Digital Telephony Over Cable: The PacketCable Network

Digital Telephony Over Cable: The PacketCable Network

by D. R. Evans
     
 

ISBN-10: 0201728273

ISBN-13: 9780201728279

Pub. Date: 05/04/2001

Publisher: Addison-Wesley

PacketCable promises to be one of the most important developments in networking technology to date. The PacketCable™ network, a project managed by the Cable Television Laboratories consortium, is expected to be deployed by all major American cable companies as well as many overseas cable operators. The large-scale PacketCable network enables high-speed

Overview

PacketCable promises to be one of the most important developments in networking technology to date. The PacketCable™ network, a project managed by the Cable Television Laboratories consortium, is expected to be deployed by all major American cable companies as well as many overseas cable operators. The large-scale PacketCable network enables high-speed simultaneous transmission of digital computer data and telephone voice signals over cable modems and facilitates the widespread deployment of video and voice Internet applications, such as video conferencing, by utilizing cables that are already in place through cable T.V. Developed through the cooperative efforts of numerous cable television operators and telephony and networking vendors, the specifications enable cable modems to compete aggressively with twisted-pair telephony and DSL technology.

Written for anyone with a stake in this up-and-coming field, Digital Telephony Over Cable serves as a companion guide for implementors and managers alike. It provides an accessible overview of more than a thousand pages of technical specifications with in-depth explanations of the most salient features, and offers extensive background on many of the underlying technologies that make digital telephony over cable possible. You will learn how all of these specifications come together to create a complete, functional telephony network running over a shared access medium.

Readers will find in-depth coverage of important topics such as:

  • PacketCable architecture
  • PacketCable devices
  • Security issues, including cryptography, key management, ciphers, and X.509 certificates
  • Quality of service issues, focusing on DOCSIS and DQoS
  • DOCSIS and MAC specifications for cable modem communication over shared coax
  • Network-based call signaling, featuring MGCP and NCS
  • Distributed call signaling, featuring SIP
  • Network management, covering SNMP, billing, and electronic surveillance
  • Internetworking with PSTN

The book concludes with a look into the future of cable modem telephony, including possible changes to current specifications, ownership issues for the MTA, and Fiber to the Home (FTTH) technology.

0201728273B04062001

Product Details

ISBN-13:
9780201728279
Publisher:
Addison-Wesley
Publication date:
05/04/2001
Edition description:
New Edition
Pages:
571
Product dimensions:
7.30(w) x 9.00(h) x 1.30(d)

Table of Contents

1. Background.

The Residential Broadband Pipe.

ISDN and DSL.

Cable Access to the Internet.

Hybrid Fiber Coax Networks.

Customer Premise Equipment.

Home Networks.

The PacketCable Project.

PacketCable Architecture.

Packet Technology.

Protocol Stacks.

Placing a Call in a Packet Network.

PacketCable and the Internet.

The Rest of the Book.

2. Security.

Classes of Attack.

Theft of Service.

Denial of Service.

Invasion of Privacy.

Security and Conventional Telephony.

Security in Digital Networks.

Security Concepts.

Cryptographic Security.

Cryptographic Algorithms.

Cryptographic Hashes.

Nonces.

Keys.

Key Management.

Public Key Cryptography.

Digital Signatures.

Certificates.

Conventional Cryptography.

Kerberos.

PKINIT.

Internet Key Exchange (IKE).

Specific Security Mechanisms and Algorithms.

Ipsec.

The Security Parameter Index (SPI).

IPsec internals.

Ciphers.

DES and 3DES.

RSA.

RC4.

Message Authentication Codes.

Multilinear Modular Hash (MMH).

HMACs.

X.509 Certificates.

Format of X.509 Certificates.

PacketCable Certificate Hierarchies.

MTA Root Certificate.

MTA Manufacturer Certificate.

MTA Device Certificate.

IP Telephony Root Certificate.

Telephony Service Provider Certificate.

Local System Certificate.

MTA Telephony Certificate.

Certificate Revocation.

Other Certificates.

Ticket Granting Server Certificate.

Provisioning Server Certificate.

3. The Access Link.

The DOCSIS Specifications.

Overview of the Cable Access Network.

Initialization.

Downstream Synchronization.

Obtaining Upstream Parameters.

Ranging.

Establishing IP Connectivity.

Synchronizing Time of Day.

Transferring Operational Parameters.

Registering.

Initializing Baseline Privacy Plus.

DOCSIS Protocol Layers.

Physical Media Dependent Sublayer.

