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Discovering the Hidden Listener: An Empirical Assessment of Radio Liberty and Western Broadcasting to the USSR during the Cold War [NOOK Book]

Overview

This overview of the impact of Western radio and Radio Liberty—from the listeners' perspective—addresses questions of audience size and listening trends over time, listeners' demographic traits and attitudes, and more. Based on more than 50,000 interviews with Soviet citizens, the book sheds light on what these broadcasts meant to listeners as the USSR moved toward a freer society.
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Discovering the Hidden Listener: An Empirical Assessment of Radio Liberty and Western Broadcasting to the USSR during the Cold War

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Overview

This overview of the impact of Western radio and Radio Liberty—from the listeners' perspective—addresses questions of audience size and listening trends over time, listeners' demographic traits and attitudes, and more. Based on more than 50,000 interviews with Soviet citizens, the book sheds light on what these broadcasts meant to listeners as the USSR moved toward a freer society.
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780817947330
  • Publisher: Hoover Institution Press
  • Publication date: 10/1/2007
  • Series: Hoover Institution Press Publication
  • Sold by: Barnes & Noble
  • Format: eBook
  • Pages: 140
  • File size: 3 MB

Meet the Author

R. Eugene Parta is the retired director of Audience Research and Program Evaluation for Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty in Prague. He has worked in the field of international broadcasting audience research since 1969; in Munich he was director of Media Opinion Research of the RFE/RL Research Institute. Parta has written extensively on media use, communications, and public opinion in Central and Eastern Europe and been a frequent speaker and participant in international academic and professional conferences.
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Table of Contents


Foreword: August 1991: the Coup, the White House and Radio Liberty
Section 1: Measuring the Audience to Western Broadcasters in the USSR
Section 2: Trends in Listening to Western Broadcasters in the USSR: 1970-1991
2.1 Early Attempts to Quantify the Audience to Western Radio: the 1970s
2.2 Weekly Reach of Western Broadcasters: 1980-1990
2.3 The Impact of Jamming
2.4 The Role of Political Events
2.5 Trends in Measurement of the ¿Core Audience¿
2.6 Listening to Western Broadcasters in Last Years of USSR: 1989-1991
2.7 Western Radio in a Time of Glasnost¿
2.8 Audience Cumulation Patterns: How Frequently Did Listeners Tune In?
2.9 Audience Duplication Patterns in the "Core Audience"
2.10 Listening in the Geographic Regions of the USSR: Overall Patterns in 1989
2.11 Shifts in Listening to Radio Liberty After Cessation of Jamming
2.12 Listening in Russian and Nationality Languages: RL and VOA
2.13 The Overall Annual Audience to Western Radio: 1980-1990
2.14 Comparisons with Internal Surveys to Confirm Audience Estimates

Section 3: Who Were the Listeners and What Did They Hear?
3.1 Demographic Characteristics of Listeners to Radio Liberty
3.2 Western Radio Listening by Attitudinal Type
3.3 Motivations for Listening to Western Radio
3.4 Choice of Programming: Radio Liberty
3.5 Listeners' Perceptions of Major Western Broadcasters

Section 4: Western Radio¿s Place in the USSR Media Environment
4.1 Information Sources Used for National and International News
4.2 Media Use by Demographic Characteristics
4.3 Media Use by "Factor Types"
4.4 Trends in Media Use: 1978-1988
Section 5: Western Radio and Topical Issues: Six Brief Case Studies
5.1 The War in Afghanistan: 1979-1989
5.2 The Samizdat Phenomenon: 1970s
5.3 The Korean Airliner Incident: 1983
5.4 The Chernobyl Disaster: 1986
5.5 Perestroika and Glasnost¿: 1985-1990
5.6 The Solidarity Movement in Poland: 1980-1981
Section 6: Some Provisional Conclusions on the Impact of Western Broadcasting to the USSR
6.1 Large Cold-War Audiences
6.2 Widespread Regime Attacks
6.3 Effect on USSR Media
6.4 Influence on Attitude and Opinion Formation
Section 7: Epilogue. A Comparison of SAAOR Findings with Data from the Archives of the Institute of Sociology of the USSR Academy of Sciences: Late 1970s and early 1980s.
7.1 Comparative Listening Rates
7.2 Demographic Comparisons
7.3 Motivations for Listening, Programs Heard and Trust in Western Information
7.4 Western Stations Heard
7.5 Conclusions
APPENDICES
A. SAAOR Survey Methodology: Interviewing Soviet Travelers
B. The MIT Mass Media Computer Simulation Methodology
C. Data Validation: Comparison of SAAOR Studies with Internal Soviet
Studies.
C.1. Comparison of Findings on Western Radio Listening
C.2. Comparison of Findings from Separate SAAOR Samples
C.3. Comparison of Findings on TV Viewing Behavior
C.4. Comparison of Attitudes to Andrei Sakharov
C.5. Comparison of Attitudes toward Solidarity in Poland
C.6. Comparison of Attitudes toward Perestroika

