Order Lowpass Filter Design     362
First-Order Highpass Filter Design     364
Realization Structures of Infinite Impulse Response Filters     365
Realization of Infinite Impulse Response Filters in Direct-Form I and Direct-Form II     366
Realization of Higher-Order Infinite Impulse Response Filters via the Cascade Form     368
Application: 60-Hz Hum Eliminator and Heart Rate Detection Using Electrocardiography     370
Coefficient Accuracy Effects on Infinite Impulse Response Filters     377
Application: Generation and Detection of Dual-Tone Multifrequency Tones Using Goertzel Algorithm     381
Single-Tone Generator     382
Dual-Tone Multifrequency Tone Generator      384
Goertzel Algorithm     386
Dual-Tone Multifrequency Tone Detection Using the Modified Goertzel Algorithm     391
Summary of Infinite Impulse Response (IIR) Design Procedures and Selection of the IIR Filter Design Methods in Practice     396
Summary     401
Problems     402
Hardware and Software for Digital Signal Processors     413
Digital Signal Processor Architecture     413
Digital Signal Processor Hardware Units     416
Multiplier and Accumulator     416
Shifters     417
Address Generators     418
Digital Signal Processors and Manufactures     419
Fixed-Point and Floating-Point Formats     420
Fixed-Point Format     420
Floating-Point Format     429
IEEE Floating-Point Formats     434
Fixed-Point Digital Signal Processors     437
Floating-Point Processors     439
Finite Impulse Response and Infinite Impulse Response Filter Implementation in Fixed-Point Systems     441
Digital Signal Processing Programming Examples     447
Overview or TMS320C67x DSK     447
Concept of Real-Time Processing     451
Linear Buffering     452
Sample C Programs      455
Summary     460
Problems     461
Adaptive Filters and Applications     463
Introduction to Least Mean Square Adaptive Finite Impulse Response Filters     463
Basic Wiener Filter Theory and Least Mean Square Algorithm     467
Applications: Noise Cancellation, System Modeling, and Line Enhancement     473
Noise Cancellation     473
System Modeling     479
Line Enhancement Using Linear Prediction     484
Other Application Examples     486
Canceling Periodic Interferences Using Linear Prediction     487
Electrocardiography Interference Cancellation     488
Echo Cancellation in Long-Distance Telephone Circuits     489
Summary     491
Problems     491
Waveform Quantization and Compression     497
Linear Midtread Quantization     497
[Mu]-law Companding     501
Analog [Mu]-Law Companding     501
Digital [Mu]-Law Companding     506
Examples of Differential Pulse Code Modulation (DPCM), Delta Modulation, and Adaptive DPCM G.721     510
Examples of Differential Pulse Code Modulation and Delta Modulation     510
Adaptive Differential Pulse Code Modulation G.721      515
Discrete Cosine Transform, Modified Discrete Cosine Transform, and Transform Coding in MPEG Audio     522
Discrete Cosine Transform     522
Modified Discrete Cosine Transform     525
Transform Coding in MPEG Audio     530
Summary     533
MATLAB Programs     534
Problems     550
Multirate Digital Signal Processing, Oversampling of Analog-to-Digital Conversion, and Undersampling of Bandpass Signals     557
Multirate Digital Signal Processing Basics     557
Sampling Rate Reduction by an Integer Factor     558
Sampling Rate Increase by an Integer Factor     564
Changing Sampling Rate by a Non-Integer Factor L/M     570
Application: CD Audio Player     575
Multistage Decimation     578
Polyphase Filter Structure and Implementation     583
Oversampling of Analog-to-Digital Conversion     589
Oversampling and Analog-to-Digital Conversion Resolution     590
Sigma-Delta Modulation Analog-to-Digital Conversion     593
Application Example: CD Player     599
Undersampling of Bandpass Signals     601
Summary     609
Problems     610
Image Processing Basics      617
Image Processing Notation and Data Formats     617
8-Bit Gray Level Images     618
24-Bit Color Images     619
8-Bit Color Images     620
Intensity Images     621
Red, Green, Blue Components and Grayscale Conversion     622
MATLAB Functions for Format Conversion     624
Image Histogram and Equalization     625
Grayscale Histogram and Equalization     625
24-Bit Color Image Equalization     632
8-Bit Indexed Color Image Equalization     633
MATLAB Functions for Equalization     636
Image Level Adjustment and Contrast     637
Linear Level Adjustment     638
Adjusting the Level for Display     641
Matlab Functions for Image Level Adjustment     642
Image Filtering Enhancement     642
Lowpass Noise Filtering     643
Median Filtering     646
Edge Detection     651
MATLAB Functions for Image Filtering     655
Image Pseudo-Color Generation and Detection     657
Image Spectra     661
Image Compression by Discrete Cosine Transform     664
Two-Dimensional Discrete Cosine Transform     666
Two-Dimensional JPEG Grayscale Image Compression Example     669
JPEG Color Image Compression     671
Creating a Video Sequence by Mixing Two Images     677
Video Signal Basics     677
Analog Video     678
Digital Video     685
Motion Estimation in Video     687
Summary     690
Problems     692
Introduction to the MATLAB Environment     699
Basic Commands and Syntax     699
MATLAB Array and Indexing     703
Plot Utilities: Subplot, Plot, Stem, and Stair     704
MATLAB Script Files     704
MATLAB Functions     705
Review of Analog Signal Processing Basics     709
Fourier Series and Fourier Transform     709
Sine-Cosine Form     709
Amplitude-Phase Form     710
Complex Exponential Form     711
Spectral Plots     714
Fourier Transform     721
Laplace Transform     726
Laplace Transform and Its Table     726
Solving Differential Equations Using Laplace Transform     727
Transfer Function     730
Poles, Zeros, Stability, Convolution, and Sinusoidal Steady-State Response      731
Poles, Zeros, and Stability     731
Convolution     733
Sinusoidal Steady-State Response     735
Problems     736
Normalized Butterworth and Chebyshev Fucntions     741
Normalized Butterworth Function     741
Normalized Chebyshev Function     744
Sinusoidal Steady-State Response of Digital Filters     749
Sinusoidal Steady-State Response     749
Properties of the Sinusoidal Steady-State Response     751
Finite Impulse Response Filter Design Equations by the Frequency Sampling Design Method     753
Some Useful Mathematical Formulas     757
Bibliography     761
Answers to Selected Problems     765
Index     791
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