Discoveries in the Human Brain: Neuroscience Prehistory, Brain Structure, and Function / Edition 1

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Overview

This engaging and engrossing history of the brain and the emergence of modern neuroscience chronicles the many significant people and events that gradually produced today's understanding of brain anatomy and physiology. The book traces this unfolding story from the first findings of gross neuroanatomy in the ancient world to the functional analysis of the electrophysiology of nerve impulses; from the early discoveries of the existence and operations of the central nervous system to, finally, the development in brain chemistry and pharmacology that have now brought us to neural networks and brain modeling. Along the way it offers numerous historic and rare plates, a rich tapestry of quotations from primary sources, and concise summaries of the pathbreaking research that shaped and determined modern neuroscience.

The book contains predominantly black-and-white illustrations, with some color illustrations.

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Editorial Reviews

New England Journal of Medicine
This book is certainly sufficiently clear and well illustrated to be of interest to general clinicians as well as workers in neuroscience or the cognitive sciences. It is also refreshingly free of jargon. I highly recommend the book both as an introduction to the history of neuroscience and as a secondary source, since it includes comprehensive references. The book's quality and reasonable price (thanks to a charitable grant) should thus attract many and varied readers.
Charles DeCarli
This is an anthology of the early history of scientific investigation into the structure and function of the human brain. The authors approach this from the historical narrative and include appropriate and enriching philosophical "diversions" in order to accurately portray the theoretical context from which many of these early neurologic observations arose. The authors' stated purpose is to "...look back on antecedent events in neuroscience," to "...impart an urge to know more." The authors produce a book that describes in detail the primitive history of neuroscience. There are many beautiful illustrations taken from the original texts, which enhance the authenticity of the historical anthology. Unfortunately, some of these illustrations reinforce the primitive nature of the observations. In addition, while the authors strive to link this anthology to current neuroscience, one is left with the sense that they fell a little short. It is almost as though the authors themselves are not aware of the explosion of knowledge which accompanied the "Decade of the Brain." I believe the authors intended an enthusiastic audience of young neuroscientists wishing to know the roots of their present dogma. Unfortunately, I suspect that the authors constructed a book more inclined to be read by older neuroscientists and neurologists who have a particular fondness for history. Moreover, the title is somewhat misleading as this book eloquently discusses early discoveries in the human brain, but is not intended to address the plethora of more recent neuroscience advances. As one of the founders of the Society for Neuroscience, Dr. Marshall is clearly an authority on this subject. Dr. Magoun'scontributions to neuroscience also are well recognized. The quality of the illustrations is generally quite good. The book is somewhat over illustrated, particularly as it relates to photographs and illustrations of the investigators. Since this is an historical book, currency is not an issue. Importantly, much of the historical milestone publications is cited in its original form, allowing the reader the opportunity to return to the original text if he/she desires. The book appears primarily organized from a chronological standpoint. While this gives the reader a flavor for the development of the science within the context of social and philosophical evolution, it makes for a somewhat disjointed presentation. For example, chapters 3, 4, 5, 6 and 10 all speak to "higher cortical function" and might have been bundled together to allow the reader to see the conceptual development of how neuroscientists view the "mind." There are too many disjointed photographs without an apparent theme beyond "history." Moreover, while I believe the choice of color for the pages was intended to give an historical feel to the book, it actually gives an out-of-date feel to the book. It quite clearly captures the scientific, intellectual, historical, and philosophical development of early scientific investigations leading to the basic tenets of brain structure and function. This early work is richly detailed and carefully woven into the context of the larger historical perspective. The result is a book ideal for the individual interested in scientific history, and would also serve well as a reference for libraries. The authors' attempts to be all inclusive, however, give us only the panoramic view and ends in history just before the explosion of neuroscience knowledge which presently touches almost all our lives.
Booknews
For a broad audience, Marshall Neuroscience History Archives, Brain Research Institute, UCLA and neuroscientist Magoun BRI, d.1991 trace the emergence of contemporary, multidisciplinary neuroscience: from "the ridiculous and the sublime" beliefs through the ages about neuroanatomy, to early experiments in neurochemistry, evolving views regarding consciousness, theories of mammalian evolutionary neurology, and landmark discoveries about brain functioning. Includes numerous b&w illustrations and four color plates. Annotation c. by Book News, Inc., Portland, Or.
Doody's Review Service
Reviewer: Charles DeCarli, MD (University of Kansas School of Medicine)
Description: This is an anthology of the early history of scientific investigation into the structure and function of the human brain. The authors approach this from the historical narrative and include appropriate and enriching philosophical "diversions" in order to accurately portray the theoretical context from which many of these early neurologic observations arose.
Purpose: The authors' stated purpose is to "...look back on antecedent events in neuroscience," to "...impart an urge to know more." The authors produce a book that describes in detail the primitive history of neuroscience. There are many beautiful illustrations taken from the original texts, which enhance the authenticity of the historical anthology. Unfortunately, some of these illustrations reinforce the primitive nature of the observations. In addition, while the authors strive to link this anthology to current neuroscience, one is left with the sense that they fell a little short. It is almost as though the authors themselves are not aware of the explosion of knowledge which accompanied the "Decade of the Brain."
Audience: I believe the authors intended an enthusiastic audience of young neuroscientists wishing to know the roots of their present dogma. Unfortunately, I suspect that the authors constructed a book more inclined to be read by older neuroscientists and neurologists who have a particular fondness for history. Moreover, the title is somewhat misleading as this book eloquently discusses early discoveries in the human brain, but is not intended to address the plethora of more recent neuroscience advances. As one of the founders of the Society for Neuroscience, Dr. Marshall is clearly an authority on this subject. Dr. Magoun's contributions to neuroscience also are well recognized.
Features: The quality of the illustrations is generally quite good. The book is somewhat over illustrated, particularly as it relates to photographs and illustrations of the investigators. Since this is an historical book, currency is not an issue. Importantly, much of the historical milestone publications is cited in its original form, allowing the reader the opportunity to return to the original text if he/she desires. The book appears primarily organized from a chronological standpoint. While this gives the reader a flavor for the development of the science within the context of social and philosophical evolution, it makes for a somewhat disjointed presentation. For example, chapters 3, 4, 5, 6 and 10 all speak to "higher cortical function" and might have been bundled together to allow the reader to see the conceptual development of how neuroscientists view the "mind." There are too many disjointed photographs without an apparent theme beyond "history." Moreover, while I believe the choice of color for the pages was intended to give an historical feel to the book, it actually gives an out-of-date feel to the book.
Assessment: It quite clearly captures the scientific, intellectual, historical, and philosophical development of early scientific investigations leading to the basic tenets of brain structure and function. This early work is richly detailed and carefully woven into the context of the larger historical perspective. The result is a book ideal for the individual interested in scientific history, and would also serve well as a reference for libraries. The authors' attempts to be all inclusive, however, give us only the panoramic view and ends in history just before the explosion of neuroscience knowledge which presently touches almost all our lives.

