Discovering Arguments: An Introduction to Critical Thinking and Writing / Edition 3

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Overview

The only argument reader, rhetoric, research guide, and handbook that emphasizes style throughtout the text, Discovering Arguments presents the classical persuasive appeals throughout the text while exploring the contributions of Stephen Toulmin and Carl Rogers.
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780136026464
  • Publisher: Longman
  • Publication date: 8/18/2008
  • Edition description: Older Edition
  • Edition number: 3
  • Pages: 672
  • Product dimensions: 7.00 (w) x 9.00 (h) x 1.00 (d)

Table of Contents

CHAPTER 1

COMMUNICATION AND PERSUASION: LOGOS, PATHOS, ETHOS

Noticing and Thinking

The process of thinking

The paradigm shift

Communicating Clearly and Effectively

Amy Wu, Stop the Clock

Specific evidence

Brian A. Courtney, Freedom from Choice

Writing an Opinion Essay

Finding your subject

Writing Persuasively

The Persuasive Appeals

Logos

Recognizing logos

S. I. Hayakawa, On Human Survival

Pathos

Recognizing pathos

Julia Kraus, If I Told You, Would You Want to Hear?

Rick Reilly, Making Up for Lost Time

Humor as pathos

Ethos

Recognizing ethos

John Edwards, A Trust Worth Winning

New York Times, Editorial, A Moment of Grace

Thesis Statements

Evaluating your thesis statement

Engaging Your Audience: Titles, Introductions, Conclusions

Features of good titles

Title strategies

Titles to avoid

Features of good introductions

Introductory strategies

Introductions to avoid

Features of good conclusions

Concluding strategies

Conclusions to avoid

How to Annotate

Vicki L. Wilson, My Smile Is Worth More Than Face Value

Ryan Grady Sample, Bigger, But Not Better

Guide for Evaluating Writing

A Note of Defining Grammar, Mechanics, and Usage

INTERCHAPTER 1

STYLE AND VOICE

Diction

Monosyllabic words

Multisyllabic words

Pretentious writing

Other Features of Diction

Specific or general

Concrete or abstract

Literal or figurative

Literal language

Figurative language

Avoid cliches

Precise words

Voice

The writing situation and voice

Tone

Analyzing attitude toward readers

Analyzing attitudes toward subject and self

Sentence Tools

Simple sentences

Joining complete thoughts: coordination

Using semicolons to join complete thoughts

Using semicolons with formal transition words

Solving Two Common Sentence Problems

Comma splices

Run-on sentences

CHAPTER 2

ARGUMENTS AND CONTROVERSIES

Critical Reading and Writing: Agree, Disagree or Maybe Both?

Deborah Tannen, How to Turn Debate into Dialogue

Reading Tools

Asking questions

Noticing insights

Noticing assumptions

Noticing overgeneralizations

ExploringTwo Essays on a Controversy

Analysis and evaluation of Mitch Albom’s essay

Mitch Albom, Don’t Shoot Holes in Gun Control Bills

Albom’s writing situation

Albom’s introduction

Noticing Albom’s insights, assumptions, and overgeneralizations

Responding to other arguments

Albom’s use of logos, pathos, and ethos

What is the solution?

Albom’s conclusion

Analysis and evaluation of Thomas Sowell’s essay

Thomas Sowell, Mass Shootings and Mass Hysteria

Two methods for analyzing an essay: outlining and summarizing

Outline of Sowell’s essay

Summary of Sowell’s essay

Sowell’s writing situation

Sowell’s introduction

Noticing Sowell’s insights, assumptions, and overgeneralizations

Responding to other arguments

Sowell’s use of logos, pathos, and ethos

What is the solution?

Sowell’s conclusion

Albom and Sowell: What Do You Conclude?

Mike Gallagher, Preventing Another Massacre

Hillary Hylton, The Gun Lobby’s Counterattack

Guns and More Guns, Editorial, New York Times

Kinds of Evidence for Arguing: Examples, Reasons, Authorities, Statistics

Using examples

Illustration

Using reasons

Using authorities

Using statistics

Writing an Essay about a Local Issue

Writing a Report to Explore an Argument

FiveEssays on Controversial Issues for a Report

Women in Combat

Kathleen Parker, Children Last

Video Games and Violence

Rebecca Hagelin, Video Game Violence and Our Sons

Global Climate Change

Ellen Goodman, No Change in Political Climate

Health Care for All Children

Bob Herbert, The Divide in Caring for Our Kids

Capital Punishment

Leonard Pitts Jr., Expedience No Reason to Kill a Man

Writing an Essay with Sources about a Controversy

Organizing an essay about a controversy

Present the other side first

Rogerian argument

Ending your essay

Student model essay

Readings on Controversial Issues: Three Case Studies

Drinking Age

Barbara Kantrowitz and Anne Underwood, The Teen Drinking DilemmaRobert Voas, There's No Benefit to Lowering the Drinking AgeJohn J. Miller, The Case Against 21Choose Responsibility, Education

