Disaster Recovery Planning : Strategies for Protecting Critical Information Assets / Edition 2

Paperback (Print)
Used and New from Other Sellers
Used and New from Other Sellers
from $1.99
Usually ships in 1-2 business days
(Save 96%)
Other sellers (Paperback)
  • All (19) from $1.99   
  • New (2) from $19.16   
  • Used (17) from $1.99   
Close
Sort by
Page 1 of 2
Showing 1 – 10 of 19 (2 pages)
Note: Marketplace items are not eligible for any BN.com coupons and promotions
$1.99
Seller since 2008

Feedback rating:

(16023)

Condition:

New — never opened or used in original packaging.

Like New — packaging may have been opened. A "Like New" item is suitable to give as a gift.

Very Good — may have minor signs of wear on packaging but item works perfectly and has no damage.

Good — item is in good condition but packaging may have signs of shelf wear/aging or torn packaging. All specific defects should be noted in the Comments section associated with each item.

Acceptable — item is in working order but may show signs of wear such as scratches or torn packaging. All specific defects should be noted in the Comments section associated with each item.

Used — An item that has been opened and may show signs of wear. All specific defects should be noted in the Comments section associated with each item.

Refurbished — A used item that has been renewed or updated and verified to be in proper working condition. Not necessarily completed by the original manufacturer.

Good
Good condition. Owner's name inside. 2nd ed.

Ships from: Frederick, MD

Usually ships in 1-2 business days

  • Canadian
  • International
  • Standard, 48 States
  • Standard (AK, HI)
  • Express, 48 States
  • Express (AK, HI)
$1.99
Seller since 2009

Feedback rating:

(10943)

Condition: Good
Book shows minor use. Cover and Binding have minimal wear and the pages have only minimal creases. A tradition of southern quality and service. All books guaranteed at the Atlanta ... Book Company. Our mailers are 100% recyclable. Read more Show Less

Ships from: Atlanta, GA

Usually ships in 1-2 business days

  • Canadian
  • International
  • Standard, 48 States
  • Standard (AK, HI)
  • Express, 48 States
  • Express (AK, HI)
$1.99
Seller since 2009

Feedback rating:

(7596)

Condition: Very Good
Appearance of only slight previous use. Cover and binding show a little wear. All pages are undamaged with potentially only a few, small markings. Help save a tree. Buy all your ... used books from Green Earth Books. Read. Recycle and Reuse. Read more Show Less

Ships from: Portland, OR

Usually ships in 1-2 business days

  • Canadian
  • International
  • Standard, 48 States
  • Standard (AK, HI)
  • Express, 48 States
  • Express (AK, HI)
$1.99
Seller since 2010

Feedback rating:

(887)

Condition: Very Good
013084506X Very Good Condition. Five star seller - Ships Quickly - Buy with confidence!

Ships from: Lake Arrowhead, CA

Usually ships in 1-2 business days

  • Canadian
  • International
  • Standard, 48 States
  • Standard (AK, HI)
  • Express, 48 States
  • Express (AK, HI)
$1.99
Seller since 2010

Feedback rating:

(5611)

Condition: Very Good
This book shows minor wear and is in very good condition. Blue Cloud Books ??? Hot deals from the land of the sun.

Ships from: Phoenix, AZ

Usually ships in 1-2 business days

  • Canadian
  • International
  • Standard, 48 States
  • Standard (AK, HI)
  • Express, 48 States
  • Express (AK, HI)
$1.99
Seller since 2014

Feedback rating:

(2625)

Condition: Good
Dust Cover Missing. Book has some visible wear on the binding, cover, pages. Biggest little used bookstore in the world.

Ships from: Reno, NV

Usually ships in 1-2 business days

  • Canadian
  • International
  • Standard, 48 States
  • Standard (AK, HI)
  • Express, 48 States
  • Express (AK, HI)
$1.99
Seller since 2014

Feedback rating:

(83)

Condition: Good
013084506X Item in good condition and ready to ship!

Ships from: aurora, IL

Usually ships in 1-2 business days

  • Standard, 48 States
$4.95
Seller since 2014

Feedback rating:

(23)

Condition: Very Good
Book is in very good condition.

