Diseases of Trees and Shrubs / Edition 2

Diseases of Trees and Shrubs / Edition 2

by Wayne Sinclair, Howard H. Lyon

ISBN-10: 0801443717

ISBN-13: 9780801443718

Pub. Date: 11/01/2005

Publisher: Cornell University Press

Praise for the First Edition:Association of American Publishers Professional and Scholarly Division Award Winner (Life Sciences)"One of the ten best horticultural books of the century."—The Washington Post"Diseases of Trees and Shrubs is by far the best book currently available for the horticulturist, arborist, or forester who wishes to identify disorders of…  See more details below


Praise for the First Edition:Association of American Publishers Professional and Scholarly Division Award Winner (Life Sciences)"One of the ten best horticultural books of the century."—The Washington Post"Diseases of Trees and Shrubs is by far the best book currently available for the horticulturist, arborist, or forester who wishes to identify disorders of forest and shade trees and woody ornamentals."—The Public Garden"It may be used by anyone with knowledge of general biology as well as by someone with specialized plant knowledge for diagnosing plant disease problems. Highly recommended."—Library Journal"This book is a remarkable contribution to the literature on tree pathology, providing a valuable source of reference on tree disease for all with an interest in the subject. It must surely be almost obligatory reading for the specialist tree pathologist, and will prove of great value to all tree care professionals. . . . It will fascinate any tree lovers who wish to find out more about the diseases and disorders that may afflict trees."—Arboricultural Journal"It is well written and it is illustrated with photographs of such high quality that in this respect it could be described as a 'coffee table' book of forest pathology."—ForestryFirst published in 1987, Diseases of Trees and Shrubs has become a standard reference for plant health specialists, plant diagnosticians, horticulturists, arborists, foresters, and their students. Now thoroughly revised, fully updated, and illustrated with more than 2200 digitally optimized color images in 261 full-color plates and more than 350 black-and-white photographs and drawings, the second edition is an unrivalled survey of the diseases of forest and shade trees and woody ornamental plants in the United States and Canada. The book is both an authoritative reference book and a powerful diagnostic tool. Organized according to type of disease-inducing agent, the second edition is also designed to be helpful in classroom and field instruction. Symptoms, signs, and cycles of hundreds of diseases are described and microscopic features of many pathogens are depicted in photos and line drawings. A searchable CD-ROM included with the book contains bibliographic entries for more than 4500 works that readers can consult for additional information or images. This remarkable scholarly work—praised as one of the best horticultural books of the twentieth century—lays claim to the same accolade for the twenty-first century.

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Cornell University Press
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Table of Contents

