Carolyn P. Schriber is a Professor Emerita in the History Department at Rhodes College in Memphis, TN. Since retiring she has written several other books on the Civil War in South Carolina: A Scratch with the Rebels (paperback or Kindle edition), the award-winning novel, Beyond All Price (paperback or Kindle edition), and a collection of short pieces, Left by the Side of the Road: Characters without a Novel (Kindle edition). She has also written a handbook on publishing called The Second Mouse Gets the Cheese: How to Avoid the Traps of Self-Publishing (paperback or Kindle edition). Read more about her work on her publishing company website. She now lives near Memphis with her husband and five lovable but opinionated cats. When she is not engaged in her duties as president of Mid-South Lions Sight and Hearing Service, a non-profit charity connected with Lions Clubs International, she writes and enjoys traveling to do more research in the Low Country between Charleston and Savannah.
The Dilemma of Arnulf of Lisieux: New Ideas versus Old Idealsby Carolyn Poling Schriber
Arnulf, bishop of Lisieux from 1141 to 1181, was a significant figure in the twelfth-century renaissance. He held a prominent position among the advisors of Henry II of England, implemented the reforms of Bernard of Clairvaux, and became a confidante of Pope Alexander III. He participated in the Second Crusade, served as an ambassador for Louis VII, acted as a papal judge-delegate and as chief justiciar for Normandy, built one of the first Gothic cathedrals in northern France, and wielded his influence during civil wars and the Becket controversy. Throughout his life, Arnulf observed a paradigm constructed in his early years-an assumption that the primary duty of a bishop was to serve both church and king.
Arnulf's strict adherence to the ideals of his youth frequently made him unpopular with contemporaries. He forced unwanted reforms on recalcitrant abbots and lectured popes and kings alike on their failures to conform to his preconceived standards. He made a life-long enemy of John of Salisbury and alienated both sides during the Becket controversy. Only in his last days did this bishop with the temperament of a monk realize that the ideals to which he was committed were incompatible with the new ideas taking root around him.
This book investigates the sources and consequences of Arnulf's paradigm. Evidence comes from Arnulf's correspondence, from charters and court decisions, and from the cathedral at Lisieux, into which Arnulf carved a statement about the world as he thought it should be. Arnulf's discontents reveal a palimpsest beneath the surface of the twelfth-century renaissance: the ideals that suffered but refused to disappear when new ideas supplanted the old.
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