Ships from: Pleasant View, TN

Usually ships in 1-2 business days

  • Standard, 48 States
  • Standard (AK, HI)
  • Express, 48 States
  • Express (AK, HI)
$7.90
Seller since 2005

Feedback rating:

(296)

Condition: Very Good
1999 Hardcover Very Good 013084506x. Second Edition. This book is in very good condition; no remainder marks. Appears to have been gently used. Name inscription on fly leaf. ... Inside pages are clean.; 2nd Edition; 1.4 x 9.2 x 7.2 Inches; 432 pages. Read more Show Less

Ships from: Pflugerville, TX

Usually ships in 1-2 business days

  • Canadian
  • Standard, 48 States
  • Standard (AK, HI)
  • Express, 48 States
  • Express (AK, HI)
$12.99
Seller since 2014

Feedback rating:

(43)

Condition: Good
Buy with Confidence. Excellent Customer Support. We ship from multiple US locations. No CD, DVD or Access Code Included.

Ships from: Fort Mill, SC

Usually ships in 1-2 business days

  • Standard, 48 States
Page 1 of 2
Showing 1 – 10 of 19 (2 pages)
Close
Sort by

Overview

Disaster Recovery Planning, Second Edition shows exactly how to implement world-class disaster recovery for today's distributed environments - without paying for expensive consultants or proprietary methodologies! Veteran planner and analyst Jon William Toigo delivers strategies and insight that can be used by any company - large or small.. "You'll find comprehensive coverage of disaster recovery techniques that reflect the latest technologies in data storage, networks, server systems, and the Internet.
Read More Show Less

Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780130845061
  • Publisher: Pearson Education
  • Publication date: 12/20/1999
  • Edition description: Older Edition
  • Edition number: 2
  • Pages: 464
  • Product dimensions: 7.37 (w) x 9.49 (h) x 1.43 (d)

Read an Excerpt

PREFACE:

Preface

This book is scheduled for publication on the eve of a new Millennium, as described in Western calendars. Indeed, for the past five years, "Year 2000 issues" have dominated discussions at every level of business and government—at least in the world's developed countries. Building to a crescendo of nearly deafening proportions by the end of 1999, the mainstream press has allocated millions of column inches to Y2K, creating a kind of mystique around a rather arbitrary date.

January 1, 2000 has been positioned as a watershed event in human history. Somehow, it is more than just another wintery pause in the seasonal cycles that determine agricultural prosperity, more than just another New Year's Day spent recovering from the Bacchanalian excesses of the previous evening's celebration, certainly more than just another Saturday spent working in the yard or watching TV or attending religious services.

For many, the date is loaded with symbolic significance. Year 2000 conjures to mind the conclusion of ten centuries of fast-paced technological innovation that has changed forever the society and culture in which we live. In just the past 100 years, we have witnessed the harnessing of the electron, the atom, the microwave, and the photon to meet the needs of everyday existence. The Industrial Revolution has come to flower, given way to a Computer Age, and now, courtesy of the global Internet, World Wide Web, and the ubiquitous Web browser, morphed analog reality into digital reality of the Information Age.

Doubtless, there are good reasons to select a day on which to pause and reflect on the past, to consider the present, and toprepare for the future. Some psychologists argue that the human mind requires bookmarks, milestones, and "closure events" to remain centered and healthy. One supposes that, to this end, January 1, 2000 is as good a date as any other.

However, Y2K has acquired a second symbolic meaning that is much less grounded in the psychological revolution that gave us Vatican II, no-fault divorce, and the self-help books of the 1980s. To many, the millennium is a mystical event, touching on a deeply rooted superstitious stratum seemingly present in the human psyche since the dawn of man. For a variety of reasons, Y2K is viewed as a harbinger of doom, a signal that some cataclysmic event is in the offing.

Hollywood understands the phenomenon and has provided a steady fare of disaster movies as the decade of the 1990s draws to a close. Recent wildly popular films have enabled audiences to "experience, " courtesy of Industrial Light and Magic and other computer graphic effects studios, the havoc and devastation caused by natural, man-made and even extraterrestrial disasters. With apologies to Bruce Willis and others, the acting and plot of these films do not explain their success. The real draw of the films appears to be the disasters themselves: tornadoes, volcanoes, earth-asteroid collisions, viral outbreaks, nuclear terrorism, and infrastructure collapse based on computer hacking. They satisfy a need in the viewers to confront their own mortality, if only vicariously.