About this book
How to use this book
Dedication and acknowledgments

Diseases caused by fungi
Overview of fungal diseases of woody plants
Diseases caused by Ascomycota
Foliar diseases
Taphrina diseases: leaf curls and blisters, bladder plum, witches'-brooms
Powdery mildews
Witches'-broom of hackberry and black witches'-broom of serviceberry
Dark fungi on plants: sooty molds, black mildews, and others
Spot anthracnoses and scabs caused by Elsinoe and Sphaceloma
Diseases caused by Mycosphaerella species and related anamorphs
Leaf spots of ash, walnut, citrus, rose, mountain-ash, sycamore
Septoria diseases of poplar and other plants
Brown spot needle blight of pines
Dothistroma needle blight of pines
Stigmina leaf spot of palms
Mycosphaerella leaf spot of Yucca
Blights and leaf spots caused by fungi of the Cercospora complex
"Cercospora" blights of Cupressaceae
Some "Cercospora" leaf spots
Linden leaf blotch, and leaf spots caused by Coniothyrium, Microsphaeropsis, Sonderhenia, and "Hendersonia"
Ascochyta blight of lilac
Leaf spots and blotches caused by Cuignardia and Phyllosticta
Diseases caused by Cuignardia species: leaf blotch of horse-chestnut and buckeye, leaf spot of Boston ivy, black rot of grapevine
Phyllosticta leaf spots and blotches of dogwood, hazelnut, witch-hazel, maples
Tubakia leaf spot of oaks and other trees and fly-speck leaf spot of Vaccinium
Needle blights and needle casts of conifers
Lophodermium needle casts
Ploioderma needle casts of pines
Canavirgella and Davisomycella needle casts of pines
Elytroderma needle casts of pines
Lonhodermella and Cvclaneusma needle casts of pines
Rhizosphaera and Isthmiella needle casts
Rhabdocline and Swiss needle casts of Douglas-fir
Meria needle blight of larch and Didymascella leaf blight of cedar
Snow blights
Brown felt blights
Tar spots
Ink spot leaf blight of aspen and poplar
Ovulinia petal blight of Rhododendron and Ciborinia flower blight of Camellia
Botrytis blight
Cristulariella leaf spots
Brown rot of stone fruits
Entomosporium leaf spot of Maloideae
Black spot of rose and Blumeriella leaf spot of cherry and plum
Marssonina spots and blights
Leaf spots and blights of aspen and poplar
Anthracnoses of birch and bittersweet
Alternaria blights and leaf spots
Shoot blights and twig diebacks
Scab diseases caused by Venturia species
Apple scab
Scabs of firethorn, loquat, and toyon
Venturia leaf and shoot blights of aspen and poplar
Scab and black canker of willow and Venturia leaf blotch of maple
Bronze leaf disease of aspen and poplar and Linospora leaf blight of balsam poplars
Anthracnose overview and black spot of elm
Ash anthracnose
Oak anthracnose
Sycamore anthracnose
Walnut anthracnose and Gnomonia leaf spots of hickory and pecan
Doewood anthracnose
Anthracnoses of birch, filbert, and redbud
Anthracnoses and Didymosporina leaf soot of maples
Cankers and diebacks
Hornbeam anthracnose
Anthracnoses and diebacks caused by Clomerella and Colletotrichum
Butternut canker
Sirococcus blight of conifers
Ceratocystis cankers
Diseases caused by Botryo~phaeria and allied fungi
Botryosphaeria cankers and diebacks
Cankers, dieback, and leaf blight caused by B. dolliidea and B. Ribis
Cankers and dieback caused by: B. stevensii and Diplodia quercina
B. queicuum and related fungi on oak
B. obtuse
B. rhodina
Diplodia (Spiiaeropsis) blight of pines and other conifers
Sphaeropsis canker and dieback of elm
Sphaeropsis knot and Dipiodia gall
Melanconis diebacks and sooty canker
Diseases caused by Diaportlx and Phomopsis species
Diaporthc and Phomopsis cankers and cliebacks
Phomopsis canker of Russian-olive
Diseases of Rhododendron
Phomopsis cankers of almond and peach
Diseases associated with the Diaporihe eres complex
Phomopsis dieback of poplar
Diaporthe canker and dieback of sycamore
Phomopsis dieback of weeping figOther cankers and diebacks caused by Diaporthe and Plioniopsis
Diaporthe and Phomousis cankers of conifers
Phomopsis, Kabatina. and Scleronlioma blights of juniper and other gymnosperms
Stem galls
Phomopsis sails
Phomopsis canker of Cardenici and Nectriella gall of ornamental plants
Black knot of Prunus
Cankers and diebacks, continued Cryptodiaporthe cankers
Cryptodiaporthe canker of poplar
Cryptodiaporthe canker of willow
Golden canker of alternate-leaf clogwood
Eastern filbert blight
Chestnut blight
Chrysoporthe canker of Eucalyptus
Endothia canker
Leucostoma and Valsa cankers
Valsa cankers and diebacks of conifers
Leucostoma canker of spruce and other conifers
Leucostoma cankers of Pruniis
Leucostoma and Valsa cankers of poplar and willow
Valsa cankers of maple
Cryptosporiopsis canker of red maple
Nectria cankers and diebacks
Coral-spot Nectria canker
Tubercularia canker and dieback
Thyronectria canker of honeylocust
Perennial Nectria canker
Beech bark disease
Fusarium cankers
Cankers caused by Fusarium solani or F. Iateritium
Pitch canker of pines
Pestalotiopsis spots, blights, and diebacks
Sciridium cankers of cypress
Cryptosphaeria canker of aspen
Eutypella canker of maples
Cankers and diebacks caused by Xylariaccous fungi
Entoleuca (Hypoxylon) canker of aspen
Biscogniauxia cankers and diebacks
Biscogniauxia (Hypoxylon) diebacks of oaks
Blister canker
Camillea- and Hypoxylon-associated cankers and diebacks
Basal canker and butt rot caused by Kretzschmaria deusta
Cankers and diebacks caused by discomycetes
Sooty-bark canker of aspen and poplar
Ceningium dieback of pines
Scleroderris canker of conifers
Atropellis cankers of pines
Lachnellula cankers of conifers and Strumella canker of hardwoods
Root diseases
Charcoal root rot and Fusarium root rots
Root rots and blights caused by Cylindrocladium and Cylindrocladiclla
Phymatotrichum and Thiclaviopsis root rots
Xylaria and Rosellinia root rots
Rhizina root rot and southern blight
Procerum root disease of pines
Systemic fungal diseases
Black stain root disease of conifers
Ceratocystis cankers
Ceratocystis cankers of Populus and Prunus
Canker-stain of planetree and sycamore
Sapstreak disease and bluestain
Oak wilt
Dutch elm disease
Verticillium wilt
Persimmon wilt
Fusarium wilts

