Overview

Dazzled by the sight of the vast treasure of gold and silver being unloaded at Seville’s docks in 1537, a teenaged Pedro de Cieza de León vowed to join the Spanish effort in the New World, become an explorer, and write what would become the earliest historical account of the conquest of Peru. Available for the first time in English, this history of Peru is based largely on interviews with Cieza’s conquistador compatriates, as well as with Indian informants knowledgeable of the ...
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The Discovery and Conquest of Peru

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Overview

Dazzled by the sight of the vast treasure of gold and silver being unloaded at Seville’s docks in 1537, a teenaged Pedro de Cieza de León vowed to join the Spanish effort in the New World, become an explorer, and write what would become the earliest historical account of the conquest of Peru. Available for the first time in English, this history of Peru is based largely on interviews with Cieza’s conquistador compatriates, as well as with Indian informants knowledgeable of the Incan past.
Alexandra Parma Cook and Noble David Cook present this recently discovered third book of a four-part chronicle that provides the most thorough and definitive record of the birth of modern Andean America. It describes with unparalleled detail the exploration of the Pacific coast of South America led by Francisco Pizarro and Diego de Almagro, the imprisonment and death of the Inca Atahualpa, the Indian resistance, and the ultimate Spanish domination.
Students and scholars of Latin American history and conquest narratives will welcome the publication of this volume.


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Editorial Reviews

From the Publisher
“Even those outside the specialty of Peruvian history will welcome the publication of this translation, as it provides a window into the conquest era written by a Spaniard who was both conscientious about the material and a shrewd observer.”—Susan Ramirez, DePaul University

“This volume contains a wealth of detail about the conquest of Peru, revealing both the insights of a keen mind and invaluable first-hand accounts of the events covered.”—Roland Hamilton, San Jose State University

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Product Details

Meet the Author

Pedro de Cieza de León (c. 1518–1555) was a soldier in Spain’s royal forces who recorded that country’s conquest of Peru.

Alexandra Parma Cook, an independent scholar, and Noble David Cook, Professor of History at Florida International University, are co-authors of Good Faith and Truthful Ignorance: A Case of Transatlantic Bigamy, also published by Duke University Press.

Pedro de Cieza de León (c. 1518–1555) was a soldier in Spain’s royal forces who recorded that country’s conquest of Peru.

Alexandra Parma Cook, an independent scholar, and Noble David Cook, Professor of History at Florida International University, are co-authors of Good Faith and Truthful Ignorance: A Case of Transatlantic Bigamy, also published by Duke University Press.

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Read an Excerpt

The Discovery and Conquest of Peru

Chronicles of the New World Encounter


By Pedro de Cieza de León, Alexandra Parma Cook, Noble David Cook

Duke University Press

Copyright © 1998 Duke University Press
All rights reserved.
ISBN: 978-0-8223-8250-8


CHAPTER 1

About the discovery of Peru


When I lifted the pen to tell men of today and tomorrow about the conquest and discovery that our Spaniards made in Peru when they won it, I could not but reflect that I was treating the highest matter that one can write about in the universe regarding worldly things. What I mean to say is, where have men seen what they see today, fleets entering loaded with gold and silver as if it were iron? Or where was it known or read that so much wealth could come from one kingdom? So much and so great is it that Spain is full of these treasures, and her cities are populated by many rich peruleros who have left there. Furthermore, with all the money they have carried back, they have caused things to become more expensive in this kingdom, as those who have contemplated it well know. Not only has Spain become expensive, but all of Europe has changed, and the merchandise and all commerce have prices other than they had. Prices have risen so much in Spain that if it continues as it has, I do not know how high prices will rise or how men will be able to live.

fol. 1

And, that I would write about a land where to spend a human life, a land so extensive, so plentiful, and so abundant, and where there is neither snow nor forest, that it cannot be improved upon, as I already noted in [Part] One. And that God could have permitted something so great would be hidden from the world for so many years and such a long time, and not known by men, yet that it would be found and discovered and won, all in the time of Emperor Charles, who had such need of its help because of the wars that had taken place in Germany against the Lutherans and [because of] other most important expeditions. I am certain that all this sphere of the Indies, which is so large, had been discovered in times of much wealth. Furthermore, if the royal officials wanted to take the time to see from the quintos what the treasure that had come from Peru added up to, it alone would be worth more than all the others put together, and not by a little, but by much.