Some of the movies are rooted in real-life disaster events, which seem to some observers to be coalescing as the end of the century approaches.

  • The World Trade Center and Oklahoma City federal building bombings underscored the reality of terrorism for a heretofore-insulated North American audience.
  • The eruption in 1980 of Mount Saint Helens, following a 128-year dormancy, and powerful earthquakes in California, including Loma Prieta/San Francisco earthquake of October 1989 and the Northridge/San Fernando Valley earthquake of January 1994, have stimulated concerns about geological disasters and their frequency. The National Earthquake Information Center of the U.S. Geological Survey is quick to point out that "while it may seem that we are having more earthquakes, earthquakes of magnitude 7.0 or greater have remained fairly constant throughout this century and, according to our records, have actually seemed to decrease in recent years."
  • The 1990s also gave the North America the costliest hurricanes in its history. While 1969 Hurricane Camille was the most powerful storm to date, Hurricane Andrew in 1992 racked up $26 billion in damage—the highest costs associated with any natural disaster on record to that point. As this book goes to press, experts are still calculating the costs accrued to 1999's Hurricane Floyd, which may well top Andrew's record. Between these devastating storms have been a steady wave of less powerful but very destructive cyclone events.
  • Some may say that life imitates art. Following the success of the movie, Twister, Bridge Creek, Oklahoma experienced a real-life encounter in May 1999 with an F5 tornado, a so-called a "Finger of God".1 This and many other severe storms, made the 1999 tornado season the most active since 1992. In part because of the movie, these storms commanded the full attention of the media, which subtly attributed the tornadoes, hurricanes, floods, and ice storms of the last decade to humanity's destruction of the environment and nature's reprisal. In some reports, the tornadoes were incorrectly correlated with the El Niño/Southern Oscillation effect.2 According to government tornado watchers, the number of tornadoes have increased as the century draws to a close, but this phenomenon does not correlate to El Niño/El Niña weather patterns in any statistically meaningful way.
  • The possibility of near-earth-orbit (NEO) asteroids and comets colliding with the earth has been part of science fiction lore since the Golden Age of the genre in the 1950s. As the millennium approaches, concerns about this threat have been fueled by several events. One was the 1994 collision of Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 with Jupiter, which was photographed in brilliant color using NASA's Hubble Space Telescope and published in magazines and newspapers worldwide. The other was the hyperbole surrounding 1997 XF11, an asteroid originally thought to be on a collision course with Earth, but later determined to be no threat when it passes the planet at a comfortable distance in 2028. The mistaken estimate sent many millennium watchers to their underground shelters and found NASA asking for authority to censor such predictions until they could be properly verified.
  • One man-made disaster potential that has seen a marked increase as the millennium approaches is the computer virus. Bearing such innocuous names as Melissa, Chernobyl, and ExplorZIP, 1999's crop of viruses have already resulted in greater dollar losses than has malicious programs introduced in any previous year. Experts expect this trend to continue for three basic reasons. First, the widespread use of the Internet for email and file transfers provides a perfect mechanism for spreading viruses. Second, the increased sophistication of programming tools is enabling even novices to create powerful virus programs. Third, the increased complexity of common desktop applications, such as word processors, spreadsheets, and browsers, are providing a "target-rich environment" for exploitation by hackers and other malicious code writers.3
  • According to the FBI and the Computer Security Institute, virus-related costs are only a subset of a growing trend in crime directed at companies and enabled by computers and networks. Directed against critical infrastructure systems, such as the power grid, telecommunications, air traffic control systems, and so on, malicious programs and computer terrorism could potentially be as devastating as nuclear weapons.

Given the perception in many minds that disasters are coalescing as the millennium approaches, it is easy to understand how Y2K has become so closely associated with Armageddon. However, upon more sober analysis, few indicators point to a cataclysmic end to human existence on the first Saturday in January. It is a safe bet that the day will come and go without the seas boiling, dogs and cats living together, or any other apocalyptic nightmares being realized. If we are wrong in this conclusion, then this book will have a rather short shelf life.

What we may have to look forward to on January 1, 2000 (and possibly for several months after) is a set of irritating, and in some cases hazardous, interruptions in services that are supported by information systems and networks. These interruptions will have nothing to do with Nature's wrath or Judgment Day. They will be linked to simple, software-based, date calculation errors.