Diseases caused by Basidiomycota
Foliar diseases
Exobasidium galls and blisters
Articularia and Microstroma leaf spots and witches'-brooms
Insolibasidium blight of honeysuckle and false smut of palms
Diseases caused by Rhizoctonia-forming fungi
Overview of rusts
Phragmidiurn rusts
Gymnosporangium rusts
Cedar-apple rust
Hawthorn rust
Quince rust
Juniper broom rust
Broom rust of incense-cedar and rust galls on south-western junipers
Medlar rust
Additional Gymnosporangium rusts
Puccinia and Cumminsiella rusts
Ash rust
Cluster-cup rust of currant and gooseberry
Crown rust of buckthorn
Rusts on Berberis and Mahonia
Fig rust and birch rust
Pucciniastrum and allied rusts
Hemlock-hydrangea rust
Hemlock-blueberry rusts
Fir-fireweed and fuschia rusts
Fir-blueberry rust
Other Pucciniastrum and Thekopsora rusts in North America
Fir-fern rusts
Broom rust of fir
Melampsora rusts
Poplar rusts
Willow rusts
Chrysomyxa rusts of spruce
Needle rusts of pines
Stem and cone rusts of pines
Overview of North American Cronartium rusts
White pine blister rust
Fusiform rust and pine-oak gall rusts
Sweetfern blister rust
Stalactiform and Comandra blister rusts
Limb rusts and cone rusts
Western gall rust
Trunk and limb rots of hardwoods
Overview of wood types and decay processes
Representative decay fungi: Stereum gausapatum, Hericium erinaceus, Phellinus species, Climacodon septentrionalis, Bjerkandera adusta, Fomes fomentarius, Globifomes graveolens, Perenniporia fraxinophila, Oxyporus populinus, Trametes versicolor, Polyporus squamosus, Laetiporus species, Piptoporus betulinus
Canker-rots of hardwoods
Spiculosa canker
Canker rots of birch
Hispidus canker, heart rot and canker-rot caused by Inonotus andersonii, canker-rot caused by Inonotus glomeratus
Sapwood rot and cankers caused by Cerrena unicolor and Schizophyllum commune
Sapwood decay and silverleaf caused by Chondrostereum purpureum
Trunk rots and canker-rots of conifers
Heart rots caused by Fomitoosis pinicola and Echinodontium tinctorium
Heart rot caused by Phellinus pini and canker rot caused by P. cancriformans
Root diseases
Southern blight
Rhizoctonia diseases
Armillaria root rots
Mushroom root rot
Root and butt rots caused by Heterobasidion species
Red root and bun rot of conifers
Brown root and butt rot of conifers
Laminated root rots of conifers
Root and butt rots caused by Inonotus dryadeus and Oxyporus latemareinatus
Ganoderma root and butt rots and trunk decay
Root and bun rot of palms
Diseases of woody dicots caused by laccate Ganodermas
Ganodermas on conifers
Diseases caused by Ganoderma applanaturn and related fungi

Diseases caused by Oomycota
Overview of Oomycctes
Downy mildews
Diseases caused by Phytophthora species
Shoot blights, diebacks, and fruit rots
Cankers, collar and crown rots, foot rots, and root rots
Diseases caused by Phytoplithora rarnorum
Collar, crown, and foot rots
Root rots and feeder root necroses
Root and crown rot of Port Orford cedar
Diseases caused by Phytophthora cinnamomi
Other Phytophthora root rots

