Digital Signal Processing Techniques and Applications in Radar Image Processing / Edition 1

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Overview

The processing of radar images, in general, consists of three major fields: Digital Signal Processing (DSP); antenna and radar operation; and algorithms used to process the radar images. This book brings together material from these different areas to allow readers to gain a thorough understanding of how radar images are processed.

The book is divided into three main parts and covers: DSP principles and signal characteristics in both analog and digital domains, advanced signal sampling, and interpolation techniques, Antenna theory (Maxwell equation, radiation field from dipole, and linear phased array), radar fundamentals, radar modulation, and target-detection techniques (continuous wave, pulsed Linear Frequency Modulation, and stepped Frequency Modulation), Properties of radar images, algorithms used for radar image processing, simulation examples, and results of satellite image files processed by Range-Doppler and Stolt interpolation algorithms.

The book fully utilizes the computing and graphical capability of MATLAB to display the signals at various processing stages in 3D and/or cross-sectional views. Additionally, the text is complemented with flowcharts and system block diagrams to aid in readers' comprehension.

Digital Signal Processing Techniques and Applications in Radar Image Processing serves as an ideal textbook for graduate students and practicing engineers who wish to gain firsthand experience in applying DSP principles and technologies to radar imaging.

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Product Details

Table of Contents


Preface     xiii
List of Symbols     xvii
List of Illustrations     xxi
Signal Theory and Analysis     1
Special Functions Used in Signal Processing     1
Delta or Impulse Function [delta](t)     1
Sampling or Interpolation Function sinc (t)     2
Linear System and Convolution     3
Key Properties of Convolution     5
Commutative     5
Associative     5
Distributive     5
Timeshift     5
Fourier Series Representation of Periodic Signals     6
Trigonometric Fourier Series     6
Compact Trigonometric Fourier Series     6
Exponential Fourier Series     7
Nonperiodic Signal Representation by Fourier Transform     11
Fourier Transform of a Periodic Signal     16
Sampling Theory and Interpolation     19
Advanced Sampling Techniques     24
Sampling with Bandpass Signal     24
Resampling by Evenly Spaced Decimation     25
Resampling by Evenly Spaced Interpolation     25
Resampling by Fractional Rate Interpolation     26
Resampling from Unevenly Spaced Data     28
Jacobian ofTransformation     28
Discrete Time and Frequency Transformation     35
Continuous and Discrete Fourier Transform     35
Key Properties of Discrete Fourier Transform     38
Shifting and Symmetry     39
Linear and Circular Convolution     39
Sectioned Convolution     41
Overlap-and-Add Method     42
Overlap-and-Save Method     42
Zero Stuffing and Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) Resolution     43
Widows and Discrete Fourier Transform     48
Fast Fourier Transform     50
Radix-2 Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) Algorithms     50
Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT)     53
Two-Dimensional DCT     57
Continuous and Discrete Signals in Time and Frequency Domains     57
Graphical Representation of DFT     57
Resampling with Fractional Interpolation Based on DFT     60
Basics of Antenna Theory     63
Maxwell and Wave Equations     63
Harmonic Time Dependence     65
Radiation from an Infinitesimal Current Dipole     67
Magnetic Vector Potential Due to a Small but Finite Current Element     68
Field Vectors Due to Small but Finite Current Radiation      69
Far-Field Region     70
Summary of Radiation Fields     72
Radiation from a Half-Wavelength Dipole     73
Radiation from a Linear Array     74
Power Radiation Pattern from a Linear Array     78
Power Radiation Pattern from a 2D Rectangular Array     80
Fundamentals of Antenna Parameters     81
Radiation Beamwidth     81
Solid Angle, Power Density, and Radiation Intensity     82
Directivity and Gain     84
Antenna Impedance     84
Antenna Efficiency     85
Effective Area and Antenna Gain     85
Polarization     89