3 Stars from Doody
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781617370342
  • Publisher: Springer-Verlag New York, LLC
  • Publication date: 11/5/2010
  • Edition description: Softcover reprint of hardcover 1st ed. 1998
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 323
  • Product dimensions: 8.30 (w) x 10.80 (h) x 0.90 (d)

Table of Contents

I. Introduction: The Basic Postulates. Nature of the Continuum. Charles Darwin. Galen of Pergamum. Overview of the Base. II. Evolution of the Mammalian Brain. Phylogeny Leads the Way. Otogeny 'Recapitulates'. Paleoneurology Is Introduced. Early Evidence of Handedness. Modern Theories of Evolutionary Neurology. Overview of Early Humans. III. The Ventricles and Their Functions. Ancient and Early Modern Beliefs. The Cerebrospinal Fluid. Two 'Barrier' Systems: The Blood-Brain Barrier. Quantitative Physiologic Data. Overview of Ventricular 'Cells'. IV. Surface Contours: Order or Chaos? The Convolutions or Gyri. The Fissures or Sulci. Overview of the 'Coils'. V. Lobes and Functional Localization. Frontal Lobe Pathology and Speech: Observations. Frontal Lobe Stimulation: Experiments. Frontal Lobe: Experiments by Ablation. The Parietal Lobes and Evoked Potentials. The Temporal Lobes. Occipital Lobes and Vision. Overview of the Cortical Hemispheres. VI. Cerebral Asymmetry and Behavioral Laterality. Hemispheric Differences. Handedness and Speech and Other Asymmetries. Growth of Knowledge of the Corpus Callosum. Overview of Cerebral Differences. VII. The Anatomic Substrate: Cerebral Fine Structure. Connectedness of Cell Body and Fiber. Cellular Elements. The Independent Neuron. Multiple Approaches to the Substrates of Vision. Nonneuronal Cells of the Cerebrum. Overview of Neural Fine Structure. VIII. Landmarks in Cerebral Neurochemistry. The Early Chemists. Animal Electricity. Tissue Excitability. Chemical Transmission. Vascularity of the Brain. Overview of Neurochemical Discoveries. IX. The Cerebellum. Ancient Views and Early Experiments. The Ridiculous and the Sublime. Insights from Phylogeny and Embryology. Cerebellar Mapping. Inhibitory Influence of the Cerebellum. From Old to New Techniques. Overview of the 'Little Brain'. X. Thalamocortical Pathways and Consciousness. In Early History. Modern Views of Consciousness. Thalamic Functions and Efferent Connections. The Diffuse Projections. Overview of Some Thalamic Projections. XI. The Pituitary-Hypothalamic Axis. Pituitary Posterior Lobe: The Neurohypophysis. Pituitary Anterior Lobe: The Adenohypophysis. The Hypothalamus. Overview of the Axix. XII. Three Major Integrative Systems. The Limbic System and Memory. Corticothalamic Connections and Cybernetics. The Brain-Stem Reticular Formation and Arousal. Overview of the Three Major Integrators. Postscript. References. Credits. Index.

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