One reads that in Spain, in eight hundred and twenty-two before the birth of Christ, the Pyrenees mountains were engulfed in flames so that the Phoenicians and those from Marseilles took many ships loaded with silver and gold, and then there was much silver in Andalusia. And we also know that in Churabón in time [blank] there was so much silver that it was taken for granted. And when Salomon embellished the temple with vessels and riches, a lot was spent for it. Aside from all this, we know that in the Levant there are regions rich in gold and silver. But none of these things can equal or compare to [the wealth] of Peru because counting what was in Cajamarca when the ransom [was collected] for Atahualpa, and what was later divided in Jauja and in Cuzco, and what else there was in the kingdom, it is such a great sum that I, although I could, do not dare to state it. But if one wanted to build another temple with it, it would be more opulent than the one of Cuzco and as none that has existed in the world. All that had been taken from Peru is nothing compared with what is lost in the land, buried in tombs of kings and of caciques and in the temples. The Indians themselves know it and acknowledge it. Indeed, after everything that they took from Huaylas, Porco, Caravaya, Chile, and from the Cañari, who will count the gold that arrived in Spain from these places? And if we encounter such difficulties with this, what will we say of the peak of Potosí, where as far as I know, ever since they have been extracting silver there and without knowing how much the Indians had taken, more than twenty-five million pesos of gold, all in silver, have come out? And they will always extract this metal as long as there are men willing to search for it.

fol. iv

Now I will begin the delicate writing to relate the end of the war between the brothers Huascar and Atahualpa and how thirteen Christians almost miraculously discovered it [Peru], and then proceeded to win it in a war where no more than 160 fought. And how later events evolved from one thing to another so that in Peru there was so much dissent, so many wars among our [men], conducted in such a harsh manner, and they were so cruel one with another that Sila and Mario and the other usurpers pale in comparison. Many of the incidents related in this discourse would cause disbelief had there not been witnesses, so that in dealing with Peru it is unnecessary to talk about Italy or Lombardy or any other land, even if it were more belicose, because what so few people have done can only be compared to itself. During these altercations many died, and many who had been forgotten came to be captains and became so wealthy that some—[even] one alone—had more income than the greatest lord of Spain, except for the king.

CHAPTER 2

About how Governor Pedrarias named Francisco Pizarro captain of the South Sea and how he left Panama for the discovery


Following Alonso de Hojeda and Nicuesa, Pedrarias de Avila came as governor, and he remained in the city of Darién for some time. As Panama and the kingdom of Tierra Firme were being settled, and as the Adelantado Vasco Núñez de Balboa and the pilot Pedro Miguel, according to some son of Juan de la Cosa, first discovered the South Sea, there was discussion of exploring the lands of the said South Sea. The chronicler Gonzalo Fernández de Oviedo, who was a royal official in Darién, wrote most elegantly and well about those times; indeed, he was present there and saw most of it. Although I was able to obtain some information and could write something about the subject, I will proceed to the multitude of things that I have to do, and refer the reader to what Oviedo writes, where he will see it quite long and copious.

fol. 2

Therefore, I say [that] at the time that Darién was being settled there were two men [among] the Spaniards present there—one named Francisco Pizarro, who was at first a captain of Alonso de Hojeda, and Diego de Almagro. They were people on whom the governors often relied, because they were enterprising and steady and would persevere in any task. They became vecinos the city of Panama during the distribution of Indians made by Governor Pedrarias. The two were partners even in their Indians and property.

It happened that Pedrarias sent Captain Zaera to the island of Hispaniola to try to bring some people and horses to settle in the province of Nicaragua before Gil González Dávila could do it because [Pedrarias] learned that [González Dávila] had been exploring there in order to settle it. Nicolás de Ribera, vecino of the City of the Kings (Lima), who is a contemporary of that time and one of the thirteen who discovered Peru, informed me that he knew that when Zaera arrived in the city of Santo Domingo, he contracted one Juan Basurto to come to Panama, where Pedrarias would make him his captain-general in order that he could settle and explore the province of Nicaragua.