The Y2K bug exists in many older software programs, those written at a time when programmers did not consider how programs would behave when the calendar turned over from 99 to 00. Some of the software is compiled to execute on computer systems. In other cases, the software is embedded in microchips that are installed on computing and networking devices themselves.

Obviously, government and industry have known about the Y2K problem for some time. Significant investments in Y2K code remediation efforts began in the mid-1990s in most developed countries. In 1998, however, validation and verification of these efforts by independent third parties revealed that substantial numbers of errors still existed in remediated code. The persistence of errors is attributed to the shortcomings of early Y2K code remediation tools and the failure of organizations to test adequately the code fixes that had been implemented. In a surge of effort and spending, many companies have addressed the problem in three ways:

  • Continued remediation of persistent date calculation errors.
  • Increased attention to contingency and disaster recovery planning to mitigate the operational impact of unresolved errors.
  • Lobbying for liability caps in Y2K-related lawsuits that are expected to appear in droves as interruptions begin to occur.

As situations presently stand, the GartnerGroup, in testimony to the U.S. Senate,4 predicts that 25% of Y2K code problems will manifest themselves in the months preceding January 1, 2000, 55% during the first year of the new millennium, and 15% in the year 2001. Unremediated errors in chip-embedded software will likely manifest themselves immediately with the date change at 12:59 PM on December 31, 1999.

According to the analyst, only 10% of Y2K bug-related failures will occur within the first two weeks of 2000. Of the failures that occur, only 10% will result in service downtime for a period of three days or more. Finally, one out of 100, 000 chips will fail due to Y2K bugs.

GartnerGroup's findings are echoed by other industry analysts, with a few criticizing the findings as too conservative or "feel good." Whether the numbers are exact is beside the point. The analysts agree that, despite the advanced knowledge of the problem, most companies did not build momentum to address date calculation issues until 1998. At that point, they were already behind the curve. As a consequence, the situation has taken disaster recovery planning from the backwaters of IT system stewardship—an audit checklist item—and elevated it to a managerial concern of the highest priority in many companies.

In a sense, Y2K has done what no other common-sense disaster recovery argument could do. It has crystallized for management the dependency of their businesses upon information systems and networks. Moreover, it has increased management's perception of the threat of unmitigated disasters—not only to business operations, but to corporate profits as well.

While government has acted to limit corporate liability and the deep-pocket lawsuits that Y2K outages were sure to generate, it did so after much debate. One issue that received much attention was the importance of due diligence as a modifier of corporate responsibility.

Due diligence mandates that a business, knowing that a potentially damaging situation exists, must take steps to rectify the situation or mitigate its consequences. With other disaster potentials, such as floods, fires, hurricanes, and earthquakes, the comparative rarity of the disaster potential manifesting itself into an actual disaster has limited the liability of most companies to lawsuits. The exception is in cases where legislative mandates required disaster recovery planning and testing of plans (in the financial sector, for example). In fact, shareholders and consumers can be pretty forgiving if a hurricane impacts a business and interrupts normal operations for a period of time.

In the case of the Y2K bug, the compassion of shareholders and consumers was likely to be much less forthcoming. U.S. lawmakers decided that shareholders and consumers would more likely to look for someone to blame and to sue. They would ask why, if business managers knew that a disaster was in the offing, did they do nothing to prevent the disaster from happening? And if the Y2K bug could not be excised from code in time, why didn't the company have a contingency plan that would minimize the impact of the disaster potential they could not prevent? Those questions go to the heart of due diligence and were central to the government's debate over Y2K liability limits.

Shortly after this book is published, Y2K—both the bug and the calendar change—will be ancient history. Interruptions resulting from the Y2K bug will become what many disaster recovery planners regarded them as all along: just another series of interruptions of business processes owed to software-related causes.

However, for some disaster recovery planners, Y2K—for all of its danger—will have also provided an opportunity. The sum of all of the practical and superstitious concerns about the millennium and the Y2K bug has, for a time, focused attention on the dependency of business on its information systems and their vulnerability to unplanned interruption. For now, DR planners are enjoying a bit of "face time" with corporate management. Used wisely, this increased level of awareness could be cultivated into an ongoing component of the corporate culture.