Bacterial diseases
Leaf spots, blights, and cankers
Diseases caused by Pseudomonas species
Diseases caused by Xanthomonas species: citrus canker, bacterial spot of Prunus, bacterial blight of walnut, and others
Fire blight
Bleeding bacterial cankers
Bacterial galls of olive, oleander, and ash
Crown gall
Wetwood, slime flux, alcoholic flux
Bacterial scorch diseases
Representative diseases: Pierce's disease of grapevine, almond leaf scorch, bacterial scorch of landscape trees and shrubs
Diseases caused by mollicutes
Representative diseases: pear decline, Primus yellow leafroll, stubborn disease of citrus, walnut witches'-broom, bunch disease of pecan and other hickories, witches'-brooms of lilac and other plants
Elm yellows
Ash yellows
X-disease of Prunus
Lethal yellowing of palms

Viral diseases
Overview and plant virus diagnosis
Diseases caused by nepoviruses: Prunus stem pitting, apple brown line, Forsythia yellow net, ash diseases, and others
Diseases caused by carlaviruses: poplar mosaic, lilac mottle, and others
Diseases caused by ilarviruses: sour cherry yellows, Prunus necrotic ringspot, apple mosaic, rose mosaic, and others
Diseases associated with cucumoviruses, potyviruses, foveaviruses, varicosaviruses: leaf and flower reddening in Nandina, necrotic spots and ring mottle in Prunus, Camellia yellow mottle
Diseases associated with tobamoviruses: tobacco mosaic and tomato mosaic viruses, and others
Diseases associated with rhabdoviruses, necroviruses, Tobacco necrosis virus
Diseases caused by virus-like agents not fully characterized
Rose rosette
Diseases of Rhododendron and related plants, Rhododendron necrotic ringspot
Viral diseases of aspen and poplar
Redbud and hibiscus diseases
Apple flatlimb
Viral symptoms in Acer, Cliaenorneles, Liquidambar, Liriodendron, Lonicera, Magnolia
Striped chlorosis of Albizia, fig mosaic, oak viruses, viral symptoms in Bougainvillea, Celtis, Euonynius
Viral diseases of conifers

Diseases caused by Nematodes
Overview of plant-parasitic nematodes
Representative nematodes that attack roots: root knot nematodes, burrowing nematode, stunt nematodes, lesion nematodes, dagger nematodes
Wilt of pines caused by pine wood nematodes

Plant-pathogenic algae and plants
Algal leaf spot, or green scurf
North American leafy mistletoes
Characteristics and habits of Phoradendron
Mistletoes on angiosperms
Mistletoes primarily on gymnosperms
Dwarf mistletoes
Representative dwarf mistletoes: Arceuthobium arnericanuni, A. carnpylopodurn complcx (A. campylopodum, A, occidentale, A. laricis, A. tsugense, others), A. douglasii, A. gillii, A. vaginatum, A. pusillum
Cassytha and dodder
Vines that damage trees

Declines, environmental damage, and unexplained growth abnormalities
Decline diseases with multiple or obscure causal factors
Concepts and overview
Maple decline
Ash decline
Birch decline, pine declines
Oak decline, citrus blight
Damage by environmental factors
Damage by salt and other inorganic poisons
Damage by misapplied pesticides
Injuries and diseases caused by air pollutants
Damage by ozone
Damage by sulfur dioxide
Damage by fluorides and minor pollutant gases
Mineral nutrient deficiencies
Damage by drought, heat, and freezing
Water shortage
Heat stress
Frost and freeze damage
Predisposition to attack by opportunistic pathogens
Damage by flooding or waterlogged soil
Damage by girdling roots, hail, ice glaze, and sheet ice
Lightning damage
Noninfectious and unexplained growth abnormalities: fasciation, chimeras, graft union abnormalities, adventitious shoots and roots, galls, burls, witches'-brooms

Restoration of sapwood and bark after injury or infection
Wounds, microbial colonization, and compartmentalization
Frost cracks, drought cracks, and related defects
Bark formation and restoration

Associations of normal woody plants with other organisms
Smooth patch, bark rot, and normal foliar shedding
Symbiotic relationships of roots: mycorrhizae, nitrogen-fixing associations
Epiphytes, lichens, and moss


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