Cheating for Success

Michael Josephson and Melissa Mertz, From Honor Above All

ABCNEWS, A Cheating Crisis in America's Schools

ABCNEWS, An Educator’s Worst Nightmare

Joe Smith, Mark Pogge, Jane Doe, Student Comments on the Ethics of Cheating

Charlotte Allen, Their Cheatin' Hearts

Same-Sex Marriage

Patricia Bertuccio, Coming Out: Parents Learn True Meaning of Family after Both Son and Daughter Announce They Are Gay

Evan Wolfson, Marriage Makes a Word of Difference

Ben Shapiro, The Homosexual Assault On Traditional MarriageCal Thomas, Dearly Beloved

Gregory Gadow, Washington Defense of Marriage Alliance: I-957 The Defense of Marriage Initiative

Venice Buhain, Lacey Woman Shares Tale of Denial at Bedside of Her Dying PartnerMaggie Gallagher, The Message of Same Sex Marriage

INTERCHAPTER 2

VOICE AND EMPHASIS

Diction and Repetition

Repeating words for emphasis

Alliteration

Sentence Tools

Joining complete and incomplete thoughts: subordination

Colons and dashes and voice

Colons

Dashes

Using double dashes

Italics (Underlining) and Voice

Parentheses and voice

Fine-tuning Sentences

Sentence fragments: pros and cons

Conciseness

Omit needless words I

Omit needless words II

CHAPTER 3

STRATEGIES OF ARGUMENTATION

Using Opposites

Using Contradictions and Paradoxes

Contradictions

Paradoxes

Paradox and tolerance for ambiguity

Either/or thinking

Flip it

The wisdom of opposites

Using Comparison

Organizing comparison: block and alternate patterns

Using Refutation

Using Induction and Deduction

Induction

Deduction

Using Narration and Description

Narration

Description

Using analogy

Explaining the mind

Using Classification

Using Cause and Effect

Using Humor

Humorous tone

Rick Reilly, Swearing Off Swearing

Humor as Satire

Dave Barry, Taking the Manly Way Out

Using Definition

Digging for roots of words

Exploring an Essay

David Gessner, A Feeling of Wildness

Connie Schultz, Here’s a Little Tip about Gratuities

Rick Reilly, What Money Can't Buy

INTERCHAPTER 3

STRATEGIES OF REPETITION

Sentence Tools

Parallelism

Anaphora

Epistrophe

The Power of Threes in Sentences

Susan Ager, Baby, Baby, Baby, 3 Has Its Charms

Using threes in sentences: rising order or not

Varying Sentence Beginnings: Three Ways

Using -ing phrases

Misusing -ing Phrases: Dangling Modifiers

Using -ed or -en phrases

Using To phrases

CHAPTER 4

THE TOULMIN METHOD AND PROBLEMS IN REASONING

Using the Toulmin Strategy to Argue

Kinds of arguments–kinds of claims

Laws and policies

Reality, facts

Values, morals, taste

Warrants

Stating the warrant

Exploring an Essay Using the Toulmin Method

Roald Hoffman, The Tense Middle

Hoffman’s claim

Hoffman’s grounds

Hoffman’s warrant

Hoffman’s backing

Rebuttal of Hoffman’s claim, grounds, and warrant

Essays to Explore with the Toulmin Method

Caitlin Petre, The Lessons I Didn't Learn in College

Alice Waters, Eating for Credit

Dave Eggers, Serve or Fail

Problems in Reasoning

Finding the Facts

Implications, Assumptions, and Inferences

Implications

Assumptions

Inferences

Fallacies

Problems of Insufficient Evidence

Overgeneralizing

John Gray, Wallets and Purses

Card stacking

Ad ignorantium

Post hoc ergo propter hoc

Problems Based on Irrelevant Information

Ad Baculum

Ad hominem

Fallacy of opposition

Genetic fallacy

Guilt by association

Ad misericordiam

Ad populum

Bandwagon

Plain folks and snob appeal

Ad verecundiam

Red herring

Weak opponent

Tu quoque

Oversimplification

Problems of Ambiguity

Amphibole

Begging the question

Equivocation

Loaded language

False analogy

Problems of Faulty Reasoning

False dilemma (either/or thinking)