In this time of concern, disaster recovery planners would be well served to conduct themselves professionally and to vest all of their skills, knowledge, and experience to assisting their senior management in coping with the Y2K bug (as well as any millennium superstitions they may harbor). A well-developed plan will provide protection against a much more varied set of disaster recovery scenarios, of course. However, by emphasizing Y2K issues as a planning objective, DR planners will identify themselves to management as intelligent and competent resources who can be depended upon to support business objectives. This political capital can serve the DR planner well as he or she works to address the broader spectrum of business process protection.

Welcome to the world of disaster recovery planning.


Endnotes

1. F5 refers to the Fujita Scale for tornado classification. A class five, or F5, tornado, sometimes called "the Finger of God," is extremely rare.

2. Despite the tendency of movies and the popular media to assign a correlation between tornadoes and El Niño, this does not stand up to scrutiny. See "The Relationship Between El Niño, La Niña, and United States Tornado Activity," Joseph T. Schaefer, Storm Prediction Center, Norman, OK, and Frank B. Tatom, Engineering Analysis Inc., Huntsville, AL, Preprints, 19th Conf. Severe Local Storms, Minneapolis, MN, October 1999.

3. Daniel Sforza, "New Terror Lurks in Computer Mailboxes," The Record, June 12, 1999 and Robert Gebeloff, "On-Line Perils, Pitfalls Growing for the Unwary, " The Record, June 12, 1999.

4. Lou Marcoccio, "Year 2000 International State of Readiness: Expert Testimony of Lou Marcoccio, March 5, 1999 to the U.S. Senate Special Committee on the Year 2000 Technology Problem, Washington, D.C.," GartnerGroup, 1999.













Read More Show Less

Table of Contents

1. Introduction.
2. Analyzing the Risk.
3. Facility Protection.
4. Data Recovery Planning.
5. Strategies for Centralized System Recovery.
6. Strategies for Decentralized System Recovery.
7. Strategies for End User Recovery.
8. Strategies for Networking Backup.
9. Emergency Decision Making.
10. The Recovery Management Improvement.
Read More Show Less

Preface

PREFACE:

Preface

This book is scheduled for publication on the eve of a new Millennium, as described in Western calendars. Indeed, for the past five years, "Year 2000 issues" have dominated discussions at every level of business and government—at least in the world's developed countries. Building to a crescendo of nearly deafening proportions by the end of 1999, the mainstream press has allocated millions of column inches to Y2K, creating a kind of mystique around a rather arbitrary date.

January 1, 2000 has been positioned as a watershed event in human history. Somehow, it is more than just another wintery pause in the seasonal cycles that determine agricultural prosperity, more than just another New Year's Day spent recovering from the Bacchanalian excesses of the previous evening's celebration, certainly more than just another Saturday spent working in the yard or watching TV or attending religious services.

For many, the date is loaded with symbolic significance. Year 2000 conjures to mind the conclusion of ten centuries of fast-paced technological innovation that has changed forever the society and culture in which we live. In just the past 100 years, we have witnessed the harnessing of the electron, the atom, the microwave, and the photon to meet the needs of everyday existence. The Industrial Revolution has come to flower, given way to a Computer Age, and now, courtesy of the global Internet, World Wide Web, and the ubiquitous Web browser, morphed analog reality into digital reality of the Information Age.

Doubtless, there are good reasons to select a day on which to pause and reflect on the past, to consider the present, andtoprepare for the future. Some psychologists argue that the human mind requires bookmarks, milestones, and "closure events" to remain centered and healthy. One supposes that, to this end, January 1, 2000 is as good a date as any other.

However, Y2K has acquired a second symbolic meaning that is much less grounded in the psychological revolution that gave us Vatican II, no-fault divorce, and the self-help books of the 1980s. To many, the millennium is a mystical event, touching on a deeply rooted superstitious stratum seemingly present in the human psyche since the dawn of man. For a variety of reasons, Y2K is viewed as a harbinger of doom, a signal that some cataclysmic event is in the offing.

Hollywood understands the phenomenon and has provided a steady fare of disaster movies as the decade of the 1990s draws to a close. Recent wildly popular films have enabled audiences to "experience, " courtesy of Industrial Light and Magic and other computer graphic effects studios, the havoc and devastation caused by natural, man-made and even extraterrestrial disasters. With apologies to Bruce Willis and others, the acting and plot of these films do not explain their success. The real draw of the films appears to be the disasters themselves: tornadoes, volcanoes, earth-asteroid collisions, viral outbreaks, nuclear terrorism, and infrastructure collapse based on computer hacking. They satisfy a need in the viewers to confront their own mortality, if only vicariously.