Basurto, anxious to undertake that expedition, came to Tierra Firme with Zaera, and they brought some people and horses. In the meantime, Governor Pedrarias had given the commission for the said expedition to Captain Francisco Hernández. Juan Basurto resented it, and Pedrarias was aware of it. In order that his journey would not be in vain, [Pedrarias] negotiated with him that because Francisco Hernández had been confirmed in the post, and [Basurto] could not go to Nicaragua now, instead, he should go exploring with some ships in the South Sea because there were great expectations of finding prosperous land.

fol. 2v

They say that Juan Basurto accepted the post that Pedrarias gave him. In order to make the expedition more to his liking, he decided to return to Santo Domingo to bring additional people and horses because in those times the kingdom of Tierra Firme lacked provisions. He left with great haste to embark from Nombre de Dios, where death intercepted his design and called him to account for his life's journey.

They learned in Panama about the death of this Basurto and how he was going to do what has been written. Francisco Pizarro and Diego de Almagro were living in the same city, and they were partners there, along with Hernando de Luque, a cleric. Half in jest they talked about that expedition and how much Adelantado Vasco Núñez de Balboa wished to undertake it and to discover what existed in the southern part. Pizarro revealed to his companions his desire to risk his person and property in order to undertake that expedition. He prodded Almagro, pointing out that without taking chances men can never achieve their goals. They decided to request the venture for the said Francisco Pizarro. And thus, those who know it and are still alive state that they went to Pedrarias and petitioned him for the command of the discovery. Following long discussions, Pedrarias granted it to them with the provision that they form a partnership with him so that he could have a share in whatever profits there might be. The partners were satisfied, and all four formed a partnership whereby after the expenses were covered, all the gold and silver and other booty would be divided equally between them without one taking more than another. Pedrarias then named Pizarro his captain so that in the name of the emperor he would undertake the aforesaid expedition.

The news spread around Panama and most of the vecinos were laughing, considering them crazy because they wanted to spend their money in exploring mangroves and ceburocos. But this talk did not prevent them from seeking money to outfit the expedition, and they purchased a ship that was in the harbor, which was said to be one of those that Vasco Núñez procured from one Pedro Gregorio. They took as pilot—as far as I know—one whose name was Hernán Penate. They hastened to equip the ship with sails and rigging and everything else necessary for the voyage. They tried to recruit some of the people who were in the region. They collected eighty Spaniards, more or less, of whom Salcedo went as standard bearer, Nicolas de Ribera as treasurer, and Juan Carvallo as inspector. After they finished putting on the ship everything that was necessary, they boarded four horses that were available and no more. The people embarked, and Francisco Pizarro, after taking leave of Pedrarias and his partners, did the same.

fol. 3

CHAPTER 3

About how Captain Francisco Pizarro left to explore the coast of the South Sea and why that kingdom was called Peru


Francisco Pizarro, along with the Spanish Christians who accompanied him, embarked and left the port of the city of Panama in the middle of the month of November of the year of Our Lord fifteen hundred and twentythree. Diego de Almagro remained in the city to procure people and anything else necessary for the conquest in order to send succor to his partner.

When Pizarro left Panama on his ship, they traveled until they arrived at the Pearl Islands, where they landed and took on provisions of water, firewood, and grass for the horses. From there they proceeded until they reached a port that they named de Piñas (Pine-cones) because so many [pinetrees] were growing nearby. All the Spaniards disembarked with their captain so that no one was left on the vessel except the sailors. They decided to penetrate further inland in search of provisions to outfit the ship, believing that they would find them in the territory of a cacique named Beruquete or Peruquete.

For three days they followed a river upstream with great hardship because they walked through frightful forests. The terrain along the course of the river was so thickly overgrown that it was difficult to walk. They arrived at the foot of a great mountain range. They climbed it although they were already worn out from previous hardships, the little they had to eat, and from sleeping on damp ground in the forests, as well as having to carry on their shoulders their swords and shields along with their backpacks. Indeed, they became so tired that one Christian named Morales died from pure exhaustion and weakness.