Modulation Schemes.

Time Slices.

Upstream Transmission.

Downstream Data Flow Through a Cable Modem.

Media Access Control Layer.

MAC Header Format.

MAC Packet Protocol Data Unit (PDU) Format.

Specialized MAC Headers.

Format of MAC Management Messages.

MAC Management.

Service Identifiers and Service Flow Identifiers.

Time Synchronization Message (SYNC).

Upstream Channel Descriptor (UCD).

Ranging.

Ranging Request (RNG-REQ).

Ranging Response (RNG-RSP).

Upstream Bandwidth Allocation Map (MAP).

MAP Information Elements.

Example Upstream Bandwidth Allocation.

Contention Rsolution.

The MAP Message.

Quality Service (QoS).

Unsolicited Grant Service (UGS).

Real-Time Polling Service.

UGS with Activity Detection (AD).

Non-Real-Time Polling Service.

Best Effort Service.

Committed Information Rate.

Dynamic Service Flows.

Baseline Privacy Interface Plus.

Security Associations in BPI1.

Baseline Privacy Key Management (BPKM).

Authenticating the CM.

The Authorization Key.

Obtaining TEKs.

Key Derivation.

TEK Encryption.

Lifetime of Keying Material.

Packet Formats.

The CM's X.509 Certificate.

BPI1 MAC Extended Header.

Where Do We Go From Here?

4. Network-Based Call Signaling.

Media Gateway Control Protocol (MGCP).

Format.

Command Header.

Digit Maps.

Quarantine.

NCS and DqoS.

Event Packages.

Responses.

Response Parameters.

Response to CRCX.

Response to MDCX.

Response to DLCX.

Response to RQNT.

Response to NTFY.

Response to AUEP.

Response to AUCX.

Response to RSIP.

Encoding Session Descriptions.

Permitted Session Description Parameters.

Protocol Version.

Origin.

Session Name.

Connection Data.

Bandwidth.

Time.

Encryption Keys.

Attributes.

Media Announcements.

RTPMAPs.

Message Transmission.

Piggybacking Messages.

Provisional Responses.

Security.

Bearer-Channel Security.

Encoded RTP Format.

Encrypting RTP Packets.

Key Derivation Function.

Procedure for Encrypting and Decrypting.

Key Management in NCS.

Basic NCS Call Flow.

Call Features.

Caller ID.

Anonymity.

Call Waiting.

Three-Way Calling.

5. Distributed Call Signaling.

Basic Call Flow.

Trust.

Intelligent MTAs.

Messaging

SIP Header Extensions.

INVITE (stage1).

DCS-CALLER.

DCS-ANONYMITY.

DCS-GATE.

DCS-STATE.

DCS-ALSO:

DCS-REPLACES:

DCS-OSPS:

DCS-BILLING-INFO:

DCS-BILLING-ID:

SIP Response Extensions.

SESSION PROGRESS.

SIP and DCS.

DCS URLs.

Supported Headers

SDP.

Protocol version (v=).

Origin (o=).

Session Name (s=).

Connection data (c=).

Bandwidth (b=).

Time (t=).

Encryption keys (k=).

Attributes (a=).

Media Announcements (m=).

Details of DCS Signaling.

Basic Messaging--INVITE and Its Variants.

Retransmission Strategy.

Establishing a Connection.

Message Number 1--INVITE(stage1).

Message Number 2--INVITE(stage1).

Message Number 3--INVITE(stage1).

Message Number 4--200 OK.

Message Number 5--200 OK.

Message Number 6--200 OK.

Message Number 7--ACK.

Message Number 8--INVITE.

Message Number 9--18x.

Message Number 10--200 OK.

Message Number 11--ACK.

Tearing Down a Call.

Implementing Features.

Mid-Call Codec Changes.

BLV and EI.

IP-Anonymity.

DCS and Personal Privacy.

6. Quality of Service.

DQoS and RSVP.

Customer and Operator Expectations.

Gates.

Resources.

Authorization, Reservation and Commitment.

Two-Stage Commitment.

Security and DqoS.

MTA and CMTS.

GC and CMTS.

CMS and CMTS.

DQoS and DOCSIS.

Codecs.

Buckets and Jitter Buffers.

Buckets.

Token Bucket Rate (R).

Token Bucket Size (B).

Maximum Transmission Rate (p).

Jitter Buffers 306

Flowspecs.

Flowspecs, DOCSIS, and SDP.

A Note About RTCP.

More About Gates.

Auto-Commit and Commit-Not-Allowed Flags.