Some of the movies are rooted in real-life disaster events, which seem to some observers to be coalescing as the end of the century approaches.

  • The World Trade Center and Oklahoma City federal building bombings underscored the reality of terrorism for a heretofore-insulated North American audience.
  • The eruption in 1980 of Mount Saint Helens, following a 128-year dormancy, and powerful earthquakes in California, including Loma Prieta/San Francisco earthquake of October 1989 and the Northridge/San Fernando Valley earthquake of January 1994, have stimulated concerns about geological disasters and their frequency. The National Earthquake Information Center of the U.S. Geological Survey is quick to point out that "while it may seem that we are having more earthquakes, earthquakes of magnitude 7.0 or greater have remained fairly constant throughout this century and, according to our records, have actually seemed to decrease in recent years."
  • The 1990s also gave the North America the costliest hurricanes in its history. While 1969 Hurricane Camille was the most powerful storm to date, Hurricane Andrew in 1992 racked up $26 billion in damage—the highest costs associated with any natural disaster on record to that point. As this book goes to press, experts are still calculating the costs accrued to 1999's Hurricane Floyd, which may well top Andrew's record. Between these devastating storms have been a steady wave of less powerful but very destructive cyclone events.
  • Some may say that life imitates art. Following the success of the movie, Twister, Bridge Creek, Oklahoma experienced a real-life encounter in May 1999 with an F5 tornado, a so-called a "Finger of God".1 This and many other severe storms, made the 1999 tornado season the most active since 1992. In part because of the movie, these storms commanded the full attention of the media, which subtly attributed the tornadoes, hurricanes, floods, and ice storms of the last decade to humanity's destruction of the environment and nature's reprisal. In some reports, the tornadoes were incorrectly correlated with the El Niño/Southern Oscillation effect.2 According to government tornado watchers, the number of tornadoes have increased as the century draws to a close, but this phenomenon does not correlate to El Niño/El Niña weather patterns in any statistically meaningful way.
  • The possibility of near-earth-orbit (NEO) asteroids and comets colliding with the earth has been part of science fiction lore since the Golden Age of the genre in the 1950s. As the millennium approaches, concerns about this threat have been fueled by several events. One was the 1994 collision of Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 with Jupiter, which was photographed in brilliant color using NASA's Hubble Space Telescope and published in magazines and newspapers worldwide. The other was the hyperbole surrounding 1997 XF11, an asteroid originally thought to be on a collision course with Earth, but later determined to be no threat when it passes the planet at a comfortable distance in 2028. The mistaken estimate sent many millennium watchers to their underground shelters and found NASA asking for authority to censor such predictions until they could be properly verified.
  • One man-made disaster potential that has seen a marked increase as the millennium approaches is the computer virus. Bearing such innocuous names as Melissa, Chernobyl, and ExplorZIP, 1999's crop of viruses have already resulted in greater dollar losses than has malicious programs introduced in any previous year. Experts expect this trend to continue for three basic reasons. First, the widespread use of the Internet for email and file transfers provides a perfect mechanism for spreading viruses. Second, the increased sophistication of programming tools is enabling even novices to create powerful virus programs. Third, the increased complexity of common desktop applications, such as word processors, spreadsheets, and browsers, are providing a "target-rich environment" for exploitation by hackers and other malicious code writers.3
  • According to the FBI and the Computer Security Institute, virus-related costs are only a subset of a growing trend in crime directed at companies and enabled by computers and networks. Directed against critical infrastructure systems, such as the power grid, telecommunications, air traffic control systems, and so on, malicious programs and computer terrorism could potentially be as devastating as nuclear weapons.

Given the perception in many minds that disasters are coalescing as the millennium approaches, it is easy to understand how Y2K has become so closely associated with Armageddon. However, upon more sober analysis, few indicators point to a cataclysmic end to human existence on the first Saturday in January. It is a safe bet that the day will come and go without the seas boiling, dogs and cats living together, or any other apocalyptic nightmares being realized. If we are wrong in this conclusion, then this book will have a rather short shelf life.