The Indians who inhabited those forests were aware of the arrival of the Spaniards. Because they had already heard about some others [Spaniards], that they were very cruel, they did not want to wait for them. Rather, they abandoned their houses made of wood and straw or palm fronds and hid in the thicket of the forest, where they were safe. The Spaniards had reached some small houses, which they said were those of the cacique Peruquete, where they found nothing but some maize and those roots that [the Indians] eat. The old Spaniards say that the kingdom of Peru was named for this village or chief called Peruquete and not for a river because none exists of such name.

fol. 3v

Because the Christians neither saw any Indians or found provisions or anything else that they had expected, they were dejected and shocked to see such poor land. It seemed to them that hell could not be worse, and commending themselves to God, they and their captain patiently retraced their path, returning to where they had left the ship. They reached the seashore worn-out and covered with mud, and most of them barefoot, with their feet raw from the sharp thorns in the forests and from the river rocks. They then embarked, and as best as they could, they navigated westwardly, continuing their exploration. Within a few days they landed in a port, which they later named de la Hambre (Hunger), where they provisioned themselves with water and firewood.

They departed from this port and sailed for ten days, but they lacked provisions so that each person was given no more than two ears or spikes of maize to eat for the entire day. They also had little water because they carried only a few casks, and they did not eat any meat or any other refreshment because it was all gone. They all felt dejected, and some were cursing themselves for having left Panama, where food was already plentiful. Pizarro, who had suffered many hardships and currish hungers in his life, encouraged his companions, telling them to confide in God, that He would provide them with sustenance and good land. After conferring together, they returned to the port they had left and named it de la Hambre because they entered it so famished.

Because of the hardships they endured, the Spaniards were very thin and yellow looking, so that they found it distressing to look at one another. The land before them was hellish because even the birds and the beasts shied away from living there. They saw only thick underbrush and mangroves. Water came down from the heavens, and there was water always covering the land. The sun was so obscured by dense clouds that they could not see its brilliance for several days. And thus they found themselves trapped in those forests, expecting nothing but death because if they wanted to return to Panama, they lacked provisions, unless they killed the horses. Because there were among them men of good judgment who wished to see an end to the expedition, it was decided that some of them should sail to the Pearl Islands to secure provisions. And after they discussed it, they carried it out, although neither those who went had any food to take with them, nor did any remain for the rest of them.

fol. 4

CHAPTER 4

About how Montenegro and several Spaniards returned in the ship to the Pearl Islands to get provisions without bringing anything to eat except a dry cowhide and some bitter palmettos, and about the hardship and hunger endured by Pizarro and those who remained with him


When the captain and his companions decided that the ship would return to the Pearl Islands for some supplies—indeed they needed them very much—they did not know how those who were to go would sustain themselves during the journey. There was no maize or anything else to eat, and to search for it on land was useless because the Indians lived in the forests between raging rivers and marshes. And after contemplating and carefully considering, they found no other solution to prevent them all from perishing except for the ship to set sail, and those who had to go would take with them a very dry and hard cowhide to eat, one that was on that very ship. They chose from among them Montenegro to carry out the aforesaid. In addition to the hide, they cut some bitter palmettos near the coast. I ate some of them in the forest of Caramanta when we were exploring with the Licentiate Juan de Badillo.


(Continues...)

Excerpted from The Discovery and Conquest of Peru by Pedro de Cieza de León, Alexandra Parma Cook, Noble David Cook. Copyright © 1998 Duke University Press. Excerpted by permission of Duke University Press.
All rights reserved. No part of this excerpt may be reproduced or reprinted without permission in writing from the publisher.
Excerpts are provided by Dial-A-Book Inc. solely for the personal use of visitors to this web site.