Select Bibliography
Endnotes
CHARTS AND TABLES
NOTE: In Final Please Reference Pages
Figure 1. Estimated Weekly Reach Rates for Major Western Broadcasters to USSR: 1973-1980
Figure 2. Weekly Reach of Major Western Broadcasters in the USSR Among the Total Adult Population 16 years and older: 1980-1990
Figure 3. Weekly Reach of Western Broadcasters and Jamming: 1978-1990
Figure 4. Weekly Reach of Western Radio and Political Events
Figure 5. Weekly Reach of Western Stations Among the Core Audience (adult, urban, educated population) in the USSR: 1978-1990
Figure 6. Shifts in Listening to Western Radio 1988-1990. The Impact of the End of Jamming on Radio Liberty.
Figure 7. Impact of Glasnost¿ on Listening to Western Radio
Figure 8. Audience Cumulation Patterns in 1980 Under Jamming:
Figure 9: Audience Cumulation Patterns in 1989 Without Jamming.
Figure 10. Duplication: Percentage of Radio Liberty¿s Weekly Audience Listening to Other Western Radios
Figure 11: Weekly Reach of Western Radio in Ten Regions of the USSR: 1989
Figure 12: Weekly Reach of Radio Liberty in Ten Regions of the USSR:
1988-1989. The Impact of Cessation of Jamming of RL in November 1988
Figure 13. Listening in Russian and Nationality Languages: Radio Liberty and Voice of America 1989
Figure 14. Annual Reach of Western Broadcasters to the USSR: 1980-1990
Figure 15: Comparison of Annual Reach Findings from SAAOR Surveys 1988-1990 and ¿Ever Listened¿ to a Station from Internal Russian Surveys 1992-1994
Figure 16: Weekly Reach of Radio Liberty by Gender: 1980-1989
Figure 17: Weekly Reach of Radio Liberty by Age: 1980-1989
Figure 18: Weekly Reach of Radio Liberty by Education: 1980-1989
Figure 19: Weekly Reach of Radio Liberty by Rural or Urban Residence:
1980-1989
Figure 20. Attitudinal Types in the USSR (Urban Population)
Figure 21. Media Use by Attitudinal Types in the USSR
Figure 22. Audiences to Western Broadcasters by Attitudinal Type
Figure 23. Motivations of Soviet Citizens for Listening to Western Radio Broadcasts: 1985
Figure 24. Listening to Different Types of Programming on Radio Liberty: 1975-1986
Figure 25. Trends in Perceived Relevance of International Broadcasters: 1985-1987
Figure 26. Trends in Perceived Credibility of International Broadcasters: 1985-1987
Figure 27. Trends in Perceived Broadcast Tone of International Broadcasters: 1985-1987
Figure 28. Trends in Perceived Overall Professionalism of International Broadcasters: 1985-1987
Figure 29: Sources of Information in the USSR for National and International News 1978 (adult urban population)
Figure 30. Main Sources of Information on Current Events in the USSR:
1978 and 1988 (adult urban population)
Figure 31. Attitudes Toward Soviet Policy in Afghanistan among Urban Adults: 1984-1987
Figure 32. Sources of Information on the War in Afghanistan Among the Soviet Adult Urban Population: 1984-1987
Figure 33: Disapproval of USSR Policy in Afghanistan by Information Source: 1984-1987
Figure 34. Attitudes to USSR Policy in Afghanistan Among Listeners and Non-Listeners to Western Radio: 1984-1987
Figure 35. Attitudes to USSR Policy in Afghanistan by CPSU Membership: 1984-1987
Figure 36. Awareness of Samizdat in the USSR: 1977
Figure 37. Attitudes Toward Samizdat in the USSR: 1977
Figure 32: Western Radio Listening and Attitudes to Samizdat
Figure 39. Sources of Information on the Korean Airliner Incident
Figure 40. Credibility of Media Sources on KAL Incident Among Listeners and Non-Listeners to Western Radio
Figure 41. Attitudes Toward the USSR Action in the KAL Incident Among Listeners and Non-Listeners to Western Radio
Figure 42. First Source of Information on the Chernobyl Disaster
Figure 43. Evaluation of Gorbachev¿s Approach to Perestroika and Its Chances of Success by Listeners and Non-Listeners to Western Radio
Figure 44. Trend in Attitudes Toward the Solidarity Movement in Poland: 1980-1982
Figure 45. Comparative Weekly Listening Rates to Western Radio: SAAOR and ISAN, 1979-1981
Figure 46: Stations Heard Among Western Radio Listeners: A Comparison of USSR Traveler and Emigrant Data: 1990
Figure 47. Average Hours of Weekly TV Viewing by Education in SAAOR and USSR Studies
Figure 48: Average Hours of Weekly TV Viewing: Age Comparisons in SAAOR and USSR Studies
Figure 49. TV Program Preferences in SAAOR and USSR Studies.
Figure 50. Attitudes to Andrei Sakharov in an Unofficial Internal USSR Poll and an SAAOR Survey ¿ 1981
Figure 51. A Comparison of an Unofficial Internal USSR Poll and SAAOR Survey Data on Attitudes Toward Solidarity in Poland
Figure 52. Comparison of CBS-New York Times Internal USSR Poll with SAAOR Survey on Benefits of Perestroika: 1988
Figure 53. Comparative Listening to Western Radio in External and Internal Surveys: SAAOR, Institute of Sociology of the USSR Academy of Sciences and VCIOM/Vox Populi: Annual Reach 1990.
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