Non sequitur

Rationalization

Reductio ad absurdum

Slippery slope

Reading and Writing Activities

INTERCHAPTER 4

STYLE AND OPPOSITES

Sentence Tools

Antithesis

Antithesis and balanced sentences

Loose and periodic sentences

Fine-tuning Sentences

False starts

Active and passive verbs

CHAPTER 5

VISUAL ARGUMENTS

Photographs

News photographs

Feature Photography

Staged images

Documentary photographs

Fotolog

Student Essays Exploring Photographs

Like a Photograph, a Painting

Advertisements

Commercial ads

Ads for social causes

Student essays exploring advertisements

Cartoons

Cartoons and creativity

Creativity and humor

Serious cartoons

Kathleen Parker, Happy Father's Day, Jerk

Editorial cartoons

Student essays exploring cartoons

Film

Writing about a film

Organizing your film review

Before you do research

Finding and synthesizing sources

Student film reviews

INTERCHAPTER 5

ANALYZING STYLE

Presenting Yourself in E-Mail

Tools of Style

Exploring the Style of a Passage

Exploring the Style of an Essay or a Speech

Rick Reilly, The Swooshification of the World

Essays for Exploration

Ellen Goodman, The Abiding Legacy of My Mother–the Listener

Dave Barry, Growing Old with Dave

Martin Luther King Jr., I Have a Dream

CHAPTER 6

CRITICAL THINKING ABOUT POETRY, FICTION, AND

LITERARY NONFICTION

Reading and Writing about Poetry

Theodore Roethke, My Papa’s Waltz

The language of poetry

Emily Dickinson, A narrow Fellow in the Grass

Elements of poetry

Diction

Imagery

Theodore Roethke, Root Cellar

Figures of speech: metaphors, similes, and symbols

Sylvia Plath, Metaphors

Tone

Speaker

Sound patterns

Structure

Line breaks

Reading Notebook

William Stafford, Traveling through the Dark

Writing an Essay about a Poem

Student Essay Exploring a Poem

Robert Hayden, Those Winter Sundays

Poems to Consider for Writing an Essay

Mary Oliver, The Summer Day

Ted Kooser, Student

Marge Piercy, To Be of Use

Paula Sergi, Vocations Club

Bruce Weigl, May

James Wright, A Blessing

Lucille Clifton, homage to my hips

W. S. Merwin, Yesterday

Reading and Writing about Fiction

Stuart Dybek, Lights

Stuart Dybek, Maroon

Anne Caston, Flying Out with the Wounded

Elements of fiction

Plot and conflict

Character

Point of view

Setting

Moral issues

Writing an Essay about a Story

Stories to Consider for Writing an Essay

Raymond Carver, Popular Mechanics

Bonnie Jo Campbell, Shotgun Wedding

Will Weaver, The Undeclared Major

Reading and Writing about Literary Nonfiction

Richard Selzer, Brute

Writing about a Literary Nonfiction Essay

Naomi Shihab Nye, Field Trip

Annie Dillard, Living Like Weasels

CHAPTER 7

LIBRARY STRATEGIES

Research Writing Options

The report

The argument paper

Modern Research

Start in the Library

Preliminary reading

Locating your research question

Strategy One: Finding Background Material

General encyclopedias

Specialized encyclopedias

The Growth Phenomenon: A Research Problem

Critical thinking in a research notebook

Keeping Notes

Strategy Two: Looking for Books

The library catalog

Online databases for book lists

Strategy Three: Looking for Articles

Readers’ Guide to Periodical Literature

Newspaper online archives

Searching databases

To use popular sources or not

Divide your work into steps or phases

Look for the most recent sources first

Professional, technical, and specialty journals

Strategy Four: Looking for Specialized Information

Government documents, statistics, reports

Biographical sources

Book reviews

Strategy Five: Using Electronic Sources and Microform Readers

Microform Readers

Strategy Six: Using Interviews

CHAPTER 8

EVALUATING EVIDENCE

The Wikipedia Dilemma

Scott Jaschik, A Stand Against Wikipedia

T. Mills Kelly, Why I Won’t Get Hired at Middlebury

Research and the Internet

What Is a Reliable Site?

Evaluating Web sites

Criteria for Web sites

Who Is the Author?

Identifying authors

Watch Out for False Authorities

Authority

Questionable Ethos

Daniel Carlat, Generic Smear Campaign

Reliable Information: On the Web and Off

Context

Timely data

Documentation and credibility

Hoaxes and frauds

Understanding Evidence

Claim

Persuasion

Questioning evidence

primary and secondary evidence

The weight of evidence

Magazines and journals

What are professional journals?

Researchers’ rule

“Best” sources of evidence

Remaining impartial

Information without Attribution

Evaluating statistical data

Going Beyond the Information Given

Nicholas D. Kristof, Save the Darfur Puppy

Exploring an Article by Doing Research from It

Lori Aratani, Teens Can Multitask, But What Are Costs?