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Table of Contents

CONTENTS List of Illustrations and Maps Prologue Introduction I. About the discovery of Peru II. About how Governor Pedrarias named Francisco Pizarro captain of the South Sea and how he left Panama for the discovery III. About how Captain Francisco Pizarro left to explore the coast of the South Sea and why that kingdom was called Peru IV. About how Montenegro and several Spaniards returned in the ship to the Pearl Islands to get provisions without bringing anything to eat except a dry cowhide and some bitter palmettos, and about the hardship and hunger endured by Pizarro and those who remained with him V. About how Montenegro arrived at the Pearl Islands and how he returned with the succor VI. About how the captain and the Spaniards came upon an Indian village where they found some gold, how they landed in Pueblo Quemado and from there sent a ship to Panama, and what else happened VII. About how the Indians attacked the Spaniards and the difficulty the captain was in and how the Indians fled VIII. About how Diego de Almagro left Panama with people and succor in search of his partner, and about how they injured his eye and how he was united with him IX. About how Diego de Almagro returned to Panama, where he found that Pedrarias was recruiting people for Nicaragua, and what happened to him as well as his partner, Captain Francisco Pizarro X. About how Pizarro and Almagro journeyed as far as the San Juan River, where it was agreed that the pilot, Bartolomé Ruiz would explore along the western coast and Almagro would return for more people XI. How when the Spaniards went in canoes looking for provisions, all the Spaniards who went with their Captain Varela in one of the canoes were killed by the Indians XII. About how Pedro de los Ríos came as governor to Tierra Firme and what Almagro did in Panama until he returned with people XIII. About how the captains and the Spaniards embarked and sailed to Atacames, and what happened to them XIV. About how all the Spaniards wanted to return to Panama and could not, and how Diego de Almagro departed with the ships while Pizarro remained on Gallo Island, and about the couplet that they sent to Governor Pedro de los Ríos XV. About how when Diego de Almagro arrived in Panama, Governor Pedro de los Ríos, distressed by the death of so many people, did not allow him to recruit more. And how [Ríos] sent Juan Tafur to set free the Spaniards, and what Pizarro did with the letters his partners had sent him XVI. About how Juan Tafur arrived where the Christians were and how they were set free, all of them wanting to return, except thirteen; and they and Pizarro remained XVII. About how Captain Francisco Pizarro remained on the deserted island and of the many things he and his companions endured, and about the arrival of the ships in Panama XVIII. About how Juan Tafur arrived in Panama and how one ship returned to Gorgona to Captain Francisco Pizarro XIX. About how Captain Francisco Pizarro and his companions left the island and what they did XX. About how the Indians who left the ship reported about the Spaniards, which those from the land marveled at, and how they sent them provisions and water and other things XXI. About how the captain ordered Pedro de Candia to go and see whether what Alonso de Molina said he saw in the land of Tumbez was true XXII. About how Captain Francisco Pizarro continued the discovery and what happened to him XXIII. About how Captain Francisco Pizarro turned around and landed in some Indian villages, where things went well for him, and what else happened to him XXIV. About how the captain took possession of those lands and what else he did until he left them XXV. How Pizarro arrived in Panama, where he tried to negotiate with Pedro de los Ríos to grant him people to return with, but because it did not happen, he decided to go to Spain XXVI. About how Captain Francisco Pizarro went to Spain to report to the emperor about the land he had discovered, and what Almagro did in Tierra Firme XXVII. About how Captain Francisco Pizarro arrived in Spain and was given the governance of Peru XXVIII. About how the Governor Don Francisco Pizarro returned to Tierra Firme, having first sent certain Spaniards in a ship to report on what he had negotiated XXIX. About how the Governor Don Francisco Pizarro arrived at Nombre de Dios and what occurred between him and Diego de Almagro; and how in Panama they renewed their friendship and formed a new partnership XXX. About how Governor Don Francisco Pizarro left Panama and Captain Diego de Almagro stayed there, and how Pizarro entered Coaque XXXI. About how Pizarro decided to send ships to Panama and Nicaragua with the gold that was found, and how some Christians came to join him, and about how many became ill XXXII. About how [Pizarro] proceeded on his march, and [the Indians] killed two of his Christians, and Belalcázar arrived with other Christians from Nicaragua, and what else happened XXXIII. About how the governor proceeded on his march and there was great discontent among the Spaniards, and about how messengers came from Puná, [saying] that the islanders were determined to kill our men XXXIV. About how those of the island still planned to kill the Spaniards, and Tumbalá was imprisoned, and how the islanders fought with our men XXXV. About how those of Puná and their allies fought a battle with the Christians, in