Commonly Used Antenna Geometries     89
Single-Element Radiators     89
Microstrip Antennas and Antenna Array     91
Fundamentals of Radar     93
Principles of Radar Operation     93
Basic Configuration of Radar     96
Waveform Generator     96
Transmitter     96
Antenna System     96
Receiver     97
Computer/Signal Processor     97
Timing and Control     97
The Radar Range Equation     97
Cross Section and Clutter      100
Target Cross Section     100
Cross Section and the Equivalent Sphere     101
Cross Section of Real Targets     101
Radar Cross Section (RCS)     101
Clutter     102
Doppler Effect and Frequency Shift     103
Doppler Frequency     104
Radar Resolution and Ambiguity Function     110
Radar Modulation and Target Detection Techniques     116
Amplitude Modulation (AM) Radar     116
Continuous-Wave (CW) Radar     117
Pulse Modulation Radar     117
Target Detection Techniques of AM-Based Radar     119
Doppler Frequency Extraction     119
Motion Direction Detection     121
Frequency Modulation (FM)-Radar     123
Pulsed Linear Frequency Modulation (LFM) Radar     124
Continuous-Wave Linear Frequency Modulation Radar     129
Stepped Frequency Modulation Radar     130
Target Detection Techniques of FM-Based Radar     133
In-Phase Quadrature-Phase Demodulator     133
Matched Filter and Pulse Compression     134
Target Detection Techniques of LFM Radar     141
Target Detection Techniques of SFM Radar     149
Basics of Radar Imaging      155
Background     155
Geometry of Imaging Radar     157
Doppler Frequency and Radar Image Processing     159
Broadside SAR     161
SAR with Squint Angle     174
SAR with a Small Squint Angle     176
SAR with a Low Squint Angle     180
Range Migration and Curvature     185
Geometric Distortions of the Radar Image     188
Layover     188
Foreshortening     189
Shadowing     189
Slant-to-Ground Range Distortion     189
Speckle     189
Radar Image Resolution     189
Example of Real Aperture Radar (RAR) Resolution: ERS-1/2-Imaging Radars     191
System Model and Data Acquisition of SAR Image     194
System Model of Range Radar Imaging     194
System Model     194
Reconstruction of Range Target Function     196
System Model of Cross-Range Radar Imaging     199
Broadside Radar Case     199
System Model     199
Principle of Stationary Phase     203
Spatial Fourier Transform of Cross-Range Target Response     207
Reconstruction of Cross-Range Target Function      210
Squint Radar Case     213
System Model     213
Spatial Fourier Transform of Cross-Range Target Response     216
Reconstruction of Cross-Range Target Function     219
Data Acquisition, Sampling, and Power Spectrum of Radar Image     221
Digitized Doppler Frequency Power Spectrum     223
Broadside SAR     223
Squint SAR     223
Range-Doppler Processing on SAR Images     226
SAR Image Data Generation     227
Synthesis of a Broadside SAR Image Data Array     231
Single-Target Case     231
Multiple-Target Case     235
Synthesis of a Squint SAR Image Data Array     240
Single-Target Case     240
Multiple-Target Case     242
Range-Doppler Processing of SAR Data     246
Range Compression     248
Corner Turn     249
Range Cell Migration Correction     249
Computation of Range Migration Amount     249
Fractional Range Sample Interpolation     252
Range Sample Shift     252
Azimuth Compression     254
Doppler Frequency Centroid     254
Doppler Frequency Change Rate [beta]     254
Pulse Duration Time T[subscript a]     254
Simulation Results     255
Broadside SAR with Single Target     255
Broadside SAR with Multiple Targets     261
Squint SAR with Single Target     267
Squint SAR with Multiple Targets     275
Stolt Interpolation Processing on SAR Images     285
Wavenumber Domain Processing of SAR Data     285
Direct Interpolation from Unevenly Spaced Samples     288
Stolt Interpolation Processing of SAR Data     290
System Model of Broadside SAR with Six Targets     294
Synthesis of Broadside SAR Data Array     296
Simulation Results     298
System Model of Squint SAR with Six Targets     305
Synthesis of Squint SAR Data Array     307
Simulation Results     309
Reconstruction of Satellite Radar Image Data     320
Comparison Between Range-Doppler and Stolt Interpolation on SAR Data Processing     328
Further Reading     333
Index     335
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