Daniel Goleman, Flame First, Think Later: New Clues to E-Mail Misbehavior

Gardiner Harris, F.D.A. Dismisses Medical Benefit From Marijuana

CHAPTER 9

DOCUMENTATION

Using Sources

Citing information from sources

Using Direct Quotes

How to cite long quotes

Using an ellipsis mark to indicate omission of words

Using brackets to add your own words in a quote

Using “sic” to indicate errors in quotes

When it is appropriate to use direct quotes

Using signal phrases with direct quotes

Plagiarism, Summarizing and Paraphrasing

Leonard Pitts Jr., Chris Cecil, Plagiarism Gets You Fired

Common knowledge

MLA Style: In Text Rules

Using author’s name and signal phrase

Using author’s name in parentheses

Using sources with two or three authors

Using sources with for four or more authors

Using a committee or group author

Using authors with the same last name

Using an unknown author

Using a source quoted in another source

Using shortened titles

Using a web source with no page numbers

Using a source that is one page

Citing page numbers

Using works with numbered sections or lines

Using publishers’ names

Using copyright date

Using content notes

Basic Work Cited Model, Book (MLA)

Basic Work Cited Model, Periodical (MLA)

Books: MLA Works Cited Models

One author

More than one book by same author

Author of one book, coauthor of another

Committee or group author

Book with editor(s)

Article or chapter in an edited work

Translation

Multi-volume work

Reprint of older work

Publisher imprint

Edition

Introduction, preface, foreword

Bible, sacred works

Dictionary

Specialized encyclopedia

Periodicals: MLA Works Cited Models

Weekly magazine article

Magazine article, no author given

Monthly magazine article

Newspaper article

Newspaper article, unsigned

Editorial

Letter to the editor in magazine or newspaper

Book review

Film review

Music review

Journal article, each issue starting with page 1

Journal article, pages numbered continuously throughout year

Titles and quotes within titles

Other Sources: MLA Works Cited Models

Handout or unpublished essay

Lecture, speech, public address

Film

Video recording: television or film

Play, performance

Musical performance

Musical composition

Musical recording

Individual selection from a recording

Television show

Work of art

Poem published separately

Poem in a collection

Letter, personal

Letter(s), published

Personal interview

Telephone interview

Published interview

A chart, diagram, map, or table

A cartoon

An advertisement

Electronic Sources: MLA Works Cited Models

Article from an online magazine

Article from an online newspaper

Article from an online journal

An entire web site

Chapter or section from a web site

Article from a web site

E-Mail

Online book

Part of an online book

Online government publication

CD-ROM

Work from an online database

Weblog site

Weblog entry

APA Style: Name and Date Method of Documentation

Guidelines for References in Your Text: APA Style

Using author’s name

Using sources with two authors

Using sources with three to five authors

Using sources with six or more authors

Using an unknown author

Using a committee or group with a long name

Using two authors with same last name

Using same author, same year

Using multiple references

Using a source quoted in another source

Using a long quote

References List in APA Style

Basic Reference Form, Book (APA)

Basic Reference Form, Periodicals (APA)

Books: Reference List Models, APA Style

One author

More than one book by same author

Author of one book, co author of another

Two or more authors

Committee or group author

Book with editor(s)

Article or chapter in an edited work

Translation

Multi volume work

Reprint of older work

Edition other than the first

Introduction, preface, foreword

Dictionary

Periodicals: Reference List Models, APA Style

Weekly magazine article

Magazine article, no author given

Monthly magazine article

Newspaper article

Newspaper article, unsigned

Editorial, signed and unsigned

Letter to the editor

Book review

Film review

Music review

Journal article, each issue starting with page 1

Journal article, pages numbered continuously throughout year

Other Sources:Reference List Models, APA Style

Lecture, speech, public address

Motion picture: film, video, or DVD

Television broadcast

Play, performance

Individual selection from a recording

Work of art

A chart, diagram, map, or table

Electronic Sources: Reference List Models, APA Style

Internet articles based on a print source

Article from a journal, print source

Article from an online journal, no print source

Article from a magazine

Article from an online newspaper

Online book

Online government publication

Work from an online database

Weblog entry

CHAPTER 10

WRITING YOUR RESEARCH PAPER

Researchers as Writers

Writing a Report

A model report

Organizing informational reports

Writing an Argument Paper

Shaping your thesis

Discovering order

Working through your project

Understanding audience

Controlling your voice

Taking your time

Substantiating your data

The Formal Outline

Revising the preliminary outline

The Formal Outline Model

The Abstract

Using What You Have Learned in Earlier Chapters

Works Cited or References

The bibliography rule

A Model Argument Paper

MLA Guidelines for Manuscript Format

APA Guidelines for Manuscript Format

Model Research Paper Using APA Style

A CONCISE HANDBOOK ON GRAMMAR, MECHANICS, AND USAGE

Sentences

Punctuation

Mechanics

Glossary of Usage

CREDITS

INDEX

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