which [the Indians] were defeated, and what else happened XXXVI. About how those of Tumbez held secret councils [to discuss] whether they would remain friendly with the Christians or come out against them as enemies, and how they killed two Spaniards, having decided to kill all of them if they could XXXVII. How Pizarro, having arrived in Tumbez wanted to punish the Indians for killing the two Christians, and what else happened XXXVIII. About how Pizarro left Tumbez and arrived at Solana, from where Soto and Belalcázar left with people for the highlands, and how the city of San Miguel was founded XXXIX. About how when the people who escaped from the battle were collected, Huascar's captains made more exhortations, and a third battle was fought in the Jauja Valley, which was very bloody; and about how Atahualpa remained in Cajamarca XL. About how there was another battle between them, and Huascar left Cuzco and was seized through deception XLI. About how Pizarro set out from the new settlement he had established in order to ascend into the highlands in search of Atahualpa XLII. About how Atahualpa was informed how near he was to the Spaniards, and about the council he held, and how he sent messengers to Pizarro that he should not cease marching XLIII. About how Pizarro and the Spaniards took up quarters in Cajamarca, and how Soto went to Atahualpa's camp, and what else happened XLIV. About what Atahualpa told his people before they moved from where they were, and how one of the Christians came to talk to him XLV. About how Atahualpa entered the plaza where the Christians were, and how he was seized and many of his people were killed and wounded XLVI. About how in the morning of the following day the Spaniards went to survey the countryside, and how the news of Atahualpa's capture spread throughout the entire realm XLVII. About how Almagro set out on ships from Panama to Peru to aid Pizarro and what happened to him XLVIII. About how Atahualpa promised the Spaniards a great treasure as his ransom, and about the death of King Huascar XLIX. How the three Christians who went to Cuzco arrived in that city and what happened to them; and how by Pizarro's order his brother Hernando Pizarro left Cajamarca to get the treasure of the Temple of Pachacamac L. About how Almagro and his people entered Cajamarca, where he was well received by those who were there, and about what happened to Hernando Pizarro during the journey to Pachacamac LI. About how keeping the promise he had made to the Spaniards, Atahualpa filled the house with treasure, and how those who came with Almagro claimed shares like those who were there first LII. About how the great treasure that had been collected in Cajamarca by the order of the great lord Atahualpa was divided among the Spaniards and the names of all the Christians who were present at his capture LIII. How after the treasure was divided, Pizarro decided that his brother Hernando Pizarro should go with the news to the emperor LIV. About how false news came that warriors were advancing against the Spaniards, and about how Pizarro, breaking the word and the contract that he made with Atahualpa, put him to death with great cruelty and little justice LV. About what else happened in Cajamarca after Atahualpa died, and how Soto returned without seeing or encountering any warriors LVI. About how Pizarro left Cajamarca for the city of Cuzco and what happened to him until he arrived in the Jauja Valley LVII. About how Sebastián de Belalcázar arrived in the city of San Miguel and how, desirous to explore Quito, he negotiated with the cabildo to request him to go against the warriors who were said to be coming against them LVIII. About how Belalcázar defeated a captain they had sent against him, and the natives were delighted to see the Christians when they arrived in Tomebamba, and they formed a friendship with them, and about how the captains of Quito went out to wage war against them LIX. About what else happened to the Spaniards and the Indians until they reached the tableland of Riobamba, where [the Indians] had dug many pits so that the horses would fall into them LX. How a volcano or a mouth of fire erupted near Quito and what happened to the Christians and the Indians LXI. About how Governor Don Francisco Pizarro founded a city in the Jauja Valley, which is the one that was later moved to the Lima Valley, and about the death of the Inca and other things that happened LXII. About how the Indians waited to battle the Christians in the highlands of Vilcaconga, and how when Soto arrived, they fought each other and what happened until Almagro and several horsemen came to their rescue LXIII. About how the Adelantado Don Pedro de Alvarado, governor of Guatemala, left the port of La Posesión in order to come with a great fleet to this kingdom LXIV. About what the Spaniards whom Pizarro sent from Jauja to the coast of the South Sea were doing LXV. About how Adelantado Don Pedro de Alvarado decided to go to Quito and about some notable things that happened to him LXVI. About how the adelantado ordered people to go out and find a road, and about how they encountered many marshes and rivers, and how several Spaniards died, among them Captain Don Juan Enríquez de Guzmán LXVII. About the things that further happened to the adelantado, and about the great hardships and needs that his people suffered LXVIII. About how Pizarro marched on the way to Cuzco, ordering that Atahualpa's