Dirt and Disease: Polio Before FDR

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Overview


"Will have an enthusiastic audience among historians of medicine who are familiar, for the most part, only with later twentieth-century efforts to combat polio." --Allan M. Brandt, University of North Carolina

Dirt and Disease is a social, cultural, and medical history of the polio epidemic in the United States. Naomi Rogers focuses on the early years from 1900 to 1920, and continues the story to the present. She explores how scientists, physicians, patients, and their families explained the appearance and spread of polio and how they tried to cope with it. Rogers frames this study of polio within a set of larger questions about health and disease in twentieth-century American culture.

In the early decades of this century, scientists sought to understand the nature of polio. They found that it was caused by a virus, and that it could often be diagnosed by analyzing spinal fluid. Although scientific information about polio was understood and accepted, it was not always definitive. This knowledge coexisted with traditional notions about disease and medicine.

Polio struck wealthy and middle-class children as well as the poor. But experts and public health officials nonetheless blamed polio on a filthy urban environment, bad hygiene, and poverty. This allowed them to hold slum-dwelling immigrants responsible, and to believe that sanitary education and quarantines could lessen the spread of the disease. Even when experts acknowledged that polio struck the middle-class and native-born as well as immigrants, they tried to explain this away by blaming the fly for the spread of polio. Flies could land indiscriminately on the rich and the poor.

In the 1930s, President Franklin Delano Roosevelt helped to recast the image of polio and to remove its stigma. No one could ignore the cross-spread of the disease. By the 1950s, the public was looking to science for prevention and therapy. But Rogers reminds us that the recent history of polio was more than the history of successful vaccines. She points to competing therapies, research tangents, and people who died from early vaccine trials.

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Editorial Reviews

Library Journal
Like the outbreak of AIDS in the 1980s, polio's sudden appearance created a social crisis as well as countless individual tragedies. Jane S. Smith's Patenting the Sun: Polio and the Salk Vaccine LJ 4/15/90 described the development of the Salk vaccine and the end of the epidemics that had terrified parents throughout the early 20th century. Rogers's book focuses on the first serious polio outbreak in the United States, the 1916 epidemic in the Middle Atlantic states. Accustomed to associating disease with poor sanitation, bad nutrition, and insect-infested neighborhoods, researchers were baffled by polio, an equal-opportunity disease that affected prosperous suburbs as well as the crowded tenements of Eastern European and Italian immigrants, and black neighborhoods hardly at all. Various theories of transmission were tested and rejected until epidemiologists discovered the ironic truth: Polio had been a common childhood intestinal disease that left almost everyone with lifetime immunity until improved sanitation made the disease increasingly rare and virulent. Rogers's narrative is a readable and well-illustrated blend of medical and cultural history. Appropriate for both public and academic collections.-- Kathy Arsenault, Univ. of South Florida-St. Petersburg Lib.
Booknews
A social, cultural, and medical history of the polio epidemic in the US. Rogers (history, U. of Alabama) focuses on the early years from 1900 to 1920, and continues the story to the present, framing it within a set of larger questions about health and disease in 20th- century American culture. Annotation c. Book News, Inc., Portland, OR (booknews.com)
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Product Details

Meet the Author


Naomi Rogers is an assistant professor of history at the University of Alabama.
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Table of Contents

Acknowledgments
Introduction 1
1 Garden of Germs: Polio in the United States, 1900-1920 9
2 This Dread Spectre: Polio and the New Public Health 30
3 The Promise of Science: Polio and the Laboratory 72
4 Written in Haste: Polio and the Public 106
5 A Humble and Contrite Frame of Mind: Polio and Epidemiology 138
Epilogue: Polio Since FDR 165
Note 191
Bibliographic Essay 241
Index 249
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