What we may have to look forward to on January 1, 2000 (and possibly for several months after) is a set of irritating, and in some cases hazardous, interruptions in services that are supported by information systems and networks. These interruptions will have nothing to do with Nature's wrath or Judgment Day. They will be linked to simple, software-based, date calculation errors.

The Y2K bug exists in many older software programs, those written at a time when programmers did not consider how programs would behave when the calendar turned over from 99 to 00. Some of the software is compiled to execute on computer systems. In other cases, the software is embedded in microchips that are installed on computing and networking devices themselves.

Obviously, government and industry have known about the Y2K problem for some time. Significant investments in Y2K code remediation efforts began in the mid-1990s in most developed countries. In 1998, however, validation and verification of these efforts by independent third parties revealed that substantial numbers of errors still existed in remediated code. The persistence of errors is attributed to the shortcomings of early Y2K code remediation tools and the failure of organizations to test adequately the code fixes that had been implemented. In a surge of effort and spending, many companies have addressed the problem in three ways:

  • Continued remediation of persistent date calculation errors.
  • Increased attention to contingency and disaster recovery planning to mitigate the operational impact of unresolved errors.
  • Lobbying for liability caps in Y2K-related lawsuits that are expected to appear in droves as interruptions begin to occur.

As situations presently stand, the GartnerGroup, in testimony to the U.S. Senate,4 predicts that 25% of Y2K code problems will manifest themselves in the months preceding January 1, 2000, 55% during the first year of the new millennium, and 15% in the year 2001. Unremediated errors in chip-embedded software will likely manifest themselves immediately with the date change at 12:59 PM on December 31, 1999.

According to the analyst, only 10% of Y2K bug-related failures will occur within the first two weeks of 2000. Of the failures that occur, only 10% will result in service downtime for a period of three days or more. Finally, one out of 100, 000 chips will fail due to Y2K bugs.

GartnerGroup's findings are echoed by other industry analysts, with a few criticizing the findings as too conservative or "feel good." Whether the numbers are exact is beside the point. The analysts agree that, despite the advanced knowledge of the problem, most companies did not build momentum to address date calculation issues until 1998. At that point, they were already behind the curve. As a consequence, the situation has taken disaster recovery planning from the backwaters of IT system stewardship—an audit checklist item—and elevated it to a managerial concern of the highest priority in many companies.

In a sense, Y2K has done what no other common-sense disaster recovery argument could do. It has crystallized for management the dependency of their businesses upon information systems and networks. Moreover, it has increased management's perception of the threat of unmitigated disasters—not only to business operations, but to corporate profits as well.

While government has acted to limit corporate liability and the deep-pocket lawsuits that Y2K outages were sure to generate, it did so after much debate. One issue that received much attention was the importance of due diligence as a modifier of corporate responsibility.

Due diligence mandates that a business, knowing that a potentially damaging situation exists, must take steps to rectify the situation or mitigate its consequences. With other disaster potentials, such as floods, fires, hurricanes, and earthquakes, the comparative rarity of the disaster potential manifesting itself into an actual disaster has limited the liability of most companies to lawsuits. The exception is in cases where legislative mandates required disaster recovery planning and testing of plans (in the financial sector, for example). In fact, shareholders and consumers can be pretty forgiving if a hurricane impacts a business and interrupts normal operations for a period of time.

In the case of the Y2K bug, the compassion of shareholders and consumers was likely to be much less forthcoming. U.S. lawmakers decided that shareholders and consumers would more likely to look for someone to blame and to sue. They would ask why, if business managers knew that a disaster was in the offing, did they do nothing to prevent the disaster from happening? And if the Y2K bug could not be excised from code in time, why didn't the company have a contingency plan that would minimize the impact of the disaster potential they could not prevent? Those questions go to the heart of due diligence and were central to the government's debate over Y2K liability limits.

Shortly after this book is published, Y2K—both the bug and the calendar change—will be ancient history. Interruptions resulting from the Y2K bug will become what many disaster recovery planners regarded them as all along: just another series of interruptions of business processes owed to software-related causes.

However, for some disaster recovery planners, Y2K—for all of its danger—will have also provided an opportunity. The sum of all of the practical and superstitious concerns about the millennium and the Y2K bug has, for a time, focused attention on the dependency of business on its information systems and their vulnerability to unplanned interruption. For now, DR planners are enjoying a bit of "face time" with corporate management. Used wisely, this increased level of awareness could be cultivated into an ongoing component of the corporate culture.