captain-general, Chalcuchima, be burned in the valley of Jaquijahuana, and about other notable things that happened LXIX. About how the Spaniards entered the ancient city of Cuzco, where they found great treasures and precious things LXX. About how Rumiñavi abandoned the city of Quito, first killing many principal women so that they could not be enjoyed by the Christians, who were very upset when they entered in it and did not see the treasure they sought, and what else happened LXXI. About what happened in the city of Cuzco, and about how Almagro and Hernando de Soto went out against the Indians, and Gabriel de Rojas arrived LXXII. How Adelantado Alvarado arrived in the village discovered by Diego de Alvarado, who had left to explore and came upon some snow-covered mountain passes, and about the hardship that the Spaniards suffered LXXIII. How Adelantado Alvarado went with great hardship through the snow, where some Spaniards and many Indian men and women and Blacks died, unable to escape the cold, wind, and snow, which was enough to kill them LXXIV. How Captain Belalcázar returned with his people to Quito, from where Almagro departed, and how certain scouts that [Almagro] sent were seized by Diego de Alvarado LXXV. How Almagro learned that his scouts were captured, and how he founded a city in Riobamba, and they went to enjoin the adelantado, and what else happened between them LXXVI. About how Adelantado Don Pedro de Alvarado and Marshal Don Diego de Almagro met, and about the agreement made between them, guided and steered by Licentiate Caldera and other judicious men who came with the adelantado LXXVII. About how Soto and Gabriel de Rojas arrived in Cuzco, and how Pizarro left that city and the things that he did until he descended to the plains after abandoning the city of Jauja LXXVIII. How Pizarro was falsely informed that Almagro had agreed to divest him of his governance and life, and how after some notable things occurred, they arrived at Pachacamac, and what else happened until the City of the Kings was founded LXXIX. About how Hernando Pizarro arrived in Spain, where great news about Peru was spreading because of how much wealth was coming from there, and what Hernando Pizarro did at court LXXX. About how His Majesty granted Hernando Pizarro the Order of Santiago, and how he departed from court and embarked for the Indies LXXXI. How Almagro set out from Pachacamac for Cuzco, from where Pizarro left a few days later to found Trujillo in the Chimu Valley LXXXII. About how Don Francisco Pizarro sent Verdugo to Cuzco with powers for his brother Juan Pizarro to have the lieutenancy of the city, and about the discussions that took place there, and what else happened LXXXIII. About how Don Francisco Pizarro returned to the City of the Kings, then left to go to the city of Cuzco when he learned of the things that were happening there LXXXIV. About how the governors reached a new accord, making a solemn oath to proceed with the partnership LXXXV. About how Almagro spent a large sum of gold and silver on those who were to go, and how he departed from Cuzco LXXXVI. About how Pizarro left Cuzco to return to the City of the Kings LXXXVII. About how Belalcázar moved the city of Riobamba to Quito, and about what happened in that land LXXXVIII. About how wanting to make a founding in the City of the Kings, they waited until Hernando Pizarro arrived, and how the bishop of Tierra Firme and others who were rich left from the port LXXXIX. About how Alonso de Alvarado left Trujillo to settle a city in Chachapoyas XC. About how while Juan Pizarro was lieutenant and captain in Cuzco, King Manco Inca Yupanqui, detesting the rule the Christians had over them, attempted to leave the city in order to begin a war against them and was seized twice and placed in chains XCI. About how after killing a Spaniard, those who killed him fortified themselves on a ridgetop with their cacique, and about what happened until the ridgetop was taken XCII. About how a founding was done in the City of the Kings and Hernando Pizarro procured that the said donation be offered to His Majesty, and about his parting for Cuzco and the governor's departure to inspect the northern cities XCIII. About what happened to Captain Alonso de Alvarado in his conquest of the Chachapoyas XCIV. About how Almagro sent Captain Salcedo to punish the Indians who had killed the three Christians, and they gave him a gift of more than ninety thousand pesos, and how Villac Umu fled, and what else happened XCV. About how, while exploring, Almagro arrived at snowy mountain passes where his people suffered great hardship XCVI. About how Rodrigo Orgoños left Cuzco and what happened to him until he reached the valley of Copiapó XCVII. About how Juan de Herrada left Cuzco to take the decrees to Almagro, and what happened to him until he reached the valley of Copiapó, where he joined Orgoños XCVIII. That Hernando Pizarro, upon reaching Cuzco freed Inca Manco, who left the city and started the war XCIX. That the fortress of Cuzco was won and Juan Pizarro died then; Hernando Pizarro marched on Tambo C. That the war with the Indians continues and Gabriel de Rojas routs an enemy army CI. That the Adelantado Don Diego de Almagro gives up the Chilean enterprise and returns to Cuzco, and what happened with Manco Inca Yupanqui Maps Glossary Weights, Measures, and Currency Bibliography Index
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