Auto-Commit Flag.

Commit-Not-Allowed Flag.

Gate States.

Auto-Commit and Commit-Not-Allowed Flags.

Auto-Commit Flag.

Commit-Not-Allowed Flag.

Gate States.

Common Open Policy Service (COPS).

Intserv and Diffserv Networks.

COPS in PacketCable Networks.

COPS Messages.

Transaction-ID.

Subscriber-ID.

Gate-ID.

Activity-Count.

Gate-Spec.

Remote-Gate-Info.

Event-Generation-Info.

Media-Connection-Event-Info.

PacketCable-Error.

Electronic-Surveillance-Parameters.

Session-Description-Parameters.

Example PacketCable COPS Object.

Protocol Operation.

Gate Control Messages.

GATE-ALLOC.

GATE-ALLOC-ACK.

GATE-ALLOC-ERROR.

GATE-SET.

GATE-SET-ACK.

GATE-SET-ERR.

GATE-INFO.

GATE-INFO-ACK.

GATE-INFO-ERR.

Examples of COPS Messages.

Initialization of the COPS Connection.

Operation.

Allocating a Gate.

Setting (Creating) a Gate.

Querying a Gate.

Closing and Deleting a Gate.

Gate Coordination.

Format of Gate Coordination Messages.

Gate Coordination Message Contents.

GATE-OPEN.

GATE-OPEN-ACK.

GATE-OPEN-ERR.

GATE-CLOSE.

GATE-CLOSE-ACK.

GATE-CLOSE-ERR.

Example Gate Coordination Message.

Use of Gate Coordination Messages.

Example Call Flow.

7. Provisioning, Back Office and Electronic Surveillance.

Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP).

The Need for Network Management.

SNMP Architecture.

SNMP Messages.

Power-On Initialization.

Obtaining IP Connectivity Information.

Becoming Part of the Network.

MTA Configuration File Format.

Creating an IPsec Security Association with a CMS.

Wake-Up.

Rekey.

Event Messages.

Billing Correlation ID.

Types of Event Messages.

Event Message Format.

Attributes

Contents of Individual Event Messages.

Message #1: Signaling_Start.

Message #2: Signaling_Stop.

Message #3: Database_Query.

Message #6: Service_Instance.

Message #7: QoS_Start.

Message #8: QoS_Stop.

Message #9: Service_Activation.

Message #10: Service_Deactivation.

Message #13: Interconnect_(Signaling)_Start.

Message #14: Interconnect_(Signaling)_Stop.

Message #15: Call_Answer.

Message #16: Call_Disconnect.

Message #17: Time_Change.

Message #18: QoS_Change.

RADIUS.

RADIUS and Security.

RADIUS Message Header.

RADIUS Accounting-Request Format.

Example RADIUS message.

Electronic Surveillance.

CALEA.

Types of Wiretap.

The CALEA Framework.

Compliance with CALEA.

What May Be Tapped?

Wiretapping Architecture in PacketCable Networks.

Call Signaling.

Changes to Event Messages.

Message #1: Signaling_Start.

Message #6: Service_Instance.

Message #7: QoS_Start.

Message #8: QoS_Stop.

Message #15: Call_Answer.

Message #16: Call_Disconnect.

CDC Connection Between DF and CF.

DCD Message Formats.

Answer.

CCChange.

CCClose.

CCOpen.

Origination.

Redirection.

Release.

TerminationAttempt.

CCC Message Format.

Example Call Flow.

Complications.

8. Interworking with the PSTN.

Architecture.

Signaling.

Mapping.

Media Control.

Packages.

IT--The ISUP Trunk Package.

MO--The Operator Services Package.

MT--The MF Terminating Protocol Package.

Messages.

Example Call Flow.

9. The Future.

Changes to Current Specifications.

New Specifications.

Calls Utilizing More Than One CMS 501

Calls Utilizing More Than One Service Provider.

Automated Security.

New Codecs.

New Encryption Algorithms.

Non-Embedded MTAs.

Future Services.

Business Issues.

The MTA: Where Does It Belong, and Who Owns It?

Primary Line or Secondary Line?

Partially Compliant Networks.

NCS vs DCS.

Fiber to the Home (FTTH).

Putting it All Together.

Appendix A. Glossary.

Appendix B. Cyclic Redundancy Checks.

Appendix C. Standard Encoding.

Binary to Hex.

BASE64.

The BASE64 Algorithm.

Appendix D. Bearer-Channel Keying Material.

Index. 0201728273T04232001

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