In this time of concern, disaster recovery planners would be well served to conduct themselves professionally and to vest all of their skills, knowledge, and experience to assisting their senior management in coping with the Y2K bug (as well as any millennium superstitions they may harbor). A well-developed plan will provide protection against a much more varied set of disaster recovery scenarios, of course. However, by emphasizing Y2K issues as a planning objective, DR planners will identify themselves to management as intelligent and competent resources who can be depended upon to support business objectives. This political capital can serve the DR planner well as he or she works to address the broader spectrum of business process protection.

Welcome to the world of disaster recovery planning.


Endnotes

1. F5 refers to the Fujita Scale for tornado classification. A class five, or F5, tornado, sometimes called "the Finger of God," is extremely rare.

2. Despite the tendency of movies and the popular media to assign a correlation between tornadoes and El Niño, this does not stand up to scrutiny. See "The Relationship Between El Niño, La Niña, and United States Tornado Activity," Joseph T. Schaefer, Storm Prediction Center, Norman, OK, and Frank B. Tatom, Engineering Analysis Inc., Huntsville, AL, Preprints, 19th Conf. Severe Local Storms, Minneapolis, MN, October 1999.

3. Daniel Sforza, "New Terror Lurks in Computer Mailboxes," The Record, June 12, 1999 and Robert Gebeloff, "On-Line Perils, Pitfalls Growing for the Unwary, " The Record, June 12, 1999.

4. Lou Marcoccio, "Year 2000 International State of Readiness: Expert Testimony of Lou Marcoccio, March 5, 1999 to the U.S. Senate Special Committee on the Year 2000 Technology Problem, Washington, D.C.," GartnerGroup, 1999.













Read More Show Less

Customer Reviews

Be the first to write a review
( 0 )
Rating Distribution

5 Star

(0)

4 Star

(0)

3 Star

(0)

2 Star

(0)

1 Star

(0)

Your Rating:

Your Name: Create a Pen Name or

Barnes & Noble.com Review Rules

Our reader reviews allow you to share your comments on titles you liked, or didn't, with others. By submitting an online review, you are representing to Barnes & Noble.com that all information contained in your review is original and accurate in all respects, and that the submission of such content by you and the posting of such content by Barnes & Noble.com does not and will not violate the rights of any third party. Please follow the rules below to help ensure that your review can be posted.

Reviews by Our Customers Under the Age of 13

We highly value and respect everyone's opinion concerning the titles we offer. However, we cannot allow persons under the age of 13 to have accounts at BN.com or to post customer reviews. Please see our Terms of Use for more details.

What to exclude from your review:

Please do not write about reviews, commentary, or information posted on the product page. If you see any errors in the information on the product page, please send us an email.

Reviews should not contain any of the following:

  • - HTML tags, profanity, obscenities, vulgarities, or comments that defame anyone
  • - Time-sensitive information such as tour dates, signings, lectures, etc.
  • - Single-word reviews. Other people will read your review to discover why you liked or didn't like the title. Be descriptive.
  • - Comments focusing on the author or that may ruin the ending for others
  • - Phone numbers, addresses, URLs
  • - Pricing and availability information or alternative ordering information
  • - Advertisements or commercial solicitation

Reminder:

  • - By submitting a review, you grant to Barnes & Noble.com and its sublicensees the royalty-free, perpetual, irrevocable right and license to use the review in accordance with the Barnes & Noble.com Terms of Use.
  • - Barnes & Noble.com reserves the right not to post any review -- particularly those that do not follow the terms and conditions of these Rules. Barnes & Noble.com also reserves the right to remove any review at any time without notice.
  • - See Terms of Use for other conditions and disclaimers.
Search for Products You'd Like to Recommend

Recommend other products that relate to your review. Just search for them below and share!

Create a Pen Name

Your Pen Name is your unique identity on BN.com. It will appear on the reviews you write and other website activities. Your Pen Name cannot be edited, changed or deleted once submitted.

 
Your Pen Name can be any combination of alphanumeric characters (plus - and _), and must be at least two characters long.

Continue Anonymously

    If you find inappropriate content, please report it to Barnes & Noble
    Why is this product inappropriate?
    Comments (optional)